Biomes Earth can be divided into Biomes

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Biomes
Earth can be divided into Biomes
Division into Biomes
Latitudes define some biomes
Categories of Biome
Primary Biomes:
Tropical Rain Forest
Tropical Dry Forest
Tropical Savanna
Temperate Grassland
Desert
Temperate Woodland/Shrubland
Temperate Forest
Northwestern Coniferous Forest
Boreal Forest
Tundra
Other Land Areas:
Mountain Ranges
Polar Ice Caps
Tropical Rainforest Biome
EMERGENT LAYER
The tallest trees are the emergents,
towering as much as 200 feet above the
forest floor with trunks that measure up to
16 feet around. Most of these trees are
broad-leaved, hardwood evergreens.
Sunlight is plentiful up here. Animals
found are eagles, monkeys, bats and
butterflies.
CANOPY LAYER
This is the primary layer of the forest and
forms a roof over the two remaining
layers. Most canopy trees have smooth,
oval leaves that come to a point. It's a
maze of leaves and branches. Many
animals live in this area since food is
abundant. Those animals include:
snakes, toucans and treefrogs.
UNDERSTORY LAYER
Little sunshine reaches this area so the
plants have to grow larger leaves to reach
the sunlight. The plants in this area
seldom grow to 12 feet. Many animals live
here including jaguars, red-eyed tree frogs
and leopards. There is a large
concentration of insects here.
FOREST FLOOR
It's very dark down here. Almost no plants
grow in this area, as a result. Since hardly
any sun reaches the forest floor things begin
to decay quickly. A leaf that might take one
year to decompose in a regular climate will
disappear in 6 weeks. Giant anteaters live
in this layer.
Tropical Rainforest Biome
-Home to more species than any land biome
Abiotic Factors:
Hot and wet year round, nutrient-poor soils
Dominant Plants:
Evergreen trees, ferns, large vines, orchids
Dominant Wildlife:
Sloths, tapirs, jaguars, anteaters monkeys, toucans, parrots,
butterflies, beetles, piranhas, reptiles, boa constrictors, anacondas
Tropical Dry Forests
Parts of Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, India, Australia,
and Tropical Islands
Tropical Dry Forests
Abiotic Factors: Warm year round, altering wet
and dry seasons, rich soils subject to erosion
Dominant Plants: aloes, succulents, deciduous
trees
Dominant Wildlife: tigers, monkeys, elephants,
termites, hog deer, spot billed pellican
Tropical Savanna
Eastern Africa, Southern Brazil, North Australia
Tropical Savanna
Abiotic Factors: Warm Temp, Seasonal Rainfall,
compact soil, frequent lightning fires
Dominant Plants: perennial grasses, drought
tolerant/fire resistant trees and shrubs
Dominant Wildlife: lions, cheetahs, hyenas,
aardvarhs, elephants, giraffes, zebras, baboons,
eagles, storks, termites
Desert
Australia
Cali
Tunisia
Morocco
Desert
Arica, Asia,
Middle East,
U.S.,
Mexico, Aussie,
South America
Desert
Abiotic Factors: Low Percipitation, variable
temperatures, soils rich in minerals but poor
organic material
Dominant Plants: cacti, succulants, plants w/
short growth cycles
Dominant Wildlife: mountain lions,
bobcats, mule deer, kangaroo rats, bats,
owls, hawks, roadrunners, ants beetles,
wasps, rattlesnakes, lizards
Temperate Grassland
Central Asia, North America, Austrailia, Central Europe, Part of South America
Temperate Grassland
Abiotic Factors: Warm to hot summers, cold
winters, moderate, seasonal precipitation, fertile
soil, occasional fires
Dominant Plants: perennial grasses and
herbs- many are very resistant
Dominant Wildlife: coyotes, badgers, mule
deer, rabbits, bison, hawks, owl, grasshoppers,
snakes
Temperate Woodland/Shrubland
Western Coast of North and South America, Mediterranean Sea, South Africa,
and Australia
Temperate Woodland/Shrubland
Abiotic Factors: hot, dry summers, cool, moist
winters, thin, nutrient poor soils
Dominant Plants: woody evergreen shrubs,
herbs that grow during winter and die in the
summer
Dominant Wildlife: coyotes, foxes, bobcats,
rabbis, squirrels, mice, hawks, warblers, spiders
Temperate Forest
Eastern U.S., Southeastern Canada, Most of Europe, Part of Japan, China,
and Australia
Temperate Forest
Abiotic Factors: Cold-Moderate Winters,
warm summers, year round precipitation,
fertile soils
Dominant Plants: Dediduous trees, some
conifers, shrubs, herbs, ground has mosses and
ferns
Dominant Wildlife: deer, black bears,
bobcats, squirrels, raccoons, skunks,
turkeys
Northwestern Coniferous Forest
Abiotic Factors: mild temp, lots of precipitation-fall,
winter, spring, cool dry summer, rocky acidic soil
Dominant Plants: Douglas fir, Sitka spruce,
Redwood
Dominant Wildlife: bears, elk, deer, beavers, owls,
weasels
Location: North California- Alaska (Northwest)
Boreal Forest/Taiga
North America, Asia, North Europe
Boreal Forest/Taiga
Abiotic Factors: Long cold winters, short, mild
summers, moderate precipitation, high humidity,
acidic, nutrient poor soil
Dominant Plants: spruce, fir, small berry shrubs
Dominant Wildlife: lynx, timber wolf, moose,
beavers, and song birds
Tundra
North America, Asia,
Europe
Tundra
Abiotic Factors: Strong winds, low precipitation,
short soggy summers, long, cold, and dark
winters, permafrost, bad soil
Dominant Plants: mosses, lichens, sedges, and
short grasses,
Dominant Wildlife: musk ox, artic foxes, caribous,
lemmins (small rodents)
Biomes
• Heavily modified by human activity
• Example: US grasslands barely exist.
• Mostly has been taken over by
agriculture.
• So Biomes defined by potential, not
actual plants & animals
• Defined by climate of region
- Combination of temperature & rainfall most
important factors.

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