Document

Report
The Nuclear
Renaissance:
A Resurgence of
Nuclear Energy
Jim Reinsch
President, Bechtel Nuclear Power
Board of Directors, Nuclear Energy Institute
President-Elect, American Nuclear Society
6987-2/05-Michigan-1
Acknowlegements
Steve L. Stamm, P.E.
Nuclear Business Manager
Stone & Webster Power Division
6987-2/05-Michigan-2
Outline

ANS representation:







Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Shaw Stone & Webster
Framatome ANP
Seabrook Station
University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Resurgence of Nuclear Energy
Role of American Nuclear Society
6987-2/05-Michigan-3
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ranked 5th by U.S. News and
World Report





10,000 students
900 faculty
32 majors
5 schools
Milestones:


Penicillin
Vitamin A
6987-2/05-Michigan-4
Shaw Stone & Webster
 Shaw Group formed in 1987
 One of Fortune's Top 500 companies
 Stone & Webster founded
in 1889


18,000 employees
Provides multi-services




Engineering
Design
Construction
Maintenance
6987-2/05-Michigan-5
Seabrook Station

Majority owner— Florida
Power and Light (FPL)

C.O.— August 1990

1,161 MW

Largest reactor in New England

Provides about 7 % of region’s electricity
6987-2/05-Michigan-6
University of Massachusetts, Lowell


Founded in 1894



12,000 students
Member of the University of
Massachusetts system, 1991
$300 million in annual research
One of the 50 best universities in
the world by Times of London
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Framatome ANP

Jointly-owned subsidiary
with AREVA and Siemens

World leader in:





Engineering design and construction
of nuclear power plants and
research reactors
Modernization, maintenance and
repair services
Component manufacturing
Supply of nuclear fuel
Manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries
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Resurgence of
Nuclear Energy
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Worldwide Perspective
NASA
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World View
Global electricity
demand to increase
50% by 2025


1.6%/yr for industrial
world
3.6%/yr for
developing world
Demand
Trillion kWh

1850
1950
1990
2000
2050 2100
Year
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Environment
Global Average Temperature
58 °F
Cause of
Disruption
 Emissions from
CO2 from fossil
fuel
 Fossil fuel
57 °F
56 °F
1880 1894
1964 1978 1992 1999
5-year surface annual mean
Source: NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies
1908
1922
1936
1950
Global Emissions and
Atmospheric
Concentration of CO2
3000
Atmospheric
concentrations
derived
from ice cores
350
300
1000
1790 1815 1840 1865

400
Emissions
1890 1915 1940 1975 1990
Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
250
Atmospheric Concentration (ppm)
5000
Atmospheric
concentrations
measured
directly

80% of world’s
energy
80% of new
capacity brought
on line in 2003
EPRI
7000
Emissions (MMTC)
Nuclear
 Limits
greenhouse
gas emissions
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Environment
2 x CO2
of Existing
Levels
4 x CO2
of Existing
Levels
2030
2100
EPRI
Temperature Rise
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
6987-2/05-Michigan-13
Nuclear Drivers

Why Nuclear:

Safe

Proven performance

Affordable

Energy security/energy
independence

Emission free

Abundant fuel and stable prices
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World View
 World nuclear generation sets record in 2004



383,629 MW
2,696 MMWh
3.7% increase
 Led by:



Record setting performance
• U.S.
• Sweden
Restart of units in:
• Japan
• Canada
Commissioning of new units
• South Korea
• Ukraine
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World View
 440 nuclear power plants
 16% of world’s electricity
 Displaces 2 billion metric tons of CO2
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The Renaissance Begins
5
Other
3
30
Projects
Underway
in
2004
Russia
3
China
3
Japan
8
Korea
8
Europe
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Nuclear
Overview:
Pacific Basin
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Pacific Basin

Asia fastest growing market

East and South Asia

100 plants in operation

20 under construction

40 to 60 planned

Represents 36% of the world’s new capacity
growth
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Pacific Basin

Greatest
growth

China

Japan


Pacific
Ocean
South
Korea
India
Indian Ocean
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China Perspective
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Quick Facts

World’s largest population



China = 1.3 billion
U.S. = 0.3 billion
Second largest energy
consumer


U.S. = 25% of world total
China = 10% of world total
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Quick Facts

2003




10% increase in
generation capacity
17% increase in demand
15,000 MW shortage
2004



9% increase in
generation capacity
16% increase in demand
30,000 MW shortage
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Energy Portfolio
2%
Nuclear
Total Electrical
Generation
Hydro
Coal
Fuel
Coal
Hydro
Nuclear
Percent
80
18
2
6987-2/05-Michigan-24
China’s Plan
Harbin 
WaFangDian 6x1000MW PWR
Beijing 
HaiYang 6x1000MW PWR
TianWan 6x1000MW VVER
Qinshan I 1x300MW PWR
Chengdu 
Shanghai 
Qinshan II 2x600MW PWR
Qinshan III 2x665MW HWR
Qinshan IV 2x1000MW PWR
Sanmen 6x1000MW PWR
Fuzhou 
Shenzhen
HuiAn 6x1000MW PWR
Operation

Daya Bay 2x944MW PWR
LingAo 2x950MW PWR
Under Construction
Hong Kong
LingDong 2x1000MW PWR
Planning
YangJiang 6x1000MW PWR
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Near-Term Plan



PWR technology selected
National Nuclear Steering Committee formed
National Development and Reforming
Commission (NDRC) has significant role
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Path Forward
 Nuclear power to be
expanded

6,600 MW to
40,000 MW by 2020
 Near-term construction


4 replication units
4 Generation III+ units
• 2 at Sanmen
• 2 at Yangjiang
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Current Invitation to Bid (ITB)
Heilongjiang
Sea of
Japan
RUSSIA
Jilin
JAPAN
Liaoning
NORTH
KOREA
Beijing
MONGOLIA
SOUTH
KOREA
Shandong
Inner
Mongolia
Jiangsu
Xinjiang
Henan
China
Yellow
Sea
Shanghai
Anhui
Zhejiang
Sanmen
Nuclear Plant
Hubei
Qinghai
Jiangxi
Fujian
Sichuan
Tibet
Taiwan
Hunan
Guangdong
Guizhou
Guangxi
NEPAL
Hong Kong
Yunnan
BHUTAN
VIETNAM
INDIA
Yangjiang
Nuclear Plant
BURMA
Hainan
LAOS
South China
Sea
6987-2/05-Michigan-28
Status of ITB

ITB issued
September 28, 2004

PWR technology




Westinghouse
AREVA
Atomstroyexport
Construction award
December 2005
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Westinghouse – AP 1000

Passive safety systems permit
simplification and improve safety

Modularization reduces construction
to 36 months

NRC design certification provides
regulatory certainty:


AP 600 — December 1999
AP 1000 — August 2005
Westinghouse
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AREVA/Framatome ANP — EPR
 Four loop RCS design
 Four train safety systems
 In-containment borated
water storage
 RCS depressurization system
 Separate buildings for safety trains
 Advanced “cockpit” control room
 48 months from first concrete to CO
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Atomstroyexport (Russian)
VVER-1000

“Evolutionary” design
incorporating safety
improvements

Standardization based on
components that performed well
on earlier plants
(VVER-440)

Four loop RCS design

Horizontal steam generators

Redesigned fuel assemblies
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World Reactor Technologies
Gen III+
Gen IV
Today’s Designs
Future Designs
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6926-1/05-Purdue-33
Future Designs

Generation IV advanced nuclear reactors (ARS)

Six candidates:
• Very High Temperature
Reactor (VHTR)
December 2002
• Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR)
• Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)
• Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR)
• Molten Salt Reactor (MSR)
• Supercritical Water-cooled
Reactor (SCWR)
http://nuclear.gov/nerac/
FinalRoadmapforNERACReview.pdf
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Future Designs — Generation IV - ARS

Technology

Top priority  Next Generation
Nuclear Plant
•
•
•
•
•
•

High temperature
Passive safety
Improved economics
Demonstrates hydrogen production
High efficiency direct-cycle electricity production
Nonproliferation
Technology suppliers
• PBMR (Pty) Ltd.
 Pebble Bed (PBMR)
• AREVA/Framatome ANP  ANTARES
• General Atomics
 GT-MHR
6987-2/05-Michigan-35
Future Designs —
Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

PBMR (Pty) Ltd. — Pebble
Bed Modular Reactor





High temperature (900 °C)
helium-cooled reactor
TRISO-coated particle fuel
in spherical fuel elements
On-line refueling
Direct cycle gas turbine
Inherent passive safety
design
6987-2/05-Michigan-36
Future Designs — NGNP

AREVA/Framatome ANP — ANTARES design

Prismatic core
• Low cost
• Maximum core design flexibility
• Minimum core design uncertainty

Indirect cycle
• Simplified design

Innovative CCGT-based power generation system
• Developed with MHI and confirmed by EdF
• Maximizes use of existing technology
• Combined Brayton and Rankine cycles give high
efficiency

Readily adaptable to H 2 production
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Future Designs — NGNP
 General Atomics — Gas Turbine — Modular Helium
Reactor (GT-MHR)

Helium cooled reactor
• Nonradioactive
• High heat capacity

Gas turbine
• Brayton cycle vs. steam cycle
• High efficiency ~ 50%
• Modern gas turbine technology

Ceramic fuel particles
–
–
–
–
High temperature capability > 1600 °C
Stable graphite core/moderator
High fuel burnup capability
High proliferation resistance
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Today’s Design — Generation III+
Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs)


Simplified design

Standardized designs based on modularization
producing shorter construction schedules

Enhanced resistance to proliferation
Passive systems to enhance safety and
reduce cost
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Today’s Design — Generation III+ ALWR

General Electric  ESBWR
 ABWR+

BNFL/
Westinghouse

AP 1000

Atomic Energy
Canada Limited  ACR-700
(AECL)

AREVA/
Framatome


EPR
SWR 1000
6987-2/05-Michigan-40
6900-12/04-40
Today’s Design — Generation III+ ALWR

General Electric — ESBWR

Simplified the design
• Less equipment and buildings
• Shorter construction times
• Reduced operation and
maintenance costs

Improved plant performance and
safety
• Gives operational flexibility
• Easier to get regulatory approval

Designed to U.S. and European
requirements
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Today’s Design — Generation III+ ALWR

Westinghouse — AP 1000



Passive safety systems permit
simplification and improve safety
Modularization reduces construction
to 36 months
NRC design certification provides
regulatory certainty:
• AP 600 — December 1999
• AP 1000 — August 2005
Westinghouse
6987-2/05-Michigan-42
Today’s Design — Generation III+ ALWR

Atomic Energy Canada Limited
(AECL) — ACR-700




Evolution of CANDU 6 design
(Qinshan)
Safe, economical design
40 months from first concrete
to fuel load for 1st unit
Currently in NRC
pre-application review
6987-2/05-Michigan-43
Today’s Design — Generation III+ ALWR

AREVA/Framatome ANP — EPR

Four loop RCS design

Four train safety systems

In-containment borated
water storage

RCS depressurization system

Separate buildings for safety trains

Advanced “cockpit” control room

48 months from first concrete to CO
6987-2/05-Michigan-44
Today’s Design — Generation III+ ALWR

AREVA/Framatome
ANP — SWR 1000

Improved safety margin

Improved availability

Uses existing technology

Reduced construction time

60-year service life

European utility involvement
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United States Perspective
6987-2/05-Michigan-46
U.S. Nuclear Energy
 Quick facts
103 nuclear plants
 20% of the nation’s electricity



Displaces 680 million
metric tons of CO2
Equivalent to 131 million
passenger cars
6987-2/05-Michigan-47
U.S. Nuclear Drivers
 Safe
 Proven nuclear plant performance
 Cost effective
 Affordable
 Energy security/energy independence
 Provides base load generation/grid
stability
 Emission free
6987-2/05-Michigan-48
Proven Performance
95
90.7%
90
Capacity Factor (%)
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
'82
'84
'86
'88
'90
'92
'94
'96
'98
'00
'02
'04
Source: Energy Information Administration/Nuclear Regulatory Commission
6987-2/05-Michigan-49
Affordable
($ per MWh)
Nuclear
Coal
Gas
No assistance
$45-$71
$33-$41
$35-$45
Engineering costs
paid
$31-$46
$33-$41
$35-$45
Limited production,
investment
tax credit
$25-$45
$33-$41
$35-$45
Source: University of Chicago
6987-2/05-Michigan-50
Cost Effective
(in constant cents/kWh)
11
Oil 5.53
10
9
Gas 5.77
8
Coal 1.8
7
Nuclear 1.72
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
85
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
01
03
Source: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission /EUCG
6987-2/05-Michigan-51
Evidence of U.S. Nuclear Revival
Congress

Energy Policy Act


Supports nuclear energy as a major component
of national energy policy
Supports
• Uprates/license renewals
• Licensing of new plants
DOE

Nuclear Power 2010 program

Utilities

Deploys at least one new advanced
nuclear plant by 2010
Three utility-led consortiums formed to
develop COL applications for new
U.S. reactors
6987-2/05-Michigan-52
Evidence of U.S. Nuclear Revival
Increasing Public Support
Important
for our
energy
future
80%
Favor use
of nuclear
energy
67%
Keep the
option
to build
nuclear
plants
Definitely
build
nuclear
plants in
future
Accept
new
reactors
at nearest
plant
71%
60%
62%
Source: Bisconti Research Inc.
6987-2/05-Michigan-53
Evidence of U.S. Nuclear Revival —
License Renewals
32
30
Granted
25

Renewal
Application
Renewal
Intent
16
Not
Announced
Renewal
Application
Renewal
Application
Renewal
Application
In NRC
Review
Renewal
Application
6987-2/05-Michigan-54
Evidence of U.S. Nuclear Revival

Browns Ferry #1
restart

Tennessee Valley
Authority
• 1,280 MWe
• Applied for 20year license
renewal
• Ahead of
schedule
• Under budget
6987-2/05-Michigan-55
Evidence of U.S. Nuclear Revival

Utility consortiums formed in response to DOE’s
NP-2010 solicitation

NuStart Energy Development, LLC

Dominion-led

TVA-led
6987-2/05-Michigan-56
New U.S. Licensing Process
Early site approval
1
2
Design certification
3
Combined license for
construction and
operation (COL)
6987-2/05-Michigan-57
Early Site Permits
1
 Site approval obtained
before company decides
to build
 Company “banks” site
up to 20 years
 Decision made, design
chosen later
 Greater certainty in
moving forward
6987-2/05-Michigan-58
Design Certification
2
 Advance NRC
approval for design
 Lengthy delays
avoided before site
preparation,
construction
 Four designs
approved to date
6987-2/05-Michigan-59
Combined Construction and Operating
License
3



One license for operating/
building plant
Early focus of public
comment
Greater regulatory
certainty
6987-2/05-Michigan-60
Old Licensing Process
15 years
Construction
Permit
Application
Construction
Public Comment
Opportunity
Operating License
Application
Operating License
Issued
Operations
6987-2/05-Michigan-61
New Licensing Process
7 years
Early Site
Permit
Combined
License
Construction
Construction
Acceptance
Criteria
Operation
Design
Certification
Public Comment
Opportunity
6987-2/05-Michigan-62
What Needs To Be Done
Spent Fuel
Management
Financials
Public and
Bipartisan
Support
Build New
Nuclear
Plants
Regulatory
Certainty
Infrastructure
Proven
Technology
6987-2/05-Michigan-63
What Needs To Be Done — New
Nuclear Plants
Proven
Technology
Financials
 Finalize a competitive approved design
 Ensure designs met new capacity needs
 Create advantageous business conditions
Acceptable financials return
Financial incentives
Regulatory
Certainty
 Resolve uncertainties in licensing
and regulations
6987-2/05-Michigan-64
What Needs To Be Done — New
Nuclear Plants
Spent Fuel
Management
 Completion of Yucca Mountain
 Long-term solution
 Re-establishment of the nuclear infrastructure
Infrastructure
Utilities
Vendors
Labor
Public and
Bipartisan
Support
Universities
Government
Investors
 Renew public confidence
 Need to maintain high-performance standards
 Need national energy policy
6987-2/05-Michigan-65
Role of
American
Nuclear Society
6987-2/05-Michigan-66
6926-1/05-Purdue-66
Role of American Nuclear Society

Provides professional home for
pioneers leading the industry

Promotes members’
contributions in the expansion
of nuclear technology
6987-2/05-Michigan-67
Role of American Nuclear Society

Provides forum to develop
and apply technology
to benefit all humanity

Serves as credible voice for exchange of
nuclear information
6987-2/05-Michigan-68
Role of American Nuclear Society

Through ANS professional
divisions



Members demonstrate the
peaceful power of the atom
Members push the science
forward at topical meetings and
workshops
Through ANS public policy
and federal affairs

Members assist:
• Government in developing
sound policies
• Renewal of public confidence
6987-2/05-Michigan-69
Tomorrow’s Vision Coming into Focus
U.S.S.
Nautilus
EBR-1
Reactor
Periodic
table
40 nuclear
plants
New Build Consortiums
 NuStart
 TVA
 Dominion
1960
Gen III+
1900
Space
2004
Medical
Isotopes
X-rays
Pioneer
10
2050
Gen IV
NP 2010
Initiative
Cathode
rays
Medical
The Faces of
Tomorrow
6987-2/05-Michigan-70
Questions
Answers
6987-2/05-Michigan-71
The Nuclear
Renaissance:
A Resurgence of
Nuclear Energy
Jim Reinsch
President, Bechtel Nuclear Power
Board of Directors, Nuclear Energy Institute
President-Elect, American Nuclear Society
6987-2/05-Michigan-72

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