Review of Montana Indian Tribes

Report
4th Grade Montana Indian
Reservations and Tribes
1
Native American Montana
Tribes
Blackfeet
Salish, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreille
Chippewa/Cree
Crow
Northern Cheyenne
Assiniboine
Sioux
Gros Ventre
Little Shell
2
As we view a slide show on Montana
Indians and reservations, you will
use your:
Reservation maps
 Outline shapes of reservations
 Note taking forms

You will be pasting reservation
shapes onto your map and taking
notes on each Montana tribe.
3
Montana Reservations
4
Blackfeet Reservation
Located at 48N/113-114W
on your map

Cut and paste Blackfeet
Reservation onto your map
Shares borders with:


Alberta, Canada to the north
Glacier National Park to the
west
Interesting features:



Marias River
St. Mary’s Lake
Cities: Heart Butte, East Glacier,
St. Mary, Babb, Browning
Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
http://www.billings.k12.mt.us/literacy/mont-indian/flags
5
Blackfeet
Located on Blackfeet Reservation in
northwestern Montana (Tribal Headquarters in
Browning)
Originally located in present day Montana, Idaho,
Alberta, Canada
Buffalo hunting society
Europeans had big impact:

In the 1500’s



brought horses
invaluable for hunting buffalo
In the 1800’s

brought smallpox which infected tribe
Blackfeet language is spoken by half of the tribal
members ( a difficult language to learn)
6
Blackfeet Tribe
( located on the Blackfeet Reservation)
Blackfeet women


owned the tipi
wore long deerskin dresses decorated with elk teeth and
porcupine quills
Blackfeet men




were hunters and warriors
wore tunics and breechcloths
chiefs wore feather headdresses
some men wore 3 braids
in a topknot


painted faces for special occasions
used long bows, arrows, clubs, hide shields for hunting
and war
7
Blackfeet
(Located on the Blackfeet Reservation)
Both men and women were story tellers, artists,
musicians and medicine people
Children hunted, fished, had special games and
dolls
Blackfeet is the official name


Was given by the white man,
many tribal people refer to themselves as Blackfeet
Tipi




was their home
made out of buffalo hide
set up and taken down in an hour, sometimes less
belonged to the women and were disassembled and
carried by them when relocating
8
Blackfeet
(Located on the Blackfeet Reservation)
Councils


in the past consensus had to be reached when deciding
a matter for the tribe (all chiefs had to agree)
at present all council members are elected by tribal
members (like a mayor or governor is elected)
9
Blackfeet – Preserving the Past
Leonda Fast Buffalo Horse





Member of the Blackfeet Nation
Grew up in Seattle
Returned home to Browning
In a ceremony in 1989 her
hands were blessed to give her
the right to do traditional
Blackfeet quillwork.
Also does stained glass.
www.nationalfolkfestival.com
Quillwork Moccasins
© Kim Thielman-Ibes
10
Preserving the Past – Blackfeet
Quillwork is not a simple
process:



Gather quills from porcupines
that have died.
Pluck and clean quills.
Dye quills, using:






Chokecherries
Onion skins
Koolaid
Rit dye
Soften quills by placing in
mouth between gum and
cheek.
Flatten quills to be woven or
wrapped into a desired shape.
11
Flathead Reservation
Salish, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreille
Located at 47N/114-115W on your map

Cut and paste Flathead Reservation onto your map
Flathead Reservation:



In northwestern Montana
Tribal Headquarters in Pablo
Includes Flathead, Lake, Missoula, and Sanders
Counties
Borders are formed by:



Mission Mountains on the east
Flathead Lake and Cabinet Mountains to the north
Salish Mountains to the west
Interesting features:



Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
http://www.billings.k12.mt.us/literacy/mont-indian/flags
Rivers: Clark Fork, Jocko, Flathead
Flathead Lake (formed by building of Kerr Dam)
Cities: Arlee, Ravalli, Dixon, St. Ignatius, Charlo, Ronan,
Pablo, Polson, Big Arm, Elmo, Rollins, Lone Pine, Hot
Springs
12
Salish, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreille
Salish



Lived between Cascade
Mountains in Washington and
Rocky Mountains in Montana
Established headquarters near
eastern slope of Rocky
Mountains
Salish means “the people”
Kootenai


Lived further north
At times had friendly relations
with Salish


Traded
Intermarried
Pend d’Oreille

Occupied both sides of the
Rocky Mountains
13
Salish, Kootenai, Pend d’Oreille
(Located on the Flathead Reservation)
1805

First written record: September 5, met with Lewis and Clark
1870


Chief Victor dies
Chief Charlot becomes new chief after Victor dies
1871


President Grant declares Flathead Reservation was better suited to
the needs of the tribe
Government forges Chief Charlot’s X (signature) onto agreement
1889



Chief Charlot signs agreement to leave Bitterroot Valley
Tribe was near starvation
Delayed the move for two additional years
1891


Troops from Fort Missoula force tribe from Bitterroot Valley
Soldiers roughly marched tribe to the Flathead Reservation 60
miles away
14
Salish – Preserving the Past
Oshanee Kenmille


Born in 1916 in Arlee (died in
February, 2009)
Spoke 3 languages:





Expert beadworker
To preserve her tribe’s past,
she:




English
Salish
Kootenai
http://www.nea.gov/honors/heritage/fellows/
Taught hide tanning
Made traditional regalia
Taught Salish language
Received $20,000 National
Heritage Fellowship in 2003
15
©2008 The National Council for the Traditional
Arts
Salish – Preserving the Past
Allen Kenmille - (Oshanee's
great-great grandson)
“I’m very lucky because I
learn a lot from her.”
A photograph of Montana Salish
women from an earlier century
tanning hides.
16News
Copyright 2006, Char-Koosta
Rocky Boy’s Reservation
Chippewa and Cree
Located at 48N/110W on your map

Cut and paste Rocky Boy’s Reservation
onto your map
Includes Hill and Choteau Counties
Interesting features:







Mount Baldy
Mount Centennial
Haystack Mountain
East Fork Dam
Bonneau Dam
Cities: Box Elder, Rocky Boy
Milk River
17
Chippewa-Cree
(Located on the Rocky’s Boy Reservation)
Located on the Rocky Boy’s Reservation



north central Montana
south of Havre in the Bear Paw Mountains
tribal Headquarters in Rocky Boy
Mixed group of Native Americans


Cree from Southern Canada
Chippewa from the Turtle Mountains in North
Dakota
Resisted reservation system



Deported to Canada
Returned to hunt buffalo
1916 - agreed to settle on the lands of the Rocky
Boy reservation
18
From Past to Present
Plains peoples
Proud warrior tradition.
 Patriotic in the past and the present

1887 - Crow warriors imprisoned
at the Crow Agency.
1940’s - Three World War II Marine
Corps Women Reservists at
Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.


http://www.archives.gov/research/native-americans/pictures/select-list-149.html
woman on left is Blackfoot
woman on right is Chippewa.
19
From Past to Present – Plains Warriors
Shadow Wolves
An elite unit of Native
American trackers in Arizona
 Created in 1972 by an Act of
Congress
 Currently consists of 15
members from 7 tribes,
including Blackfeet.
 In 2003 became part of The
Department of Homeland
Security.

(C) Copyright 2008 Shadow-Wolves.org™
All Rights Reserved
20
Plains Warriors –
Preserving the Past in Song
Joseph Fire Crow
The very first time I heard the flute, I
was a young boy living on the
Northern Cheyenne Reservation
located in Southeastern Montana.
Grover Wolfvoice was the flute
man playing this wonderful
music.
-Joseph Fire Crow


Grew up in log cabin on Northern
Cheyenne Reservation with no
running water until age nine.
Now makes his own native flutes
and records songs.
Songs come through
you out to the people.
Bill Runsabove
http://www.josephfirecrow.com/Bio.html21
Plains Warriors –
Joseph Fire Crow has written a
song called My Brave Soldier
Boy, which we will listen to
now.
 How is this music the
same and how is it
different from music you
usually listen to?
 How do the lyrics remind
you of the warrior
tradition?
 Click again to see the
lyrics. Listen to CD.
 [Track #6 (American Indian
Music – More than Just
Flutes and Drums)]
Preserving the Past in Song
My Brave Soldier Boy
My brave soldier boy
You might have to go
On the sea or in the air
O’er Germany or Tokyo
Just the same my heart is there
with you.
My brave soldier boy
You might have to go
On the sea or in the air
Over Iraq or Afghanistan
Just the same my heart is there
with you.
22
(Used with permission of Joseph Fire Crow)
Crow Reservation - Crow Tribe
Located at 45N/107-108W on your map

Cut and paste Crow Reservation on your map
Borders

Wyoming on the south
Interesting features:








Big Horn Mountains
Pryor Mountains
Wolf Teeth Mountains
Big Horn River
Little Bighorn River
Pryor Creek
Cities: Hardin, Dunmore, Crow Agency,
Lodge Grass, Wyola, Fort Smith, Pryor
Yellowtail Dam
Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
http://www.billings.k12.mt.us/literacy/montindian/flags
23
Crow
Located on the Crow Reservation


in southeastern Montana
Tribal Headquarters in Crow Agency
Apsaalooke (native name)



Split from the Hidatsa group
8000 people in band in the 1800’s
Decimated by smallpox in 1800’s
Located in three mountainous
areas:



Big Horn Mountains
Pryor Mountains
Wolf Teeth Mountains
Points of Historic Interest


Little Bighorn Battlefield
Chief Plenty Coups State Park
24
Crow – Preserving the Past
Birdie Real Bird



Started to make Crow-style
dolls in 1998 to honor her
mother’s memory.
Makes Crow Women’s
regalia
Makes dolls using
traditional natural materials



Body made from buckskin
stuffed with buffalo hair
Faces and attire use beads,
sinew, buckskin
Two of her dolls were
purchased by the
Smithsonian Museum.
©2008 The National Council for the Traditional Arts
25
Northern Cheyenne Reservation
Northern Cheyenne Tribe
Located at 45N/106-107W on your
map

Cut and paste Northern Cheyenne
Reservation onto map
Northern Cheyenne Reservation



In southeastern Montana
Tribal Headquarters in Lame Deer
Includes Big Horn and Rosebud Counties
Bordered by:


Crow Reservation on the west
Tongue River on the east
Cities:

Busby, Ashland, Birney, Muddy
Tongue River
26
Northern Cheyenne
(Located on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation)
Originally came from northwestern Minnesota area
1700’s

Mainly farmed corn and hunted buffalo
1750’s


Acquired horses
Hunting buffalo became major lifestyle
1876


Joined the Sioux in Battle of the Little Bighorn
Cheyenne call the battle “where Long Hair was wiped away
forever”
1884

Part of Crow Reservation land set aside for Northern
Cheyenne
27
Northern Cheyenne
(Located on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation)
Cheyenne oral history recalls:



Smoking peace pipe with Custer, who agreed to
never fight Cheyenne again
Ashes were dropped on his boot and scattered on
the ground then wiped away
Ashes were a symbol of Custer committing to
never fight the Cheyenne again
Cheyenne call themselves “Morning Star
People”

To honor Chief Dull Knife (Morning Star)
28
Northern Cheyenne – Preserving the Past
The War Shirt,


written by Bently Spang
illustrated by Troy Anderson
The setting of this story is in eastern
Montana. As you look at the pictures,
notice how the scenery compares to
land around Butte.
Read the story now.





Break into pairs.
Sit shoulder to shoulder.
Alternate reading pages with your partner.
After all groups have finished reading, return
to your station.
We will now STOP and read. When we
regroup, we will click to advance so that we
can visit the author’s web site.
Click on the link
below to visit the
web site
Click the
magnifying glass to
zoom in.
Click the image of
the shirt in the
lower right-hand
corner and drag to
view shirt with the
magnifying glass.
The War Shirt
Exhibit
29
Fort Belknap Reservation
Assiniboine and Gros Ventre
Located at 48N/108-109W your map

Cut and paste Fort Belknap Reservation
onto map
Includes Blaine and Phillips Counties
Bordered by:

Missouri River on the south
Interesting features:





Bear Paw Mountains
Little Rocky Mountains
Milk River
Missouri River
Cities: Lodge Pole, Hays, Fort Belknap
Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
http://www.billings.k12.mt.us/literacy/mont-indian/flags
30
Assiniboine
(Located on the Fort Belknap/Fort Peck Reservations)
Located on the Fort Belknap Reservation in
north central Montana
Assiniboine (Asiniibwaan, native name)



Semi-nomadic, following buffalo herds
Formed alliances with other tribes to ward off Blackfeet
Known as Nakoda
Tobacco


Used by the tribe
Reserved for ceremonies
1888

Fort Peck Reservation established
31
Gros Ventre - Ah-ah-nii-nen
Gros Ventre is French for Big Belly
Montana Gros Ventre Indians


- call themselves - Ah-ah-nii-nen
- means White Clay People
Fort Belknap Reservation


Most Gros Ventres live on the south end of
the reservation
near the Little Rocky Mountains
1754


First contact with whites on Saskatchewan
River
Small pox reduced tribal number greatly
1868

Fort Browning built on Milk River


Built for the Gros Ventre, but built on Sioux
hunting grounds
Abandoned in 1871
32
Gros Ventre Cultural Traditions
Important ceremonies include the Sun Dance.
Pipes important to the Gros Ventre culture.





Pipes are held sacred
Pipes form the spiritual center of the tribe
Tribe originally had ten sacred pipes
Eight of the ten were buried with their keepers
Only two sacred pipes remain



Feathered pipe
Flat pipe
These two sacred pipes are used when prayers
are offered to the spirits.
[http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/gros_ventre.html]
33
Preserving the Past - Ah-ah-nii-nen
Tradition of the Drum is
very important today




Brings the people together
Provides beat to dancers to
offer praise to the Creator
and Mother Earth
Helps heal the sick
Carries songs and prayers
to the Great Above All
Person
Two main kinds of drums
in the northern plains


Hand drum – played by one
person
Large drum – used at
powwows and played by
several people
Pow wow Drum – Creative Commons license:
jazamarripae – September 20, 2006
“They say when an unborn child is
developing, the first thing they hear
is the heartbeat of the mother —so
when babies go to powwows and
hear the music, it is just natural. The
drumbeat symbolizes the heartbeat
of mother earth.”
34
Bill Runsabove
Preserving the Past – Ah-ah-nii-nen
Drum Making
Al Chandler Goodstrike




Enrolled member of the White Clay People (Ah-ah-nii-nen)
Known for his tipi and hide painting, as well as his drums
Prepares elk and buffalo hides by cleaning, scraping, and
tanning
Paints hides with natural earth paints and a bone brush.
http://art.mt.gov/folklife/folklife_drum.asp
35
Fort Peck Reservation
Assiniboine and Sioux
Located at 48N/104-106W
on your map

Cut and paste Fort Peck
Reservation onto map
Located in northeastern
Montana
Includes Roosevelt County
Borders


McCone County (south)
Medicine Lake (east)
Interesting features

Rivers:



Poplar River
Milk River
Cities: Poplar, Brockton
Used with permission from Billings Schools Web Site
http://www.billings.k12.mt.us/literacy/mont-indian/flags
36
Sioux
(Located on the Fort Peck Reservation)
Located in north central Montana
Dakota Sioux



Got horses from Spanish in 1500’s
Nomadic tribe, following buffalo, which they considered sacred
Used surround system-- killed 100 buffalo at one time
Ceremonies

Sun Dance




Vision Quest



Sacred ceremony
Circular dance
Outlawed on reservation in 1882 by whites
Could be done for family members
Included fasting (not eating) for 1-4 days
Sweat Lodge



Used before any important event
Red hot rocks placed inside a lodge
Water poured over hot rocks
37
From Past to Present
This map shows
traditional ancestral
lands of the Assiniboine
and the Sioux.
Animals plentiful in this
region included bison,
deer, elk and porcupine
The people used these
animals for raw
materials in their
homes, tools, and
clothing.
38
Preserving the Past –
Assiniboine & Sioux
Special occasions
require special attire.
Traditional clothing
can be worn for:


Women in
jingle
dresses
Weddings
Naming ceremonies
Creative Commons license:
liberalmind1012 - 2007
(person gets a name in their
native language)

Honoring “giveaways”
(things of value are given
away to honor someone)

Examples of regalia:


Powwows
Traditional clothing is
sometimes referred to
as regalia.
Female regalia:


Elkhide or deerhide dress covered
in beads.
Cloth dress covered in shells, elk
teeth, or jingles (cone-shaped tin)
Male regalia:

Beaded outfit consisting of a belt,
moccasins, vest, headband, etc.
39
Preserving the Past –
Assiniboine & Sioux
Regalia dresses are full of
meaning






Decorated with designs and symbols
that tell stories in honor of family
members.
In the past, many elk teeth on a
dress meant great wealth.
Only the two ivory “eyeteeth” of an
elk were used on a dress.
In the past, a boy would collect elk
teeth over many years of hunting
and would save them to be sewn by
his mother or sisters on a dress for
the woman he would marry.
The use of elk teeth showed the
value the people of the Plains placed
on the elk.
Today, mountain designs on dresses
show how Indians value the land and
their surroundings.
Sioux dress from the 1850’s:




Deerhide
Stitched with sinew
Decorated with pony beads
40
150 elk teeth
Preserving the Past –
Assiniboine & Sioux
Porcupines are found along rivers and
streams in great numbers in the
Northern Plains.
Porcupine quills:




were among the first materials used to
decorate clothing
were pulled from the hide, washed, dyed,
dried, sorted by size, and then softened in
the mouth and flattened.
were softened, flattened, and wrapped or
woven around other material.
were dyed different colors and used to make
detailed designs.
Natural materials such as plants,
flowers, and berries were used to dye
quills.
Quillwork is still done by Plains artists
today.
Lewis and Clark Journal Entry:
Capt. Lewis, May 3, 1805—near the
entrance
of the river, we saw an unusual
number of
Porcupines from which we
determined to
call the river after that anamal [sic],
and
accordingly denominated it
Porcupine river
41
[now called the Poplar River].
Preserving the Past –
Assiniboine & Sioux
With European contact, the variety of materials from which Indian
women made their clothing increased, as the map below shows.
42
Preserving the Past –
Before European contact,
beads were made from
shell, bone, or stone.
After beads were
introduced by Europeans,
two types were used

Pony beads –




Early 1800’s
Large beads
White, red, blue, black
Assiniboine & Sioux
Visit the web site below to create
a simple design with beads.





Wait patiently for the site to load.
Once you are at the site, click on
“Forming Cultural Identity”
Scroll across to the right if needed.
Click on the white right-pointing
arrow 23 times to reach activity.
Follow the directions on the screen.
Identity by Design
Seed beads –



After 1840
Smaller bead
More color choices
Most early beads came
from Italy
43
Preserving the Past –
Assiniboine & Sioux
Joyce Growing Thunder Fogarty
 An Assiniboine and Sioux woman
from the Fort Peck Reservation
 Comes from a long line of
dressmakers and beaders
 Spent two years making her first
traditional Sioux dress
 Received a Lifetime Achievement
Award for her artistry.
©Steven
G. Smith
©Steven
G. Smith
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/multimedia/photos/?c=y&
articleID=10641552&page=1
"I watched my grandmothers
do a lot of beadwork on the
reservation," says Growing
Thunder Fogarty, who worked
44
16 hours a day on her dress.
Preserving the Past –
Assiniboine & Sioux
Visit the link below to see the beaded design on one of Ms.
Fogarty’s dresses.

You have to work to see the design, but not as hard as Ms. Fogarty had to
work creating it!

It’s a jigsaw puzzle:







Solve if you have time
Auto-solve if you don’t.
Wait patiently for the site to load.
Click on “Forming Cultural Identity”
Scroll across to the right if needed.
Click on the white right-pointing arrow 24 times
Drag and drop all the pieces into place to see the design.
Interactive Jigsaw Puzzle
45
Clothing Symbols
Read below the meanings of the symbols in Ms.
Fogarty’s Give Away Horses dress.
46
Clothing Symbols - Activity
We have seen a war shirt designed by Bently Spang, a Northern Cheyenne
We have seen a Give Away Horse dress designed by Joyce Growing Thunder
Fogarty.
Tribal peoples have traditionally expressed themselves in meaningful ways
through their clothing.
We can also express what is meaningful to us through our own clothing.

Use sketch paper and crayons, colored pencils, or pastels.
Put your name on your sketch paper before you begin (in a corner or on the back).
Design a shirt or dress (be creative in your choice of materials if you choose).

Decorate your shirt or dress with symbols that have special meaning to you.

You have many options for creativity. Some decorating choices you have are:







Symbols that have personal meaning to you
Symbols that have special meaning for your family
Symbols that have special meaning because of your heritage
Symbols that relate to your hobbies or friends
Symbols that deal with your past, present, or future
47
Little Shell
(Have no reservation land)
“Landless Indians”


No designated reservation—headquarters in Great Falls
Not federally recognized, but recognized by state of Montana
1892

Original tribal lands were sold for $90,000 without tribal
permission
1896


600 tribe members were placed in boxcars and sent to
Canada
During winter they walked back; lived in deplorable
conditions outside the Hi-Line towns
48
Test for Reservations and Tribes
Name______________________
1. There are______ reservations in Montana
1.
2.
3.
10
9
7
2. The disease _________ killed many
Native People.
1.
2.
3.
cancer
smallpox
the common cold
49
3.
When the Indians got _______ hunting and
traveling became much easier.
1.
2.
3.
4.
dogs
cows
Horses
Blackfeet ________ owned the tipi and were
responsible for packing and carrying it.
2.
women
children
3.
men
1.
5. At councils Blackfeet chiefs all had to reach
_________ (all had to agree)
1.
2.
3.
company
each other
consensus
50
6.
The Salish chief __________ had his X mark forged on a
treaty.
1.
2.
3.
7.
The __________ tribe was deported to Canada.
1.
2.
3.
8.
Chippewa
Turtle
Coyote
The ________ tribe went from 8000 people to nearly half
that number because of smallpox.
1.
2.
3.
9.
Charlot
Victor
Sitting Bull
Aztec
Crow
Navajo
The Cheyenne Tribe called the Battle of the Little Bighorn
“the battle where ___________ was wiped out forever”.
1.
2.
3.
Long Hair
Long Bow
Long Neck
51
10 This tribe is also known as the
Nakodas__________.
•
•
•
Salish
Assinboine
Crow
11 ____________ was used in many ceremonies.
•
•
•
chicken
Tobacco plant
Bitterroot plant
12 This ceremony uses hot rocks with water poured
over them_____________________.
•
•
•
Sweat lodge
Sun Dance
Vision Quest
52
13. This tribe is called the “landless Indians”_____________
1.
Chippewa-Cree
2.
Crow
3.
Antelope
14. This animal was an important food source for the
Indians ____________
1.
the fox
2.
the rooster
3.
the buffalo
15 ____________ brought both the horse and disease to the
Indians
1.
Europeans
2.
3.
Cubans
South Americans
53

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