Cross X Judges' Briefing guide - Powerpoint

Report
Cross Examination
Judges’ Briefing Guide
So, you want to be a
Cross Examination
Debate Judge?
A Note to Judges
What is Debate?
Debate centers on the discussion of a RESOLUTION.
•The Proposition side argues in support of the resolution
- they argue for the proposed idea.
•The Opposition side argues against the resolution - they
argue for anything but the proposed idea.
What Do Judges Do?
In this order, you have 3 jobs to perform:
1. Award individual speaker points.
2. Decide a winning Team.
3. Give feedback (optional).
Chairpersons and timekeepers take care of the
details
Order of Events(cross-X)
Cross X
Constructive Speech
2nd Negative
Constructive Speech
Affirmative
Negative
Rebuttal
Rebuttal
Cross X
2nd Affirmative
1st Negative
Constructive Speech
Cross X
Constructive Speech
Cross X
1st Affirmative
1st Proposition Speech
1. Introduction
2. Definition of Essential Terms (should be clear to
the average person)
3. Fully Describe Model (If used)
4. Theme / Caseline
5. Outline all of the Proposition Arguments
(Expand Arguments using (evidence / proof)
7. Conclusion
1st Proposition (cont)
In the first proposition speech over eighty five percent of the
speech should be reserved for the constructive matter. The first
proposition usually develops two constructive points in their
speech, giving each point equal time. For example in a six minute
speech:
•The first minute would be used for introduction and definitions
•The next two minutes would be used for the first constructive
argument
•The next two minutes would be used for the second constructive
argument
•Last minute would be used for a short summary and conclusion
What is a Model?
•A model is an extension of the definitions that aims to add increased clarity
to the motion.
•The model answers the four W’s of the debate. Who, What, When, Where.
A good model creates more context and make the debate clean, removing
much of the debate from the implementing of a policy to the actual policy
itself.
•The model must be fully explained in the first speech. An example of a
model for the resolution “ This House would impose a carbon tax” would
be:
1.The government of Canada would impose a $40 dollar tax on
each ton of carbon that companies produce
2.The money collected will be directed back in the form of
subsidies and grants to companies that are investing in green energy
and technology
3.The tax will increase at a rate of five dollars each year
4.The tax will come into effect in the year 2010
1st Opposition Speech
1.
Introduction
2.
Respond to Definition of Essential Terms
•
Most teams will accept the terms as defined (no time, place, set)
•
Can challenge the terms if unreasonable - If this happens, judges
decide which terms are more reasonable (still possible for Prop. to win)
2.
Opposition theme / Caseline and split
3.
Clash with 1st Proposition Arguments
4.
Outline Own Arguments for opposing the resolution (Expand Arguments
(evidence and proof)
5.
Fully describe Counter Model (If used)
6.
Conclusion
1st Opposition Speech (cont)
In the first opposition speech seventy five percent of the speech
should be reserved for the constructive matter. The first
proposition usually develops two constructive points in their
speech, giving each point equal time. For example in a six minute
speech:
•The first minute & 30 seconds would be used for
refutation and rebuilding
•The next two minutes would be used for the first
constructive argument
•The next two minutes would be used for the second
constructive argument
•Last thirty seconds would be used for a short summary
and conclusion
Judges’ Note: Evidence
•Keep track of arguments and evidence on flow sheet.
This will be your record from which to judge.
•Evidence can be in the form of facts, quotes,
examples, or logic – it need not be numbers.
•You will be making your decision on the evidence,
content and rationale of their case.
•An argument without evidence carries no weight.
• Evidence must be accurate.
Judges’ Note: Clash
• Clash is a central principle of debate. Without
clash, there is no debate.
• Debaters are obliged to clash directly and
specifically to their opponents’ arguments.
• Keep track of which arguments have been
successfully clashed. ie. Arrows or checks
•
CLASH is the deciding factor of a debate. If a
team fails to clash with major points, they should lose the
debate.
2nd Proposition Speech
1. Introduction
2. Clash with 1st Opposition Arguments
3. Outline team’s case approach
4. Further Proposition Arguments
5. Conclusion
2nd Proposition Speech (cont)
The second proposition about thirty five - forty percent of the
speech should be refutation and the rest reserved for construction.
For example in a six minute speech:
•The first thirty seconds would be used for the introduction
•The next two minutes for refutation of the opposition and
rebuilding
•The next two minutes for construction of a single new
argument
•The final thirty seconds for the conclusion
2nd Opposition Speech
1. Introduction
2. Clash with Proposition Arguments
3. Outline team’s case approach
4. Further Opposition Arguments
5. Conclusion
2nd Opposition Speech (cont)
The second opposition speech has about fifty to sixty percent
refutation and the rest is reserved for construction. It is good
practice in a debate to only introduce a single argument in the
second speech. For example in a six minute speech:
•The first thirty seconds for an introduction
•The next three minutes would be used for refutation
•The next two minutes would be used for the last
constructive point
•The final thirty seconds to conclude the opposition side of
the debate
Cross-examination
This form of questioning is meant to gain valuable
admissions and identify weaknesses of the opponents’
case.
Questioner’s responsibilities:
•Be polite
•Be relevant to the topic
•Do not browbeat, belittle, intimidate or speechify
•Provide enough time for the question to be
considered and answered.
Cross-examination (Cont.)
Questioners cannot demand “yes / no” answers
but, they can interrupt verbose or evasive answers.
Witnesses must answer all relevant questions.
Judges decide relevance.
Again, grade debaters in the “Format” section on
how well they ask and answer questions
Caseline & Split
A case split is simply how the arguments are divided between
the two speakers.
A theme is a single, concise sentence that explains the main
idea behind your case.
For example, consider the topic “BIRT Globalization is doing
more harm than good”. A theme for the Proposition team might
be, “Globalization’s emphasis on economic competition
advantages a few developed nations at the expense of the
majority of the world’s population.”
Reply Speeches
Both teams:
During Reply:
• Take a step back and
summarize the debate
• No new arguments
•Distill the debate into themes
and clash on the major ideas of
the debate
•Leave the judges with a clear
reason for your side winning the
debate
• New evidence IS allowed
•Not advised to use a
systematic style of clash
Job 1: Speaker Points
Complete the section of the ballot that deals with individual skills
with the help of the judging rubric in your package.
Rule of thumb: start with 3 as average and go up or down
25 pts - practically impossible
20-24 - excellent debating skills
15-19 - good to very good skills
12-14 - below average skills
sub 12 - impossible will be changed to a 12 when
we enter the stats.
The range of marks for each debater should be between 12 and
22
Job 2: The Decision
Judges should review each team’s arguments, evidence, and
clash to select the winner.
If, and only if neither team meets their obligations, judges can
award the debate to the team best demonstrating the skills of
debate.
No ties. If you can’t decide, Opposition wins because the
Proposition has not proved their case.
Breaches of courtesy (insulting comments, distracting gestures) can
be used as one of the factors in choosing a winning team.
***Mark the winning team on your ballot***
This is usually the team with the most speaker points. If,
however, you choose to award the win to the team with less
points, be prepared to justify your reasons.
Hand in Your Ballot to the ChairTimer.
Job 3: Feedback
Share feedback for each debater.
(Comments are optional, but very valuable for debaters’
growth)
• Judges’ comments should be brief (1-2 minutes)
• Comments should be directed toward evidence and
clash. Positively phrased tips on speaking skills
may be appropriate. Young egos are fragile.
• If everything has been said, the last judge need not
feel obligated to comment.
Other Considerations
•
Show no bias on the issue - act as though you
know nothing but what the debaters present.
•
If you feel you have a conflict of interest in
judging a debate, please switch rooms with
another judge.
•
Judges should not sit together or discuss their
ballots. Decide on your own and submit your
ballot to the chairperson.
•
The judge’s decision is always right!

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