5th Grade All living things are composed of cells; in complex organisms, groups of cells form complex structures that work together for the survival of the organism. 1. 2. a) b) c) All living things are made up of cells Structure of cells (both plant and animal) - Cell membrane: selectively allows substances in and out - Nucleus: surrounded by nuclear membrane, contains genetic materials, divides for reproduction - Cytoplasm contains organelles, small structures that carry out the chemical activities of the cell, including mitochondria (which produce the cell;s energy) and vacuoles (which store food, water, or waste). 3. 4. 5. Plant cells, unlike animal cells, have cell walls and chloroplasts. Cells without nuclei: monerans (bacteria) Some organisms consist of only a single cell: for example, amoeba, protozoans, some algae. 6. 7. a) b) c) Cells are shaped differently in order to perform different functions. Organization of cells into tissues, organs, and systems - In complex organisms, groups of cells form tissues (In animals – skin, muscle, In plants – skin of onion, bark of tree). - Tissues with similar functions form organs (heart, brain, root, flower) - In complex organisms, organs work together in a system (digestive, circulatory). All living things are made up of cells. EUKARYOTIC CELLS Cells in human beings and other multicellular animals are eukaryotic cells. Plant cells are also eukaryotic cells. PROKARYOTIC CELLS Single celled organisms and are also known as moneran. Example: bacteria STRUCTURE OF ANIMAL CELL STRUCTURE OF PLANT CELL What are some of the similarities and differences of these two types of cells? Cells in human beings and other multicellular animals are eukaryotic cells. Some common features of an animal cell are located in the picture to the right. The cell membrane – is a layer of molecules that surrounds the cell, keeping it separate from the external environment and controlling the passages of substances into and out of the cell. - Inside the cell membrane is a jellylike substance called cytoplasm. - This contains organelles that carry out the chemical activities of the cell. - - - One of the most important organelles in an animal cell is the nucleus. Is like the Cell’s brain It contains all of the information the cell needs to do specific jobs, grow and divide. It contains the DNA molecules. - Produce the energy for the cell. - Also known as the “powerhouse of the cell”. - Has a highly folded inner membrane (cristae). Vacuoles - A sac of fluid surrounded by a membrane used to store food, fluid, or waste products. They contain all of the features of animal cells just noted, plus some additional features. Chloroplasts food for plant cells is made here Transforms light energy into chemical energy which is stored in food molecules. Contain chlorophyll – a green pigment that traps light energy and gives plants their green color. Cell Wall - - shapes and supports a plant cell Surrounds the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, bacteria, and fungi. Also known as the moneran. - Prokaryotic cells have neither a defined nucleus nor the types of organelles that eukaryotic cells have. - Unicellular, or single celled. Some organisms consist of only a single cell: for example – - Amoeba - Protozoans - some algae. Cells are shaped differently in order to perform different functions. Tissues Groups of cells working together to perform a specialized activity are known as tissues. Muscle Tissues Come in three different types: PLANT TISSUES The function of many plant tissues is to strengthen and support the plant. Plant Tissues ORGANS Are structures of combined tissues that perform a common task ORGANS Are structures of combined tissues that perform a common task NOT THAT TYPE OF ORGAN! PLANT ORGANS Plants have organs, too. One plant organ is the root. SYSTEM Organ systems are formed when two or more organs interact to assist in the entire organism’s survival.