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Thursday Warm-Up
Grab a Goal 4 Syllabus and stick
it in your notebook!
What do we already
know about how
Native Americans are
treated by the U.S.
Post Test Fun!
1. Turn in your test and answer sheet
2. Grab a “Indian War” sheet and shout out card
3. Read the front and complete the back then
show me
What do we already
know about how
Native Americans are
treated by the U.S.
Plains Indians
-Great Plains or Great American
-Nomadic lifestyle
Move around to hunt
-importance of the horse and
Increased mobility and provided
Increased warfare among tribes
-communal living
-common use of the tribe’s land
Do not believe in individual land
-Sioux, Lakota, Cheyenne, Apache,
Nez Pierce, Blackfeet
The buffalo provided the Plains Indians
with more than just a high-protein
food source:
1. The skull of the buffalo was
considered sacred and was used in
many Native American rituals.
2. The horns were carved into bowls
and spoons.
3. The bones of the buffalo were made
into hide scrappers, tool handles,
sled runners, and hoe blades. The
hoofs were ground up and used as
4. The hide was by far the most
precious part of the buffalo. Native
American clothing, tepees, and even
arrow shields were made from
buffalo hide.
American Interests
-Lands given by treaty to Indian
-California Gold Rush, 1848
-Homestead Act, 1862
Government allowed settlers to
get 160 acres of land if farmed
it for 5 consecutive years
-transcontinental railroad building
Massacre of the buffalo herds
RR goes across the continent
Central and Union Pacific Railroads
Irish and Chinese Immigrants
Building RR
Promontory Point, Utah, 1869
Point where Union and Central
Railroads meet - golden spike
Posters such as these
would promote free or
reasonably cheap land
in the West, attracting
more and more white
The completion of the Transcontinental
Railroad by the Union and Pacific
Railroad companies marked a major
accomplishment in U.S. transportation.
For the first time in American history,
East and West coasts were linked by the
railroad, making transportation of
people and goods from East to West
much easier and faster.
In their race to build railroads, the
Central and Union Pacific Railroad
Companies would recruit immigrants,
most notably the Chinese, to work on
the rails.
Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory
Point, Utah, in 1869
Indian Restrictions
- Treaties were broken
-Indians forced onto reservations
Lands set aside just for Native
Usually desolate land
-Government payment and supplies
were not delivered as promised
-Indian Uprisings
-Dakota Uprising, 1862
Indians angry because did not
receive promised land
Raid villages
Largest mass execution in US
History – 38 Indians killed
Many treaties that the U.S. government made
with the Native Americans were broken, such
as the treaty between the U.S. and the Dakota
Indians. When the U.S. did not pay the money
promised to the Dakota, they reacted violently
in 1862, killing many.
Indian Restrictions
-Massacre at Sand Creek,
John Chivington leads Army unit
in massacre of Cheyenne
•Surprise attack at dawn
kills over 400 natives, mostly
women and children
-Fetterman’s Massacre, 1866
•80 soldiers killed
-Fetterman’s small army band
crushed by Sitting Bull, Crazy
Horse, and Red Cloud’s warriors
Indian Wars
-Gold found in the Black Hills of
the Dakotas
-Sioux try to defend area
promised to them
•In Laramie Treaty
-Army sends George Armstrong
•To move Sioux off the land
-Little Bighorn, 1876
Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
lead warriors as Custer and all
his men were killed
•“Custer’s Last Stand”
Indian Wars
-Nez Perce Indians, 1877
-Led by Chief Joseph, they
refused to go to reservation
•Fled into Canada with the Army
chasing them down
-chased by the Army for over
1000 miles until captured
-”I will fight no more forever”
“Hear me, my chiefs, my heart is
sick and sad. From where the
sun now stands I will fight no
more against the white man.”
~Chief Joseph
-”Century of Dishonor”
Helen Hunt Jackson
Believed US treated Indians
terribly and should try to live in
peace with them
-Some people supported assimilation
of Indians
Natives give up beliefs and way of
life for white culture
-Dawes Act passed, 1887
160 acres to each family (to farm)
Goes against land ownership beliefs
most of land was eventually taken
“The history of the Government connections with the
Indians is a shameful record of broken treaties and
unfulfilled promises.”
“There is not among these three hundred bands of
Indians one which has not suffered cruelly at the
hands either of the Government or of white settlers”
“It makes little difference…where one opens the
record of the history of the Indians; every page and
every year has its dark stains.”
~Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor
“We have been taught to hunt and live on
the game. You tell us that we must learn to
farm, live in one house, and take on your
ways. Suppose the people living beyond
the great sea should come and tell you that
you must stop farming, and kill your cattle,
and take your houses and land, what would
you do? Would you not fight them?”
~Sioux Warrior Gall
End of the Indian Lifestyle
education of Indians to be more
like whites
-Destruction of the buffalo
•Shot for sport, railroads
•Ended Native way of life
•Less than 1000 remained on
plains in 1900
“Wherever the whites are established,
the buffalo is gone, and the red hunter
must die of hunger.”
~Sioux Chief
End of the Indian Lifestyle
-Ghost Dance Movement
• Dance to renew and save Native
way of life from destruction
Sioux spiritual dance
Dance was outlawed
• Scared white people
• Sitting Bull performs dance, is
arrested, and eventually shot
-Wounded Knee, 1890
massacre of several hundred Sioux
• U.S. troops round up and unarm
Sioux group
• Massacre entire group
-Indian era comes to an end
“I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back
now from this high hill of old age, I can still see the butchered
women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the
crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young.
And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud,
and was buried in the blizzard. A people’s dream died there. It
was a beautiful dream.”
~Black Elk

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