Ethics & Hunter Responsibility

Report
Ethics & Hunter Responsibility
Key Topics
• Why Do We Have Hunting Laws?
• Hunter Ethics
• Field Care of Game
• The Five Stages of Hunter Development
Objectives
You should be able to…
• Understand why we have laws
• Identify opportunities to go hunting on public
and private land
• Know how responsible and ethical hunters
show respect for natural resources
• Know how responsible and ethical hunters
show respect for other hunters
Objectives (cont.)
• Know how responsible and ethical hunters
show respect for landowners
• Understand the relationship between hunters
and non-hunters
• Know the main causes of meat spoilage and
game care
• Understand the five stages of hunter
development
Why Do We Have Hunting Laws?
Know the Law
Ignorance of hunting
laws is not an excuse
for violating them.
Why Do We Have Hunting Laws? (cont.)
During the 19th century, many game
animals nearly hunted into extinction.
Herds of buffalo that once roamed plains
reduced to about 800 head. The beaver
was almost wiped out. Once plentiful elk,
deer and pronghorn had been reduced to
a fraction of their original number.
Game Conservation
To conserve wildlife for future generations to
enjoy, wildlife management laws were passed.
These laws allow game to flourish by:
• Establishing hunting seasons that limit
harvesting and avoid nesting and mating
seasons.
Game Conservation (cont.)
• Limiting hunting methods and equipment.
• Setting “bag” limits on the number of animals
to be taken.
• Establishing check stations and game tag
requirements to enforce laws.
Safety, Opportunity and Funding
• In addition to ensuring the availability of game
for future generations, hunting laws:
• Establish safety guidelines for hunting that
protect both hunters and non-hunters.
• Offer equal opportunity for all hunters.
• Ensure adequate funding for wildlife programs
by collecting license fees.
Fair Chase
Hunting laws also define the rules of fair chase.
The concept began in the Middle Ages when hunters
increased the challenge of sport hunting by setting
rules that limited how they took game.
More recently, fair chase rules were developed to stem
public criticism of hunters. One of the earliest models
was the “Fair Chase Principle” established in late
1800s by the Boone and Crockett Club, which was
founded by Theodore Roosevelt. Those who violated
club rules were expelled.
Fair Chase (cont.)
The rules were later expanded, banning use of
vehicles, airplanes, radios, electronic calling
or shooting in a fenced enclosure. Many
states have made those rules into law.
Respect property
where you hunt.
Use hunting
vehicles with
consideration.
The Hunter’s Image Matters
Responsible hunters welcome laws that enforce
sportsmanlike hunting practices – behavior of
irresponsible hunters has caused some opposition
to hunting.
Nationally, approximately 5 percent of the
population hunts; roughly the same percentage
actively oppose hunting. The rest of the population
is predominantly non-hunters. However, bad
behavior by hunters could sway some of the nonhunter crowd into the anti-hunting camp.
How Hunters make a positive Impact, they:
• Put in countless hours to improve wildlife
habitat.
• Help biologists transplant game species and
save other species from extinction.
• Encourage others to practice ethical behavior.
• Responsible hunters must set a good example
for others to follow.
Hunter Ethics
Ethics are moral principles or values that distinguish
between right and wrong.
While hunting laws preserve wildlife, ethics preserve
a hunter’s opportunity to hunt. Because ethics
generally govern behavior that affects public opinion
of hunters, ethical behavior ensures hunters are
welcome and hunting areas stay open.
Ethics generally cover behavior that has to do with
issues of fairness, respect, and responsibility not
covered by laws.
How to Ask Landowners for Permission
• Make contact at least a week in
advance.
• Wear street clothes – no hunting
gear or firearms.
• Don’t bring companions – “crowd “
could be intimidating.
• Be polite.
• Thank owner, whether permission is
granted or denied.
Hunter’s Ethical Code
As Aldo Leopold, the “father of
wildlife management,” once
said, “ethical behavior is doing
the right thing when no one else
is watching – even when doing
the wrong thing is legal.” Most
hunting organizations agree that
responsible hunters do the
following:
Have regard for fellow
sportsmen. Honor others
hunting customs.
Respect Landowners
• Ask landowners for permission to hunt.
• Follow their restrictions on when and where you
may hunt
• Treat livestock and crops
as your own.
• Offer to share part of your
harvest with owner.
Respect Landowners (cont.)
• Leave all gates the way you found them.
• If you notice something wrong or out of
place, notify the landowner immediately.
• Never enter private land that is cultivated or
posted, unless you have first obtained
permission, even if you have a hunting
license.
Landowner Complaints About Hunters
• Don’t get permission to hunt.
• Don’t tell landowners when they arrive at or
leave the property.
• Make too much noise.
• Leave litter behind.
• Carry loaded firearms
in vehicles.
You take your supplies in
bring your litter out.
Landowner Complaints About Hunters (cont.)
• Misuse of off road vehicles.
• Don’t leave gates as they were (open or shut) when
hunter arrived.
• Shoot too close to neighbors or livestock.
• Leave fires unattended.
• Violate game laws.
• Drink alcohol to excess.
Bad shooting habits bring
on restrictions.
Respect Natural Resources
• Leave land better than you found it.
• Adhere to fair chase rules.
• Know your capabilities and limitations as
marksman, and stay within your effective range.
Respect Natural Resources (cont.)
• Strive for a quick, clean kill.
• Make every reasonable effort to retrieve
game harvested.
• Ensure that meat and usable parts are not
wasted.
Respect Natural Resources (cont.)
• Treat both game and non-game animals ethically.
• Abide by game laws and regulations.
• Cooperate with conservation officers.
• Report game violations.
The game
violator is a
thief
Hunting Opportunities on Public Lands
All states have federal or state-owned public lands
that are available for hunting. Public lands may have
special regulations and may require special permits.
Be sure to check with your state’s wildlife
management agency and obtain maps before you go
out.
Remember, when hunting on public lands, an ethical
hunter will show the same respect as when hunting on
private land.
Hunting Opportunities on Public Lands (cont.)
Be aware that national parks are all closed for hunting.
Public lands that may be open for hunting are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
State parks and forests
State-owned wildlife management areas
National forests
National Wildlife Refuge properties
Bureau of Land Management properties
Bureau of Reclamation properties
Respect Non-Hunters
• Transport animals discreetly – don’t display them.
• Keep firearms out of sight.
• Refrain from taking graphic photographs of the kill
and from vividly describing kill while within earshot
of non-hunters.
• Maintain presentable appearance while on the street –
no bloody or dirty clothing.
How to Behave if Confronted by Anti-Hunter
Protesters
• Remain calm and polite and do not engage in
arguments – never lose your temper.
• Never touch an anti-hunter or use any physical force.
• Never threaten an anti-hunter with your firearm.
• Report hunter harassment to law enforcement
authorities.
Respect Other Hunters
• Follow safe firearm handling practices and
insist companions do same.
• Refrain from interfering with another’s hunt.
• Avoid consuming alcohol, which can impair
you to the point of endangering others.
• Share knowledge and skills with others.
Personal Choice
There are gray areas of ethical behavior that come
down to personal choice. Examples are:
• Baiting deer with corn or protein pellets.
• Shooting quail on the ground or ducks on the water.
• Shooting from vehicle or boat within private
boundaries or on private waters.
• Remember, hunting is a privilege and can be taken
away if hunters fail to act responsibly toward
property, people and wildlife.
Field Care of Game
To prevent meat spoilage, you should properly field dress a
harvested animal.
Field Care Basics
Three factors contribute to spoiled meat:
 Heat
 Dirt
 Moisture
Heat
• Heat is number one concern. Bacteria grow
rapidly in a carcass, especially if allowed to
stay warm. Meat begins to spoil above 40
degrees. The higher the temperature – and the
longer meat is exposed – the greater the chance
of spoilage. Particularly true with large game.
• Basic field dressing techniques help cool game
by removing entrails, which lowers body heat
by allowing air into body cavity. As a rule, it
is best to field dress immediately.
Heat (cont.)
• When cooling body, use available shade.
Hanging a deer is the easiest way to skin it.
• In warm weather, it’s helpful to place squirrels and
doves in a cooler after dressing, as long as they
remain dry.
• Dispose of entrails carefully. Don’t leave them lying
by the side of a road, in waterways, or near a
residence.
Dirt and Moisture
• Keep meat clean by covering it with cheesecloth. This
also protects it from flies, which lay eggs in exposed
flesh. Rubbing meat with black pepper will also repel
insects. If you have to drag game to camp, try to keep
dirt and debris out of chest cavity.
• Because moisture damages meat, don’t use excessive
amounts of water to wash cavity. Allow to dry.
• If you plan to process animal yourself, skin animal as
soon as possible to allow carcass to cool.
Remember
• A sure way to ruin meat – as well as earn the
dislike of non-hunters – is to tie the animal to
the hood or roof of a car or hang the animal out
of the back of a truck, where it’s exposed to
heat, exhaust fumes, and airborne dust.
Game Care Kit
Other typical game care
items may include:
• Hunter orange flagging
• Plastic or cotton gloves
• Gambrel and pulley system
• Whetstone or other
sharpening tool
• Cooler and ice
Other typical game care items (cont.)
• Cheesecloth bags for organs you plan to use as meat
(heart, liver)
• Plastic bags for clean-up
• Hand towels
• Foil
• Large bag for caped or trophy head
• Salt (noniodized) for hide care
Five Stages of Hunter Development
As a hunter gains experience and skill,
he or she will typically pass through five
distinct stages of development. Not
everyone passes through all of these
stages, nor do they necessarily do it in
the same order.
Shooting Stage
The priority is getting off a shot,
rather than patiently waiting for a
good shot. This eagerness to shoot
can lead to bad decisions that
endanger others. A combination of
target practice and mentoring helps
most hunters move quickly out of
this stage.
Limiting Out Stage
Success is determined by
bagging the limit. In extreme
cases, this need to limit out
can also cause hunters to take
unsafe shots. Spending time
with more mature hunters
helps people grow out of this
phase.
Trophy Stage
The hunter is selective and judges success by
quality rather than quantity. Typically, the focus
is on big game.
Anything that doesn’t
measure up to the
desired trophy is
ignored.
Method Stage
In this stage, the process of hunting
becomes the focus. A hunter may
still want to limit out, but places a
higher priority on how it’s
accomplished.
Sportsman Stage
Success is measured by the total
experience:
the appreciation of the out-ofdoors and the animal being
hunted, the process of the hunt,
and the companionship of other
hunters.
Involvement
Part of the process of becoming a true, responsible
sportsman is becoming involved in efforts to make
hunting a respected
sport. That includes
teaching proper
knowledge and skills to
others, working with
landowners, and
cooperating with wildlife
officials.
Involvement (cont.)
Involvement also includes joining
conservation organizations dedicated to
improving habitat and management
efforts. Young hunters can be involved
by joining organizations such as 4-H,
Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, as well as
participating in wildlife projects in their
local communities.
Involvement (cont.)
Responsible, ethical behavior and personal
involvement are essential to the survival of
hunting. How you behave and how other people
see you will determine whether hunting will
continue as a sport.
Remember, a true sportsman will practice on
targets, not animals; know the vital organs of the
animal and make good clean one-shot hits.
Review Questions
Give a reason for establishing hunting laws?
Explain ethical behavior according to Aldo
Leopold.
What would a responsible and ethical hunter not
do?
What should you do to prevent meat spoilage?
Do responsible hunters keep their firearms in view
when not hunting?
Review Questions (cont.)
How many distinct stages of development are there
for most hunters; and which is the most responsible
and ethical?
Which stage is success determined by bagging the
limit, which can cause hunters to take unsafe shots?
What can hunters do to bring respect to the sport of
hunting?

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