Law and Legal Issues in International Disaster

Report
IDRL
Law and Legal Issues in
International Disaster Response
David Fisher, Coordinator
IFRC Disaster Law Programme
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 1
IDRL
Why worry about legal preparedness for
international disaster response?
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 2

More frequent natural
disasters with larger
impacts

More and different
international responders

Few domestic rules
IDRL
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 3
IDRL
More and more varied responders
NGOs
Militaries
400
40
300
30
200
20
100
10
0
0
Gujarat Bam
(2001) (2003) Aceh
(2004)
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Moz.
Tsunami
Pakistan
(2000)
(2004)
(2005)
Haiti
(2010)
Slide 4
Haiti
(2010)
IDRL
Research shows that the lack of legal
preparedness hampers int’l relief
Research
 27 legal case studies
 Global survey
 Regional forums
Findings
 Unnecessary delays and costs
 Unnecessary relief items, poor
coordination, lack of respect
 Failure to account for the nonstate sector
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 5
IDRL
Research shows that the lack of legal
preparedness hampers int’l relief

Barriers


Oversight gaps


Inappropriate items, ignoring standards, poor
coordination, corruption
Bottom line

www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Initiation, visas, customs, radio use, taxes,
professional qualifications, registration,
transport, liability
Aid is slower, more expensive, less effective,
sometimes counter-productive
Slide 6
IDRL
A few anecdotes
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 7
IDRL
RC /RC
(Soft) Law
Global & Regional
Institutions
Human Rights
& Refugee Law
Sectoral
Law
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
No
Comphensive
Int’l Regime
Soft
Law
Bilateral
Agreements
Regional
Law
Slide 8
IDRL
Right to humanitarian assisance

Arguably derived from human rights to:





But different from IHL


www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Food (which includes water)
Shelter
Clothing
Health (which includes sanitation)
State is the duty-bearer
Arguably, if state cannot help, it must seek
outside support – but nothing stops it from
being selective about its partners
Slide 9
Some “sectoral” treaties on disaster response
IDRL
Kyoto Convention (1973)
Istanbul Convention (1990)
Convention on Maritime
Traffic (1965)
Chicago Convention,
Annex 9 (2004)
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Tampere Convention
(1998)
Int’l Health Regs
(rev 2005)
Framework Convention
on Civil Defense (2000)
Slide 10
Food Aid Convention
(1999)
Nuclear Accident
Convention (1986)
Safety Protocol (2005)
Intl Health
Regs
Nuclear
Conv.
Civil Defence
Conv.
UN Safety
Protocol
UN Safety
Conv.
Maritime
Conv.
Chicago
Conv.
Istanbul Ann.
B.9
Istanbul
Conv.
Kyoto. Ann.
J.5
Kyoto
Conv.
Tampere
Conv.
IDRL
Djibouti
1978
2007
Eritrea
1993
2007
1947
2007
Ethiopia
Kenya
2003
2010
No
1964
Somalia
1964
So. Sudan
2011
Sudan
s 1998
2009
No
s 1990
No
Tanzania
Uganda
2002
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Yes
1967
Slide 11
2004
2007
2007
2007
1956
1962
2002
2006
2004
2008
s 1986
2007
2005
2007
2007
IDRL
Trend to regionalize
EC CPM
NATO MOU
BSEC Agreement
CIS Agreement
Arab League
Agreement
OIC DM Office
•IGAD
•ECOWAS
•SADC
•AU Policy
Framework
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
•ASEAN Agreement
•SAARC Agreement
•APEC Strategy
•SOPAC Agreement
•SCO Agreement
•Inter-American
Convention
•CDEMA Agreement
•CAPRADE Agreement
•CEPREDENAC
Agreement
Slide 12
IDRL
“Soft Law”
Resolutions
UN GA Res 46/182 (1991)
UN GA Res 57/150 (2002)
Guidelines and Charters
Oslo Guidelines on the Use of Military and Civil Defense
Assets in Disaster Relief (rev’d 2007)
FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Right to Food (2004)
IASC Guidlines on Protection in Natural Disasters (2006)
Codes and Standards
Red Cross/NGO Code of Conduct (1994)
Sphere Charter and Minimum Standards (2000)
Principles of Good Humanitarian Donorship (2005)
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 13
IDRL
Major gaps and problems
Treaties/hard law




Few parties
Thematic limits
Inconsistent rules
Most ignore non-governmental sector
Global coordination systems
 Some affected states feel excluded
 Difficulty involving everyone
 Lack of binding standards
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 14
IDRL
International Red Cross and Red Crescent
Movement
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.

National Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies

International Federation of Red Cross
and Red Crescent Societies

International Committee of the Red Cross
Slide 15
IDRL
Red Cross/Red Crescent (Soft) Law


Status Agreements
Statutes of the Movement
 Roles
of the components (auxiliary role of
National Societies)
 fundamental principles

Principles and Rules
 mechanisms
components

Other resolutions on facilities for the
Movement

www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
for assistance between
visas, radio frequencies
Slide 16
IFRC Status Agreements in the region
IDRL
No
Djibouti
No
Eritrea
Yes
Ethiopia
Yes
Kenya
No
Somalia
No
South Sudan
In discussion
Sudan
No
Tanzania
Yes
Uganda
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 17
IDRL
Legal preparedness at the domestic
level: the IDRL Guidelines
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.

Adopted by consensus by the state
parties to the Geneva Conventions in
2007

Promoted by name in 8 UN GA
resolutions

Recommendations to governments on
how to prepare their own domestic
laws and procedures for international
assistance

9 new laws or regulations / 11
pending, 20 formal reviews
Slide 18
The IDRL Guidelines’ proposed legal facilities
IDRL

Personnel




Goods and equipment







www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Customs clearance and duties
Food, vehicles, telecoms, medicines
Transport
Domestic legal status


Visas
Work permits
Professional qualifications
Power to open bank accounts, contract, etc.
Taxes
Security
Extended hours
Costs
Slide 19
The IDRL Guidelines’ standards
IDRL

Aid providers always:




Abide by domestic and international law
Coordinate with domestic authorities
Abide by humanitarian principles
To the greatest extent practicable, they:





Meet int’l quality standards
Coordinate with other actors
Involve beneficiaries
Use fully trained personnel
Build on local capacities
www.ifrc.org
Saving lives, changing minds.
Slide 20
FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT:
http://www.ifrc.org/dl
OR CONTACT:
[email protected]
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES
P.O. BOX 372
CH-1211 GENEVA 19
SWITZERLAND
TEL.: +41 22 730 42 22
FAX.: +41 22 733 03 95

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