Biomes Earth can be divided into Biomes Division into Biomes Latitudes define some biomes Categories of Biome Primary Biomes: Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Dry Forest Tropical Savanna Temperate Grassland Desert Temperate Woodland/Shrubland Temperate Forest Northwestern Coniferous Forest Boreal Forest Tundra Other Land Areas: Mountain Ranges Polar Ice Caps Tropical Rainforest Biome EMERGENT LAYER The tallest trees are the emergents, towering as much as 200 feet above the forest floor with trunks that measure up to 16 feet around. Most of these trees are broad-leaved, hardwood evergreens. Sunlight is plentiful up here. Animals found are eagles, monkeys, bats and butterflies. CANOPY LAYER This is the primary layer of the forest and forms a roof over the two remaining layers. Most canopy trees have smooth, oval leaves that come to a point. It's a maze of leaves and branches. Many animals live in this area since food is abundant. Those animals include: snakes, toucans and treefrogs. UNDERSTORY LAYER Little sunshine reaches this area so the plants have to grow larger leaves to reach the sunlight. The plants in this area seldom grow to 12 feet. Many animals live here including jaguars, red-eyed tree frogs and leopards. There is a large concentration of insects here. FOREST FLOOR It's very dark down here. Almost no plants grow in this area, as a result. Since hardly any sun reaches the forest floor things begin to decay quickly. A leaf that might take one year to decompose in a regular climate will disappear in 6 weeks. Giant anteaters live in this layer. Tropical Rainforest Biome -Home to more species than any land biome Abiotic Factors: Hot and wet year round, nutrient-poor soils Dominant Plants: Evergreen trees, ferns, large vines, orchids Dominant Wildlife: Sloths, tapirs, jaguars, anteaters monkeys, toucans, parrots, butterflies, beetles, piranhas, reptiles, boa constrictors, anacondas Tropical Dry Forests Parts of Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, India, Australia, and Tropical Islands Tropical Dry Forests Abiotic Factors: Warm year round, altering wet and dry seasons, rich soils subject to erosion Dominant Plants: aloes, succulents, deciduous trees Dominant Wildlife: tigers, monkeys, elephants, termites, hog deer, spot billed pellican Tropical Savanna Eastern Africa, Southern Brazil, North Australia Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors: Warm Temp, Seasonal Rainfall, compact soil, frequent lightning fires Dominant Plants: perennial grasses, drought tolerant/fire resistant trees and shrubs Dominant Wildlife: lions, cheetahs, hyenas, aardvarhs, elephants, giraffes, zebras, baboons, eagles, storks, termites Desert Australia Cali Tunisia Morocco Desert Arica, Asia, Middle East, U.S., Mexico, Aussie, South America Desert Abiotic Factors: Low Percipitation, variable temperatures, soils rich in minerals but poor organic material Dominant Plants: cacti, succulants, plants w/ short growth cycles Dominant Wildlife: mountain lions, bobcats, mule deer, kangaroo rats, bats, owls, hawks, roadrunners, ants beetles, wasps, rattlesnakes, lizards Temperate Grassland Central Asia, North America, Austrailia, Central Europe, Part of South America Temperate Grassland Abiotic Factors: Warm to hot summers, cold winters, moderate, seasonal precipitation, fertile soil, occasional fires Dominant Plants: perennial grasses and herbs- many are very resistant Dominant Wildlife: coyotes, badgers, mule deer, rabbits, bison, hawks, owl, grasshoppers, snakes Temperate Woodland/Shrubland Western Coast of North and South America, Mediterranean Sea, South Africa, and Australia Temperate Woodland/Shrubland Abiotic Factors: hot, dry summers, cool, moist winters, thin, nutrient poor soils Dominant Plants: woody evergreen shrubs, herbs that grow during winter and die in the summer Dominant Wildlife: coyotes, foxes, bobcats, rabbis, squirrels, mice, hawks, warblers, spiders Temperate Forest Eastern U.S., Southeastern Canada, Most of Europe, Part of Japan, China, and Australia Temperate Forest Abiotic Factors: Cold-Moderate Winters, warm summers, year round precipitation, fertile soils Dominant Plants: Dediduous trees, some conifers, shrubs, herbs, ground has mosses and ferns Dominant Wildlife: deer, black bears, bobcats, squirrels, raccoons, skunks, turkeys Northwestern Coniferous Forest Abiotic Factors: mild temp, lots of precipitation-fall, winter, spring, cool dry summer, rocky acidic soil Dominant Plants: Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Redwood Dominant Wildlife: bears, elk, deer, beavers, owls, weasels Location: North California- Alaska (Northwest) Boreal Forest/Taiga North America, Asia, North Europe Boreal Forest/Taiga Abiotic Factors: Long cold winters, short, mild summers, moderate precipitation, high humidity, acidic, nutrient poor soil Dominant Plants: spruce, fir, small berry shrubs Dominant Wildlife: lynx, timber wolf, moose, beavers, and song birds Tundra North America, Asia, Europe Tundra Abiotic Factors: Strong winds, low precipitation, short soggy summers, long, cold, and dark winters, permafrost, bad soil Dominant Plants: mosses, lichens, sedges, and short grasses, Dominant Wildlife: musk ox, artic foxes, caribous, lemmins (small rodents) Biomes • Heavily modified by human activity • Example: US grasslands barely exist. • Mostly has been taken over by agriculture. • So Biomes defined by potential, not actual plants & animals • Defined by climate of region - Combination of temperature & rainfall most important factors.