Radiochemistry Applications Supporting Public

Report
Radiochemistry Applications
Supporting Public Health
Minnesota Department of Health
Public Health Laboratory
07/26/05
Radiochemistry Applications
Supporting Public Health
Presenters:
• Jeffrey Brenner
• John Lorenz
Public Health Lab
MN Dept of Health
Radiochemistry Applications
Supporting Public Health

History of MDH and the Public Health
Lab

Programs

Methods

Emergency response
Minnesota Department of Health
History

Minnesota Department of Health
 Established
in 1872
 Third state health department in the
United States
Minnesota Public Health Laboratory
formally established in 1897
 Radiation Laboratory began
operation in early 1960’s

Minnesota Department of Health
Public Health Laboratory

Originally, affiliated
with the University of
Minnesota

Since 1960’s,
affiliated with the
Minnesota Dept of
Health (state agency)
x
x
Minnesota Department of Health
Public Health Laboratory

Clinical Lab:
Disease prevention,
control and surveillance

Environmental Lab:
Identify and monitor
environmental threats to
human health

130 employees
History

Radiation Unit’s original purpose was
to monitor radionuclide levels around
the Elk River nuclear power plant
First rural nuclear power plant in the
United States
 Went on line in 1963
 Decommissioned and converted back
to coal and oil in 1968

Analyses by the Radiation Unit
Our goal is to monitor potential
threats and ensure compliance with
environmental regulations;
 Quality assurance is paramount;
 Research is not a major focus.

Radiation Unit

Staff
1 Supervisor
 1 Radiological Emergency
Preparedness Coordinator
 3 Full time Scientists
 3 Additional Scientists with radiation
experience
 1 Health & Safety / Radiation Safety
Officer

Radiation Laboratory
Analysis
400
350
300
Total Samples
250
200
Drinking Water
Program
150
100
50
0
Jan
03'
Apr
03'
Jul
03'
Oct
03'
Jan
04'
Public Health Laboratory:
Operations

1. environmental monitoring outside
nuclear reactor sites

2. safe drinking water; monitor
public water supplies

3. radiological emergency response
Current Operations




Currently the Lab’s
Radiation Unit monitors
two nuclear power
plants
Prairie Island near Red
Wing
Monticello near
Monticello
Facilities are monitored
to establish background
levels of Radionuclide
and detect any release
Minnesota has 3 nuclear reactors
Monticello
Prairie Island 1
Prairie Island 2
Each one is
approx 30 miles
outside the
Twin Cities
metro area.
Sample Collection per
Facility

River water samples









Upstream 1/month until freeze over
Downstream 1/month
River sediment 1/yr
Milk from local dairy farm 1/month
Cattle feed 1/month
Hay and grasses 1/month during growing season
Apples 1/month during growing season
Air filter samples 2/month
One residential well sample 1/month
Matrix Methods Performed

River water samples
are analyzed for:



Tritium
89Sr and 90Sr
Gamma Scan


40 Radionuclides
Vegetation, Apples,
and Cattle Feed

Gamma Scan

40 Radionuclides
Matrix Methods Performed
Continued

Milk
 89

Sr and 90Sr
Gamma Scan


40 Radionuclides
Soil, Sediment,
and Air Filters

Gamma Scan

40 Radionuclides
Methods of Analysis

Gamma Analysis
 Based on EPA Method
901.1

Instrumentation
 4 Ortec HPGe gamma
spectroscopy systems
monitoring 40
radionuclides
 250 Samples per year
(average)
Gamma Analysis
(Water Sample 4 Liter)
MDC
NUCLIDE
pCi/L
===========================
AM-241
< 9.9482E+00
BA-133
< 3.7822E+00
BA-140
< 9.1803E+00
BE-7
< 2.0657E+01
BI-212
< 4.8780E+01
BI-214
< 9.0766E+00
CE-141
< 2.7614E+00
CE-144
< 1.9089E+01
CO-57
< 2.9243E+00
CO-58
< 2.6027E+00
CO-60
< 3.0916E+00
CR-51
< 2.1061E+01
CS-134
< 2.3358E+00
CS-137
< 3.0536E+00
FE-59
< 6.4340E+00
I-131
< 2.7298E+00
I-132
< 1.8700E+00
I-133
< 2.8200E+00
I-134
< 4.4700E+00
I-135
< 7.7000E+00
MDC
NUCLIDE
pCi/L
========================
KR-88
< 6.0800E+00
MN-54
< 2.7235E+00
NB-95
< 2.8235E+00
PB-210
< 1.4376E+02
PB-212
< 6.5051E+00
PB-214
< 9.7074E+00
RA-224
< 5.4593E+01
RA-226
< 7.1727E+01
RU-103
< 2.2386E+00
RU/RH106 < 2.7169E+01
SR-91
< 1.0400E+01
TE-132
< 1.8005E+00
TH-228
< 1.8431E+02
TH-230
< 9.4834E+02
TL-208
< 8.2311E+00
XE-133
< 7.0543E+00
XE-135
< 2.3500E+00
ZN-65
< 5.9247E+00
ZR-95
< 4.2590E+00
K-40
< 7.3553E+01
Methods of Analysis

Tritium


Instrumentation





Analysis based on EPA Method 906
Packard TRICARB-2750 Liquid scintillation
counter
MDH Laboratory MDC <200 pCi/L
Drinking Water MCL 20,000 pCi/L
Drinking Water required activity 1,000 pCi/L
46 river water samples per year (average)
Methods of Analysis

Gross Alpha/Beta (gas
proportional counters)


Instrumentation







Canberra LB4 16 detectors
Canberra S5XLB w/ Gamma 1
detector
Canberra LB4000 12 detectors
MDH Laboratory MDC


Analysis based on EPA 900.0
Gross Alpha 3 pCi/L
Gross Beta 4 pCi/L
Drinking Water MCL 15 pCi/L
46 River water samples per year
(average)
110 Air samples per year
(average)
Methods of Analysis
 89Sr
and 90Sr
Analysis based on EPA Method 905.0

Instrumentation
Canberra LB4000 Alpha/Beta gas proportional counter


MDH Laboratory MDC <2.0 pCi/L
Drinking Water MCL
89Sr
80 pCi/L
90Sr 8 pCi/L

Drinking Water required activity
89Sr
10 pCi/L
90Sr 2 pCi/L


Milk 25 samples per year (average)
River water 46 samples per year (average)
Public Health Laboratory:
Operations

1. environmental monitoring outside
nuclear reactor sites

2. safe drinking water; monitor
public water supplies

3. radiological emergency response
Operations: Conform to the US
EPA Safe Drinking Water Act
US Environmental
Protection Agency
(EPA) requires that
public water supplies
are monitored for
hundreds of toxic
chemicals
nutrients, pesticides, metals,
volatile organic compounds,
radioactive chemicals, etc.
Drinking Water Monitoring

Current monitoring



Approximately 1,000
community water
systems
Approximately 8,000
noncommunity water
systems
Analysis performed




Radon
Gross Alpha/Beta
226Ra and 228Ra
Uranium
Methods of Analysis





Radon
 Analysis based on Standard
Method 7500-RN
Instrumentation
 Packard TRICARB-2770
Liquid scintillation counter
MDH Laboratory MDC <10 pCi/L
No established MCL for drinking
water
1,200 samples per year (average)
Methods of Analysis

Gross Alpha/Beta


Instrumentation






Canberra LB4 16 detectors
Canberra S5XLB w/ Gamma 1
detector
Canberra LB4000 12 detectors
MDH Minimal Activity


Analysis based on EPA 900.0
Gross Alpha 3 pCi/L
Gross Beta 4 pCi/L
Drinking Water MCL 15 pCi/L
400 samples per year (average)
Methods of Analysis

Uranium


Instrumentation


Uranium 0.67 pCi/L or 1.0 ug/L
Uranium required


Hewlett Packard 4500 ICP-MS
MDH Laboratory MDC


Analysis based on EPA 200.8
Gross Alpha >15 pCi/L
100 samples per year (average)
Methods of Analysis

226Ra






Canberra LB4 16 detectors
Canberra S5XLB w/ Gamma 1
detector
Canberra LB4000 12 detectors
MDH Laboratory MDC


Analysis based on EPA 903.1
and 904
Instrumentation


and 228Ra
226Ra
1 pCi/L
228Ra 1 pCi/L
Drinking Water MCL Combined
5 pCi/L
400 samples per year (average)
New MDA/MDH Lab Building



Address 601 North Robert Street, St. Paul, MN
176,500 gross square feet
Occupancy October 2005
Public Health Laboratory:
Operations

1. environmental monitoring outside
nuclear reactor sites

2. safe drinking water; monitor
public water supplies

3. radiological emergency response
Radiological Emergency
Preparedness and Response
(REP)
at the
Minnesota Department of Health
Public Health Laboratory
Expectations for Emergency
Analysis

Speed and throughput are key

Potentially higher contamination levels

Rapid decisions may be necessary
Expectations for Emergency
Analysis

Detectable levels may be higher than
routine environmental samples
 131
I SDWA
2.8 pCi/L
 131I REP Plan
2300 pCi/L
 Shorter exposure periods (60d vs.
lifetime)
 Based on conservative assumptions
Expectations for Emergency
Analysis

Unknowns may require
more than radiological
analysis



Biological
Chemical
Metals
Expectations for Emergency
Analysis

Results may have enormous health,
psychological, sociological, and
economic consequences
Return of evacuees
 Agriculture, Tourism, Hunting, and
Fishing

Laboratory Role
Lab not primary responder or
decision-maker
 Lab supports primary response
agency

Minnesota Radiation Control Unit
(MDH)
 Minnesota Homeland Security and
Emergency Management Division
(MDPS)

Responsibilities


Support decision making for protective
actions
Early



Evacuation and sheltering
Identify and quantify radioactive plumes
Later


Protection of food, water, and animal feed
supplies
Identify and quantify deposited radioactivity
Lab Resources


22 Trained responders
Analytical Equipment




4 HPGe gamma
spectroscopy
3 Alpha/beta counters
2 Liquid scintillation counters
Analysis normally done by
members of Radiation Unit
Lab Resources

Gross survey and
monitoring equipment




3 G-M counters
3 Ionization chambers
2 Alarming area monitors
Receipt, initial surveys and
log in done by people from
other units
Additional Lab Capacity

Federal laboratories



RAP (Radiological Assistance Program) –
DOE Chicago
FRMAC (Federal Radiological Monitoring and
Assessment Center) – DOE Las Vegas, with
full federal involvement from EPA, FDA,
USDA, NRC and others
Laboratories in other states
Facilities

Presently in the laboratory basement
parking garage


Storage and analysis rooms adjacent to
parking area.
New laboratory building


Receipt on loading dock
Storage and analysis rooms on first floor of
building
Radiological Emergency
Response Plan
Lab’s plan integrates with statewide
Radiological Emergency
Preparedness Plan.
 Originated in 1980 to respond to
nuclear power plant incidents.
 Expanded to include other
radiological emergencies.

Types of Emergencies
Nuclear Power Plant
 Transportation
 Industrial
 Terrorism

Radiological dispersal devices
 Nuclear weapons


Miscellaneous unknowns
Nuclear Plant Locations
Nuclear Power Plants

Prairie Island SE of Minneapolis
near Red Wing on Mississippi
River
Pressurized
water reactors
 2 Units
 1076 MW Total

Nuclear Power Plants

Monticello - NW of Minneapolis
on Mississippi River

Boiling water reactor

1 Unit

553 MW
Nuclear Power Plants

Fixed facilities
Ru-103
Xe-133

Predictable constituents
Pu-239
Ru-106 I-131
Cs-137

Initially gamma spectroscopy
Cs-134
Sr-90
Nuclear Power Plants

Early Phase

Plume analysis

Particulate filters

Iodine cartridges

Gamma scan for all 40 nuclides normally
included in routine environmental testing
Nuclear Power Plants

Later phases

Milk
Animal feeds – pasture, hay

Foods – Grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat

Water – surface and drinking

Surface smears

Nuclear Power Plants

Later phases
Focus on critical nuclides
 20 - minute counts
Nuclide
MDC (pCi/kg)
131I
2,300
134Cs
8,000
137Cs
8,000
103Ru
45,000
106Ru
5,000
 Expanded testing on some samples to
determine whether other nuclides may be
important

Transportation and Industrial

Most likely type of incident
Accident transporting medical isotopes
 Caterpillar tractor backs over gauge
 Fire in radionuclide facility

Radionuclides likely
to be known
 Analysis methods
chosen according to
expected nuclides

Radiological Dispersal
Device

Attempted detonations so far unsuccessful

1995 Ismailovsky Park

1998 Argun

1999 Grozny

Shamil Basayev &
Jose Padilla
Radiological Dispersal
Device
Non-exhaustive list of radionuclides
that may be used
 137Cs
 241Am
 192Ir
 226Ra

Radiological Dispersal
Device
We may not know immediately that
radioactive material is present
 Identity of radioactive material may
be unknown – alpha, beta, or gamma
emitter
 Lab will identify and quantify
radioactive material

Nuclear Weapon



Will the lab still be
here?
Alpha and beta as
well as gamma
Identification and
quantification
Miscellaneous Unknowns


Abandoned sources
Accidentally contaminated consumer
products






Table legs
Reinforcing bars
Metal fencing
Gold Jewelry
Materials found by customs
Lab identifies and quantifies radioactive
material
April Customs Incident
1.
2.
3.
Confused traveler
from China left box
containing powders
at airport
Customs found
radiation readings
Notified Nuclear
Regulatory
Commission
April 2005 Customs Incident,
continued.
4. State Radiation Control
responded
5. Lab was called to
analyze sample
6. Radiological and
metals analysis
showed zirconium
silicate
7. < 6 hours elapsed from
arrival time at customs
to emailed lab report.
Conclusion
For routine analysis, quality
assurance is rigorous; data reports
comply with regulatory standards.
 Lower backgrounds would allow
 Lower costs for clients’
 Faster turnaround times
 May allow more efficient
methodology long term

Contact Information
Jeff Brenner
Metals and Radiation Unit Supervisor
[email protected]
John Lorenz
Radiological Emerg. Response Coordinator
[email protected]

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