Document

Report
Sustainable Integrative transport
solutions
Richard Gordge
CSIR Transportek, PO Box 320, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa
E-mail: [email protected]
Tel: +27 (0) 21-888 2611
Overview
A wide range of policies, programmes and incentives
must knit together as an effective toolkit to address the
challenge of ensuring sustainable transport futures.
This brief presentation outlines some key issues and
ideal outcomes in regard to transport solutions, which
are beginning to form the planning blueprints in our
metropolitan areas.
More specifically attention is focussed on a range of
objectives and actions to be carried through by the
entire spectrum of stakeholders, which would create a
shared responsibly for our transport and cities’ futures.
Transport Impacts
• Lifeline for Interaction
• Individual ideals v optimal system
• Private travel the least efficient
response
• Urban Form impacts on transport
systems
120
50
45
%Work Trips by
Public Transport
40
%Public Transport
Cost Recovery
100
% of Trips
35
80
30
60
25
20
40
2
15
10
80
0
70
% Work Trips by Public
Transport
20
5
0
R = 0.6704
N. AM ERICAN
AUSTRALIAN
EUROPEAN
60
50
40
30
World Cities
20
10
Log. (World Cities)
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Metropolitan Pop. Density (persons/ha)
350
ALL ASIAN
% Cost Recovery
Worldwide
Comparisons
Economic, Financial and Social Cost of a Person Trip (Paris)
A Tale of Two
Cities
City of Paris
Downtown
Los Angeles
Population (million)
2.15
3.2
Area (sq. km)
100
1200
Pop. Density (inh/ha)
215
27
Roads
20%
27%
Parking
1%
32%
Pavements
8%
10%
29%
69%
Private Car
Public Transit
City Centre
5.5
1.0
(Mass Transit)
Inner Suburbs
4.5
2.0
(LRT / Rapid bus)
Outer Suburbs
3.4
1.9
(Bus)
Energy Efficiency *
MJ / Pass km
Cities (Averages)
Car
Bus
All Rail
US
3.5
2.5
1.1
Australian
3.0
1.7
0.9
European
2.6
1.3
0.5
Asian
1.8
0.7
0.2
* veh km, av occupancy, total pass. trips & average distance of pass. trip
Transport's Land Use
Total
Cape Town Metro.
39 persons/ha
South African Context
• Very low densities and forced dislocation
• Integrated transport and land use not
promoted
• Growth in informal market / para-transit
• Rich/Poor Dichotomy
• Lack of capital investment and funding
constraints
Disaggregated v Integrated Network Design
d7
d7
d6
d5
d8
d4
d8
o2
d1
o1
d2
d3
C2
d2
d1
o2
d4
d5
C1
d3
o1
d6
Disaggregated - Current Networks
d7
•Single trip, very poor fleet
utilisation, excessive waste.
d6
d5
d8
•Disaggregated services,
duplication of routes.
d3
o1
o2
d1
d2
•Worker / commuter focus,
not targeted to non working
poor.
•Extensive inefficiencies, xinefficiencies, system
inefficiencies, land-use
transport inefficiencies.
Integrated – Future
Networks ?
d7
d6
d8
d4
d5
C1
o1
d3
d2
C2
d1
o2
•Backbone of high-capacity corridor
services (build scale economies).
•Integrated network,
complementarity between corridor
and feeder/distribution services.
•Zonal fare system, able to target
priority areas & individuals. Also
network now provides broader range
of services and destinations to cater
for all trip needs.
•Franchised services on corridors:
improving internal efficiencies,
improving system efficiencies,
catalyst for greater densification and
land-use/transport integration.
NLTTA principles
• Public transport should be affordable
and achieve:
– Mode integration
– Cost efficiency and service quality
– Optimal allocation & utilisation of resources
• Customer focussed
• Least harmful to the environment.
NLTTA Principles
Achieve efficiency in land transport through
integrated planning
• Public transport to be given higher
priority than private
• PT to be planned on basis of mode
integration
• Investment in infrastructure to promote
economic, financial, technical and
environmental sustainability
NLTTA Principles
Land use functions must be integrated
through
•
•
•
•
Co-ordination of institutional functions
Corridor development
Densification and infilling
Transport planning to guide land use
and development planning
Western Cape Transport Policy
Environmental Sustainability
• All urban transport plans objective to reduce
or stabilise travel esp. petrol driven
• Reduce trip lengths
• More efficient urban structure
• Greater PT share
• Environmentally sensitive forms of propulsion
• Review basis of licence fee from mass to
engine capacity
Western Cape Transport Policy
Integration between transport and land use
• Strategic consideration of roles to achieve
efficient, effective and equitable system.
• To do this need policies on containment,
densification and mixed land use leading to
fundamental restructuring of land use to
reduce travel demand
• Land use plans must be subject to approved
LUTPF
Integrated Transport: Stakeholders
Companies
Central Gov.
Individuals
Local
Authorities
Central & Provincial Government
• Overarching policy and strategy to deliver
integrated transport-land use solutions
• Establish the planning and institutional
frameworks
• Guide planning and implementation at all levels
• Prioritise expenditures
• Allocate funding according to appropriate
impacts
• Constrained by, public expenditure limits,
funding legislation, capacity for implementation
Central & Provincial Government
• Balanced policy of restraints & incentives for
commuter travel
– Restraining non-optimal transport decisions
– Congestion pricing
– Fuel levies
– Developer Contributions
– Incentives for most efficient response
– Subsidisation of most effective, least cost public transport
– Tax incentives for companies with energy-optimizing
transport policies
Local Authorities
• Clear, bold, realistic integrated transport plans
• Improve road congestion management, e.g.:
– Improved local road design
– Improved incident management
– Parking restrictions
• Streamline and prioritise public transport
• Upgrade & market public transport (develop a
realistic choice)
• Design NMT friendly towns and cities
Features of UK Local Transport Plans
Integrated package of measures
•
•
•
•
•
Upgrading of prime mover, typically heavy rail
Development of Intermediate Modes (BRT & light rail)
Bus quality partnerships and bus priority schemes
Park and ride – bus, heavy rail and light rail
Extensive Travel Demand Management – including
traffic management, parking policies and company
travel plans
• Travel Education – including promotion, travel
awareness education, marketing and better information.
Companies
• Develop positive policies on:
– Telecommuting
– Flexitime (staggered working hours)
– Compressed working weeks
• Promote formation of sustainable transport
via:
– NMT promotion
– Preferential parking for car sharers
– In-house information (e.g. website, bulletin board)
for car share information)
• Green Plans (in association with LA’s)
Grading Transport Modes
HIGHEST
Walk
Bicycle
Public Transport
Car Share
Motorcycle
LOWEST
Single Occupancy Vehicle
Aim to encourage employees to
travel to work by the greenest
method of transport that they
reasonably can.
BOOTS, Pfizer: Case studies
Successfully reducing private car use through company based
initiatives
• Pay influenced, points allocated / deducted
based on JTW mode.
• Car share scheme- priority parking
• Subsidized shuttle buses for station as well
as other
• Travel access plan and staff education on
environmentally friendly transport
• Promoting cycling by providing bicycle sheds,
showers & lockers
• Green plans creates basis for negotiation with
LA’s
Individuals
• Consider your trip impacts
• Choose public over private transport
• Choose non-motorised over motorised
transport for short trips
• Form lift clubs
• Form groups to influence local authorities
(e.g.to provide pedestrian and cycling
facilities where applicable)
• Form groups to negotiate flexi-hours etc with
companies
Conclusions
• Simply projecting trends SA’s indicates unsustainable
transport future
• Putting public transport first creates the backbone for
sustainable transport development, funding must
reflect this
• Viable alternatives to private travel are necessary
• NMT to be promoted at every opportunity
• Integrated land-use & transport planning and
management
• Comprehensive buy-in, including individuals and
companies, a pre-requisite
• Well researched development projects creates the
energy, insight and learning for more fundamental
change

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