Labour Migration in Ireland: Overview of Trends and

Report
Labour Migration in Ireland:
Overview of trends and recent policy
changes
The Irish National Contact Point of the European Migration
Network is funded by the European Commission and the Irish
Department of Justice and Law Reform.
1. Overview of trends in migration and immigrant
employment in Ireland
2. Labour migration policy and non-EU
employment permits system
3. Migrant workers and the crisis
4. Features of immigrant labour market
experience in Ireland
Trends in Migration 1987-2010
120
100
80
40
20
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
-20
1998
1999
0
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
Thousands
60
-40
-60
Emigration
Immigration
Net Migration
Central Statistics Office, Population and Migration Estimates
Immigration by National Group 2000-2010
120
100
80
Rest of World
Thousands
EU10/12
60
EU 13
UK
Irish
40
20
0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Central Statistics Office, Population and Migration Estimates
Non-Irish Nationals in Employment 2004-2010
Employment 2004-2010 (000s)
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2004
2005
2006
Irish in employment
2007
2008
2009
2010
Non-Irish in Employment
Total in employment
Source: Central Statistics Office: QNHS
Occupational Skill Groups of Non-Irish in
Employment
Per Cent Non-Irish in Highly Skilled
Occupations
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
2%
3%
4%
5%
2004
2005
3%
1%
6%
4%
2%
4%
2%
3%
2%
5%
5%
5%
2007
2008
2009
0%
Other EU15
2006
EU10/12
Non EU
Source: QNHS, 2004:Q3; 2005-2010:Q2 Calendarised data
Occupational Skill Groups of Non-Irish in
Employment
Per Cent Non-Irish in Skilled
Occupations
Per Cent Non-Irish in Low Skilled
Occupations
30%
30%
25%
25%
20%
20%
4%
5%
4%
15%
3%
10%
5%
0%
3%
3%
2%
3%
6%
4%
3%
9%
4%
3%
10%
8%
3%
4%
15%
10%
5%
4%
4%
4%
0%
2004
2005
2006
Other EU15
2007
2008
EU10/12
2009
Non EU
5%
4%
20%
21%
17%
15%
4%
10%
4%
3%
3%
3%
2%
3%
3%
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Other EU15
EU10/12
Source: QNHS, 2004:Q3; 2005-2010:Q2 Calendarised data
Non EU
Slovakian Nationals Working in Ireland 1
Department of Social Protection
Slovakian Nationals Working in Ireland 2
Census 2006
Development of Irish Labour Migration Policy
• Prior to early 2000s little management of economic migration
• Work visa/ authorisation programme introduced in 2000
• Work permit allocations increased x7 between 1999-2003 to peak
at 47,500 in 2003. Mainly low skilled occupations
• From 2002 state sought to exercise some control of work permit
allocations. Labour market needs test introduced. ‘Ineligible
Occupation Sectors’. Employment Permits Act 2003
• State started pursuing the now well established policy of sourcing
all but highly-skilled and/or scarce labour from within the EU
• EU Enlargement 2004. EU10 nationals granted full access to the
Irish labour market
Development of Irish Labour Migration Policy
• Unprecedented rates of migration 2004-2007
• State became increasingly active regarding management of nonEU labour migration
• Restrictions on non EU students’ access to labour market in 2004
• Employment Permits Act 2006
– Further restrictions on lower-skilled work permit allocations
– Introduced Green Card to attract highly-skilled non-EU workers
• Work permit requirement for Romanian and Bulgarian nationals
following accession in 2007
Non-EU Employment Permits System
•
Employer-led system
– State licenses arrangement between employer and potential
migrant worker after job offer has been made
•
Controls that may be exercised by state include application of
Labour market needs test, list of occupations ineligible for permits
•
Identifying Shortages: Expert Group on Future Skills Needs,
National Skills Database
•
National Skills Bulletin 2010: No labour shortages and only
limited skills shortages exist
Non-EU Employment Permits System
Type of Permit
Conditions
Associated
Green Card
Work Permit
Intra Company
Transfer
Spousal/Dependent Permit
Permit
Availability
Most occ. with
annual salary
>€60k
Mainly for occ.
€30k-€60k
annual salary
Senior
management,
key personnel,
trainees
Spouse/dependent of GC
holder
Restricted list of Also under
occupations
€30,000
€30 - €60k
List of ineligible
occupations
Labour
Market
Needs Test
None
Immediate
Family
Reunification
Annual Salary >
€40,000
Spouse/dependent of WP
holder provided original WP
holder made first application
before 1 June 2009.
Strengthened
labour market
test
None
Applies where original WP
holder made first application
after 1 June 2009.
Must be legally
in the State for
1 year with
None
None
The Recession- Ireland’s GNP Growth Rate
15.0
10.0
5.0
%
0.0
-5.0
-10.0
-15.0
Ireland’s Rate of Unemployment
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Recent Adjustments to non-EU Employment
Permits System
• Reduction in occupations eligible for green cards in <€60,000
category (quantity surveyors, building managers, and engineers and
architects)
• Extension of list of occupations ineligible for new work permit
including childcare workers; hotel tourism and catering workers
• Labour market needs test extended
• Increased processing fees for new work permit applications
• Restrictions on spousal permits
• Proposed reform of student immigration regime
Recent Adjustments to Immigration System
• Redundant employment permit holders scheme
• Administrative long term residency scheme extended to
workers made redundant after 5 years
• Undocumented workers scheme
• Third level graduate scheme
Unemployment Rates by Nationality
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
Q3
2004
Q1
2005
Q3
2005
Q1
2006
Irish
Q3
2006
Q1
2007
Q3
2007
Non-Irish
Q1
2008
Q3
2008
Q1
2009
Q3
2009
EU10/12
Alan Barrett and Elish Kelly (2010) “The Impact of Ireland’s Recession on
the Labour Market Outcomes of its Immigrants.” ESRI Working Paper
Annual Percentage Change in Employment
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
-10.0
-20.0
-30.0
Q3
2005
Q1
2006
Q3
2006
Q1
2007
Q3
2007
Irish
Q1
2008
Q3
2008
Q1
2009
Q3
2009
Non-Irish
Q3 2009 annual rate of employment loss: Non-Irish nationals
almost 20%. Nationals 7%
Employment Loss by Sector, Q1 2008 to Q4 2009
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
-20.0
-40.0
-60.0
-80.0
Fo
es
iti
iv
ct al
A
i
e r Soc
th
ce
&
O
en
lth
ef
e a i on & D v
H
r
t
ch
e
in
ca
Te
tS
du dm r
&
E
A
po ce
n
lic up
S cie te
ub
&
P
S sta
in a l,
E
dm ion r &
A
ss su m
fe , In om d
l
ro
o
C
P
ia
Fo
&
nc
n
&
na io
n
Fi
a t tio e
rm da a g
r
fo
o
In
m Sto
om & ail
c c ort
et
A
R
sp &
an le
Tr sa
n
le
tio
ho
W ruc
g
in
st
sh
on
Fi
C try
s
t&
du res
In
i,
gr
A
Non-Irish
Irish
Key point: loss of employment for non-Irish not solely related to an overconcentration in construction.
Barrett and Kelly, 2010
How was the employment loss among non-Irish
nationals distributed across unemployment, inactive
and out-migration? Q1 2008-Q4 2009
40,000
20,000
0
-20,000
-40,000
-60,000
-80,000
-100,000
Em ploym ent
Unem ployed
Inactive
Barrett and Kelly, 2010
Population
Some Features of Immigrant Labour Market
Experience in Ireland
• Immigrant earnings disadvantage of 18% relative to comparable
natives, on average (Barrett and McCarthy, 2007)
– For EU10 nationals, the disadvantage was 45%; larger than for
any other group
• Lower occupational attainment: EU10 nationals about 20% less
likely to be in higher-skilled jobs relative to comparable Irish
nationals (Barrett and Duffy, 2008)
• Some evidence of labour market discrimination:
– Field experiment found that candidates with Irish-sounding
names more than twice as likely to be called to interview than
those with African/Asian/German names. McGinnity et al (2009)
• Not all negative! EU10/12 workers making informed choice.
Relatively low incidence of racism
Integration Policy
• Integration policy development (as applies to all migrants rather than
only refugees) relatively recent;
• Office of the Minister for Integration established in 2007; First policy
statement 2008, Migration Nation :
– Two-way process
– Partnership approach between government and NGOs
– Strong link between integration policy and social inclusion
measures
– Mainstreaming approach to service delivery to migrants
– Commitment to effective local delivery
• Budget of OMI cut in 2010, likely to be reduced further.
Main Emerging Issues
•
Ireland’s recession appears to have impacted severely upon its immigrant
population and the most severe impact appears to have been for the
EU10/12
•
Recent employment fall has coincided with an outflow (Barrett and Kelly,
2010)
•
Increasing unemployment means issuing employment permits to non-EU
workers potentially problematic, especially in lower salary bands (spousal
permits). Little evidence of serious unrest in this regard
•
Challenge for policymakers of finding balance between limiting further
labour migration and integration of workers already here
•
Ireland has opted out of Long Term Residence Directive and Blue Card
Directive. Delays in enacting the Immigration, Residence and Protection Bill
2010. Long-term residence not yet a statutory status

similar documents