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Manufacturing Systems: EMP-5179
Module #9: Quality Function
Deployment (QFD)
Dr. Ken Andrews
High Impact Facilitation
Fall 2009
Kenneth J. Andrews
EMP-5179-9-1
Design – Quality Trade-off (QFD)
PRODUCT
DESIGN PROCESS
DESIGN
PRODUCTION
IMPROVE
PRODUCT
100:1
10:1
1:1
Impact High
Cost to Change Low
TIME
Cost To Change
High
The Quality Lever
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Scope of product development team
Product Development Stages

Idea generation

Assessment of firm’s ability to carry out

Customer Requirements

Functional Specification

Product Specifications

Design Review

Test Market

Introduction to Market

Evaluation
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Scope of design for
manufacturability and
value engineering
teams
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The New Product Development (NPD) Process
 New Product Development Process
– The method by which new products evolve from conceptualization
through engineering to manufacturing and marketing.
 Market Success Depends on NPD
– Continuously generate new product ideas.
– Convert ideas to reliable functional designs.
– Ensure that the designs are readily producible.
– Select the processes most compatible with customer needs.
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The New Product Development (NPD) Process
 Concurrent Engineering
– The simultaneous and coordinated efforts of all functional
areas which accelerates the time to market for new products.
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The New Product Development(NPD) Process
 Idea Generation
– Market pull: the “voice of the customer” in providing feedback
to determine product specifications.
– Technology push: a product developed by the firm’s R&D is
“pushed” into the market.
 Concept Development
– Initial product design developed and tested.
– Analysis of the market and customer requirements.
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The New Product Development(NPD) Process
 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
– The process for translating customer requirements into a
product’s design.
 Voice of the Customer
– Customer feedback is used in QFD process to determine
product specifications.
– Customer attributes:
• Product needs
• Product preferences
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EMP-5179-9-7
The New Product Development(NPD) Process
 House of Quality
– The part of the QFD process that uses customer feedback for
product design criteria.
– Use of QFD teams
• Identify important customer attributes.
• Design superior product.
• Shorten product design time.
• Facilitate inter-functional cooperation.
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EMP-5179-9-8
The New Product Development(NPD) Process
 New Product Planning
– Build models of new product.
– Test new elements and components.
– Conduct detailed investment and financial analyses of
product’s anticipated life cycle.
 Design for Manufacturability (DFM)
– Choosing manufacturing methods and materials.
– Minimizing the number of individual parts:
• Reduces assembly time.
• Increases reliability.
– Setting product specifications.
• Output from the design activity that states all criteria for building
a product.
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Quality Function Deployment

Identify customer wants

Identify how the good/service will satisfy customer wants

Relate customer wants to product hows

Identify relationships between the firm’s hows

Develop importance ratings

Evaluate competing products
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QFD House of Quality
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Idea Generation Stage
 Provides basis for entry into market
 Sources of ideas
– Market need (60-80%); engineering & operations (20%);
technology; competitors; inventions; employees
 Follows from marketing strategy
– Identifies, defines, & selects best market opportunities
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Customer Requirements Stage
 Identifies & positions key product benefits
– Stated in core benefits proposition (CBP)
– Example: Long lasting with more power
(Sears’ Die Hard Battery)
 Identifies detailed list of
House of Quality
product attributes desired by
customer
– Focus groups or
1-on-1 interviews
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Product
Characteristics
Customer
Requirements
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Functional Specification Stage
 Defines product in terms of how the
product would meet desired attributes
 Identifies product’s engineering
characteristics
– Example: printer noise (dB)
 Prioritizes engineering characteristics
House of Quality
 May rate product compared
Product
Characteristics
to competitors’
Customer
Requirements
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Product Specification Stage
 Determines how product will be made
 Gives product’s physical specifications
–
Example: Dimensions, material etc.
 Defined by engineering drawing
 Done often on computer
House of Quality
– Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Component
Specifications
Product
Characteristics
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Quality Function Deployment
 Product design process using cross-functional teams
– Marketing, engineering, manufacturing
 Translates customer preferences into specific product characteristics
 Involves creating 4 tabular ‘Matrices’ or ‘Houses’
– Breakdown product design into increasing levels of detail
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QFD

Structured approach for design

Developed at Mitsubishi’s Kobe shipyards

“House of quality” – built on relationships
– Customer requirements
– Design requirements
– Competitive assessment
– Technical assessment

4 layers: product, part, process, production
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17
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Japanese/US Engineering Change Comparison
Japanese
United States
in production
3 months
Time
market
introduction
(Not Using QFD)
out 1-3
months
out 14-17
months
(Using QFD)
out 20-24
months
Design Changes
Introduction of
First Product
QFD Can Reduce Both Costs and Start-Up Time
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House of Quality
Interrelationships
Technical requirements
Voice of
the
customer
Relationship
matrix
Technical requirement
priorities
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Customer
requirement
priorities
Competitive
evaluation
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QFD Steps
1.
Identify/ prioritize customer requirements.
2.
Determine technical requirements.
3.
Relate customer requirements to technical requirements.
4.
Compare ability to meet requirements against competitive products.
5.
Determine correlation of design requirement elements.
6.
Set targets for technical requirements and determine capability.
7.
Look for high opportunity requirements to satisfy customer.
8.
Continue QFD process to the next level.
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THE BASIC HOUSE OF QUALITY
• Establishes the Flowdown
• Relates WHAT'S & HOW'S
• Ranks The Importance
The Basis of QFD is the House
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THE BASIC HOUSE OF QUALITY
KEY ELEMENTS
INFORMATIONAL ELEMENTS
Two Element Types In Each House
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KEY ELEMENTS
o
o
- “WHAT’S”
What Does The Customer Want
Customer Needs
Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
Voice of the Customer
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1. Identify Customer Attributes
 These are product or service requirements IN THE CUSTOMER’S TERMS.
 Market Research;
 Surveys;
 Focus Groups.
 “What does the customer expect from the product?”
 “Why does the customer buy the product?”
 Salespeople and Technicians can be important sources of information –
both in terms of these two questions and in terms of product failure and
repair.
 OFTEN THESE ARE EXPANDED INTO Secondary and Tertiary Needs /
Requirements.
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KEY ELEMENTS
o
o
- CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE
How Important Are The
What’s TO THE CUSTOMER
Customer Ranking of their
Needs
Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
5
5
3
4
2
4
1
Voice of the Customer
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KEY ELEMENTS
WHAT'S
HOW'S
Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
HOW 7
HOW'S
HOW 6
HOW 5
HOW 4
HOW 3
HOW 1
o
o
How Do You Satisfy the
Customer What’s
Product Requirements
Translation For Action
HOW 2
o
- “HOW’S”
5
5
3
4
2
4
1
Satisfy the Customer Needs
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2. Identify Design Attributes.
 Design Attributes are Expressed in the Language of the Designer /
Engineer and Represent the TECHNICAL Characteristics (Attributes)
that must be Deployed throughout the DESIGN, MANUFACTURING,
and SERVICE PROCESSES.
 These must be MEASURABLE since the Output will be Controlled and
Compared to Objective Targets.
 The ROOF of the HOUSE OF QUALITY shows, symbolically, the
Interrelationships between Design Attributes.
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Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
5
5
3
4
2
4
1
H L
H
M
HOW 7
HOW 6
HOW 5
HOW 4
HOW 3
Strength of the Interrelation Between
the What’s and the How’s
• H Strong
9
• M Medium 3
• L Weak
1
HOW 2
•
- RELATIONSHIP
HOW 1
KEY ELEMENTS
L
M
H
M M L
L
M
LL H M
Untangling The Web
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3.Relating Customer & Design Attributes
 Symbolically we determine whether there is NO relationship, a WEAK
one, MODERATE one, or STRONG relationship between each Customer
Attribute and each Design Attribute.
 The PURPOSE it to determine whether the final Design Attributes
adequately cover Customer Attributes.
 LACK of a strong relationship between A customer attribute and any
design attribute shows that the attribute is not adequately addressed or
that the final product will have difficulty in meeting the expressed
customer need.
 Similarly, if a design attribute DOES NOT affect any customer attribute,
then it may be redundant or the designers may have missed some
important customer attribute.
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KEY ELEMENTS
Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
5
3
4
2
4
1
45 5
36
12
45
2
1
5
HOW 7
HOW 6
HOW 5
HOW 4
HOW 3
HOW 2
Which How’s are Key
Where Should The Focus Lie
HOW 1
•
•
- TECH. IMPORTANCE
15
9 9 3
4 36
57 41 48 13 50
6
6
M
21
Ranking The HOW'S
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Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
5
5
3
4
2
4
1
H L
H
M
HOW 7
HOW 6
HOW 5
HOW 4
HOW 3
Information On The HOW'S
•
More Is Better
•
Less Is Better
•
Specific Amount
HOW 1
•
- TARGET DIRECTION
HOW 2
INFORMATION
L
M 6545
H
21
M M L
36
L
L
L H
57 41 48 13 50
6
M 528
M
4
21
The Best Direction
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INFORMATION
HOW 7
HOW 6
HOW 5
HOW 4
HOW 3
57 41 48 13 50
6
4
M
1 mm
3 mils
L
L H
M 528
8 atm
M
L
3
H
L
M 6545
H
21
M M L
36
40 psi
H L
12 in.
5
5
3
4
2
4
1
3 lbs
Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
HOW 2
Target Values for the How’s
Note the Units
HOW 1
o
o
- HOW MUCH
How Much
21
Consistent Comparison
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3. Evaluate Design Attributes of Competitive
Products & Set Targets.
 This is USUALLY accomplished through in-house testing and then
translated into MEASURABLE TERMS.
 The evaluations are compared with the competitive evaluation of
customer attributes to determine inconsistency between customer
evaluations and technical evaluations.
 For example, if a competing product is found to best satisfy a customer
attribute, but the evaluation of the related design attribute indicates
otherwise, then EITHER the measures used are faulty, OR else the
product has an image difference that is affecting customer perceptions.
 On the basis of customer importance ratings and existing product
strengths and weaknesses, TARGETS and DIRECTIONS for each design
attribute are set.
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- CORRELATION MATRIX
o Impact Of The How’s On Each
Other
HOW 7
HOW 6
HOW 5
HOW 4
HOW 3
L
L H
57 41 48 13 50
M 528
6
4
M
8 atm
M
L
3
H
L
M 6545
H
21
M M L
36
40 psi
H L
12 in.
5
5
3
4
2
4
1
3 lbs
Need 1
Need 2
Need 3
Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7
3 mils
HOW 1
Strong Positive
Positive
Negative
Strong Negative
HOW 2
Correlation
Matrix
1 mm
INFORMATION
21
Conflict Resolution
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Enough theory!
Let’s consider 2 case studies
(details in class)
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QFD FLOWDOWN
Levels Of Granularity
Manufacturing
Environment
Software
Environment
Service
Environment
Customer Wants
Customer Wants
Customer Wants
Technical Requirements
Product Functionality
Service Requirements
Part Characteristics
System Characteristics
Service Processes
Manufacturing Process
Design Alternatives
Process Controls
Production Requirements
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EMP-5179-9-36
House of Quality Sequence Indicates How to
Deploy Resources to Achieve Customer
Requirements
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Quality Function Deployment
Typical results of effective implementation of QFD:




30%
30%
40%
35%
Kenneth J. Andrews
- 50% shorter design cycle
- 50% fewer engineering changes
lower start up costs
fewer warranty claims
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Quality Function Deployment
Some Case Study examples:
Martin Marietta Satellite server Space System:
 Reduced proposal time by 20%
 Decreased project costs by 30%
3M - Technology development of new material through
development phase:
 50% reduction in product development time
 25% lower production costs
 25% reduction in rework
 All project deadlines met
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Creative Definitions of QFD

A systematic way of documenting and breaking down customer
needs into manageable and actionable detail.

A planning methodology that organizes relevant information to
facilitate better decision making.

A way of reducing the uncertainty involved in product and
process design.

A technique that promotes cross-functional teamwork.

A methodology that gets the right people together, early, to
work efficiently and effectively to meet customers’ needs.
Kenneth J. Andrews
EMP-5179-9-40
Preparation for Next Week

I recommend you start your term paper very soon

Watch for new articles/links on the website

Watch for material for module #10
Kenneth J. Andrews
EMP-5179-9-41

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