INTRO TO WESTERN EUROPE - Vernon Hills High School

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INTRO TO WESTERN EUROPE
Continent of Peninsulas
4 MAJOR LANDFORMS
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NORTHWEST HIGHLANDS-low mtns &
hills
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SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS KJOLEN MTNS.
“OLD”, ERODED MTNS; GLACIERS
Fjords: narrow inlets of the sea between
high rocky cliffs
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Caused by glaciers
Many lakes created
2nd landform
Northern European Plain
Runs from France to the Urals
Many rivers and major cities
Most important farming and industrial
area
Most densely populated
Created by glaciers
3rd main landform region
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Central Uplands
Hills, plateaus, low mountains
Coal and manufacturing areas
Jura Mtns—France/Switzerland
Massif Central-France
4TH MAJOR LANDFORM
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Alpine System-volcanic mtns.
Appennines—Italy
Carpathians
Pyrenees—France/Spain border
Still active volcanoes/earthquakes
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Italy, Greece, Iceland
CLIMATE
OF EUROPE
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3 MAJOR INFLUENCES
1-ATLANTIC OCEAN—North Atlantic Drift
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2-MOUNTAINS—ALPS SEPARATE HUMID
CONTINENTAL FROM MEDITERRANEAN
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Affect?
Affect?
3-SOUTHERN COASTAL AREAS
3 MAIN CLIMATE TYPES
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1-Marine West Coast
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Where?
Pattern?
2-Humic Continental
Where?
Pattern?
Climate Types
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3-Mediterranean
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Where?
Pattern?
Why?
VEGETATION
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4 MAIN BIOMES
1-TEMPERATE FOREST
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2-MEDITERRANEAN SCRUB FOREST
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3-BOREAL-4-TUNDRA—FAR NORTH
PROBLEMS:
WATER FEATURES
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4 KEY FACTS
1-IRREGULAR COASTLINES—HARBORS
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2-NAVIGABLE RIVERS + CANALS
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Most important—North Sea—trade/fishing/oil
Baltic Sea-freezes in winter
Rhine—most important
Starts in Alps-----to North Sea
Danube—2nd most important
Starts in S. Germany-----Black Sea
3-HEAVILY POLLUTED/OVERUSED FOR TRADE
4-Bosporus Strait—water border between Europe &
Asia
RESOURCES
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1-FORESTS—MOST ARE GONE EXCEPT FINLAND &
SWEDEN
PROBLEMS—
SOLUTIONS:
2-SOIL—OVERUSED; BUT HIGH TECH FARMS ARE
VERY PRODUCTIVE
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Loess—
Alluvial SoilNorthern European Plain
½ of land used for farming
Types of crops--
Resources Continued
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3-FISHING
North Sea and North Atlantic
4-ENERGY & MINERALS
A-coal—
Germany, Britain & Poland
B-Oil & Natural Gas
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North Sea
ENERGY & MINERALS
1-COAL
 Germany, Britain & Poland
 2-OIL & NATURAL GAS
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North Sea
Britain & Norway
3-HYDROELECTRICITY
Where?
4-OTHER ITEMS
Sweden—iron ore (Kiruna)
Italy--marble
MICROSTATES
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UNIQUE TO EUROPE
TINY NATIONS USUALLY SURROUNDED
BY ANOTHER NATION
EXAMPLES: MONACO, VATICAN CITY,
ANDORRA ETC.
*POSTAGE STAMPS & TOURISM
HISTORY OF EUROPE
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WAR & CONQUEST
GREEK EMPIRE 900 TO 300 B.C.
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1ST IDEAS OF GOVERNMENT
ART/BUILDINGS
LARGE ARMIES TO EXPAND
HISTORY CONTINUED
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ROMAN EMPIRE 200 B.C. TO 500 A.D.
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ITALY, ISRAEL, NORTH AFRICA
ART/ BUILDINGS
LARGE NAVY/ARMY
GODS/GODDESSES
HISTORY-3
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MIDDLE AGES 500-1500 A.D.
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LITTLE KINGDOMS
WAR, FAMINE, DISEASE
“BLACK PLAGUE”
1500 A.D. ITALY MOST IMPORTANT
EUROPEAN NATION
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2 KEY CITIES—VENICE & GENOA
EXPLORE & COLONIZE
START OF IMPERIALISM
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WHY TAKE OVER OTHER NATIONS?
LATE 1500’S FRANCE, SPAIN, PORTUGAL & ENGLAND
1600’S-FRANCE CONTROL WESTERN & CENTRAL
EUROPE
1700-BRITAIN DEFEATS FRANCE & SPAIN IN WAR
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BECOMES LARGEST POWER
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
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NEED RESOURCES, LABOR & MARKETS
IMPERIALISM PART 2
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1871-GERMANY BECOMES A LARGE
POWER IN EUROPE
ALLIANCE SYSTEM
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SECRET AGREEMENTS TO HELP EACH
OTHER IN CASE OF AN ATTACK
BALANCE OF POWER
WORLD WAR I-1914-1918
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GERMANY & AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE
VS. BRITAIN/FRANCE/RUSSIA
REASONS FOR FIGHTING:
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Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of A-H
empire by a Serb (Russian ally)
Alliances force nations to help out
Increased military means all conflict leads to war
Winners—Britain/France/ US
Losers-Germany/A-H empire (fell apart)
After WWI
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Unstable governments
Take land away from Germany
Economic problems—no work, no trade, no
food
War debt of $30 bil
Money is worthless
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GREAT DEPRESSION
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Rise of dictators—Hitler, Mussolini because of
nationalism
WORLD WAR 2 1939-45
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Germany invades Poland
Germany takes land back in Czech,
Austria etc.
Axis Powers—Germany, Italy & Japan
Allied Powers-US, France, Britan, USSR
Holocaust
After WW2—1945+
DIVISION OF GERMANY
WEST
Democratic
Richer
Rebuilt by US/Britain
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EAST
Communist
Controlled by USSR
poorer
COLD WAR 1945-89
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ARMS RACE
SPACE RACE
NATO
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North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
Military agreement
Stop spread of
communism
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MARSHALL PLAN
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Economic agreements
Rebuild Western Europe
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WARSAW PACT
Military agreement
Spread communism
USSR/Eastern European
nations
COMECON
Economic agreement to
rebuild Eastern Europe

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