South Asia Notes

Report
The Land Where Continents
Collided
Chapter 24
Landforms and Resources
Chapter 24
Section 1
Main Ideas
 South
Asia is a subcontinent of peninsulas
bordered by mountains and oceans.
A
wide variety of natural resources helps
sustain life in the region.
Overview
South Asia
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
India
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Nepal
Sri Lanka
Maldives
Mountains and Plateaus
Subcontinent
– A large landmass that is smaller than
a continent
– South Asia is often referred to as the
Indian subcontinent
– One half the size of the continental
US
– More than one billion people
Mountains and Plateaus
Natural barriers
separate South
Asia from the
rest of Asia
Mountain
Ranges
Indian Ocean
Arabian Sea
Bay of Bengal
Northern Mountains
The gradual collision of two
tectonic plates forced the land
upward into enormous mountain
ranges. These mountains, which
are still rising, now form the
northern edge of the South Asian
subcontinent.
Northern Mountains
The Himalayas form a
giant barrier between
the Indian
subcontinent and
China. Mt. Everest,
the world’s tallest
peak, sits at the
heart of the
Himalayas. Within
these mountains are
the remote,
landlocked kingdoms
of Nepal and Bhutan.
Himalayas
Northern Mountains
Panoramic
view from
the top of
Mount Everest
Northern Mountains
Khyber Pass
Hindu Kush
Northern Mountains
K2
Karakoram Mountains
Southern Mountains
Vindhya Range
Western Ghats
Deccan Plateau
Eastern Ghats
Rivers, Deltas, and Plains
Indus River
Ganges River
The
Three
Great
Rivers
Brahmaputra River
Fertile Plains
Alluvial plain
– Land that is rich
farmland
– Composed of clay,
silt, sand, or gravel
deposited by
running water
 The Indo-Gangetic
Plain is one of the
most fertile farming
regions in the world.

Fertile Plains
The Indo-Gangetic Plain is
the most heavily populated
part of South Asia.
Fertile Plains
One of the world’s
most arid regions—
the Thar, or Great
Indian Desert.
Sri Lanka: The subcontinent’s
“Tear Drop”
The Maldives Archipelago
 Archipelago
– A set of closely grouped islands
– island group
– The Maldives consist of 1,200 small islands
The Maldives Archipelago
 Atoll
– A ring-like coral
or string of
small islands
surrounding a
lagoon
– Most of the
Maldives are
this type
Natural Resources
Water and Soil
Irrigation, Fishing, Transportation & Power
Fishing in Bangladesh
Traditional boat on the
Indus in Pakistan
Irrigating a
farm along
the Ganges
Hydroelectric
plant in
northern India
Forests
 Timber
and other forest products are important to
the region’s economy as many of the woods found
here are highly sought after.
 Less than one-fifth of India’s original forests
remain.
 Deforestation has caused major problems to the
ecosystem in Bangladesh.
Deforestation
causes soil erosion,
flooding, landslides,
and loss of wildlife
habitats.
Minerals
Climate and Vegetation
Chapter 24
Section 2
Main Ideas
 Climate
conditions in South Asia range
from frigid cold in the high mountains to
intense heat in the deserts.
 Seasonal
winds affect both the climate and
vegetation of South Asia.
Climate-Wet and Dry, Hot and
Cold
 Half
the climate zones
that exists on earth can
be found in South Asia.
 Six different climate
zones.
 The Highland Zone has
the coldest climate.
– Area of the Himalayas
and other northern
mountains, where snow
exists year-round.
Climate-Wet and Dry, Hot and
Cold
 Humid
Subtropical
Zone
– Includes the foothills
and valleys of Nepal,
Bhutan, and northern
India
– much warmer than
highland zone
– The Indo-Gangetic Plain
also occupies much of
this region.
Climate-Wet and Dry, Hot and
Cold
 Semiarid
Zone
– A region of high
temperatures and light
rainfall
– Found at the western
end of the Plain and in
parts of the Deccan
Plateau.
Climate-Wet and Dry, Hot and
Cold
 Desert
Zone
– Covers much of the
lower Indus Valley, in
the borderlands of
western India and
southern Pakistan.
– The driest part of this
area, the Thar Desert,
gets very little rain—
averaging 10 inches a
year.
Climate-Wet and Dry, Hot and
Cold
 Tropical
Zones
– Found along the western
and eastern coasts of
India and in Bangladesh.
– Temperatures are high,
and rainfall is heavy--– Tropical Wet has much
more precipitation than
the Tropical Wet and
Dry.
Monsoons
Monsoons
 Monsoon
– Seasonal wind
– Last from June
to September
– Brings crucial
rainfall to South
Asia
– Also brings
severe hardship
Annual monsoons replenish soil
nutrients and form fertile farmland
but often inundate Bangladesh.
Cyclones
 Cyclone
– A violent storm with fierce winds and heavy
rain
– The most extreme weather pattern of South
Asia
– Most destructive in Bangladesh
– Called hurricanes in the Western hemisphere
Vegetation: Desert to Rain
Forest

The most forested parts of
South Asia lie within the
Tropical Wet Zone,
particularly the western
coast of India and
southern Bangladesh.
Lush rain forests of teak,
ebony, and bamboo are
found there, along with
mangroves in the delta
areas.
Vegetation: Desert to Rain
Forest
 In
the Highland Zone,
which includes
northern India, Nepal,
and Bhutan, there are
forests of pine, fir, and
other evergreens.
Vegetation: Desert to Rain
Forest
 The
river valleys and
foothills of the most of
India make up the
Humid Subtropical
Zone which have
forests of sal, oak,
chestnut, and various
palms.
Vegetation: Desert to Rain
Forest
 In
the semiarid areas
of South Asia, such as
the Deccan Plateau
and the Pakistan-India
border, there is less
vegetation. The main
plant life is desert
shrubs and grasses.
Vegetation: Desert to Rain
Forest
 The
driest areas, like
the Thar Desert, have
little plant life, and as
a result, few people
live there.
Vegetation: Desert to Rain
Forest
 The
Tropical Wet and
Dry areas of northern
Sri Lanka produces
both grasses and trees
Human-Environment
Interaction
Chapter 24
Section 3
Main Ideas
 Rivers
play a central role in the lives of
South Asians.
 Water
pollution and flooding pose great
challenges to South Asian countries.
Living Along the Ganges
Hinduism is religion
of most Indians.
 The Ganges River is
an important water
source and a sacred
river.
 People feel it is too
sacred to be harmed
by pollution
 Hindus believe the
water has healing
powers

The Polluted Ganges
 The
major polluting industries on the Ganges
are the leather industries, which use large
amounts of chromium and other chemicals.
 Nearly 1 billion liters of waste per day, of
mostly untreated raw sewage is dumped into
the river.
 Inadequate cremation procedures contributes
to a large number of partially burnt or unburnt
corpses floating down the Ganges, in addition
to livestock corpses.
Controlling the Feni River
 Rivers
in Bangladesh are crucial to the
country’s survival.
 The Feni River overflows its coastal plain
during the wet season and cyclones often cause
storm surges.
 Storm
surges
– High water level brought by a cyclone that
swamps low-lying areas
Controlling the Feni River
 To
control the Feni a dam was built in 1985.
 Bangladesh had one key asset for such a
project—abundant human resources.
 The base of the dam was made of mats of
bamboo weighed down with boulders, and
covered by clay-filled bags.
 The dam was built to form an estuary.
Controlling the Feni River
Feni Dam
Controlling the Feni River
 Estuary
– An arm of the
sea at the lower
end of a river
– A broadened
seaward end of
a river, where
the river’s
currents meet
the ocean’s
tides
Feni estuary at low tide

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