Report

Mathematics and the Developing Countries: Mathematics in Africa Andreas Griewank Humboldt Universität Berlin, [email protected] Gareth Witten Laure Pauline Fotso Mohamed Jaoua Wandera Ogana Bernard Philippe Leif Abrahamsson TSOU Sheung Tsun University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon University of Nairobi, Kenya Uppsala University , Sweden University of Cape Town , SA Nice/Tunisia INRIA Rennes Oxford University, [email protected] EMS [email protected], Amsterdam 1 Challenges with the development of advanced Centres of Excellence Gareth Witten, University of Cape Town , SA • Mathematics and science are key priorities • Research Chairs - 21 scientists in different fields. The aim is to create 56 research chairs by 2008, and 210 by 2010. • Several Centres of Excellence increase in the applications of mathematics • Increase in graduates from mathematics departments due to new postgraduate courses in “modern” applied mathematics programmes, e.g. mathematical finance, mathematical biology. [email protected], Amsterdam 2 Challenges with the development of advanced Centres of Excellence Gareth Witten, University of Cape Town , SA • A Student's perspective • Remedies - Lack of career path Affirmative action Economics Outdated curricula • Institutional Perspective - lack of collaboration and healthy competition - lack of motivation due to poor remuneration - Mutual support network - Improved T&L in institutions - Establish link between industry and ed. Institutions - improve standards of ed. through peer-review process - Encourage involvement of the African Diaspora [email protected], Amsterdam 3 5ECM 14 - 18 July 2008 Amsterdam RAI, The Netherlands Mathematics and Developing Countries Round Table:Case of Mathematics in Cameroon Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 4 Plan • Introduction • Status Quo of mathematics in statistical terms • Challenges with the Development of advanced centres of Excellences – Barriers – Remedies Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 5 Introduction • Focus on the two topics : • Status Quo of mathematics in statistical terms and Challenges with the Development of advanced centres of Excellences. • With regard topic 1 – Information on FS of UYI where is the mother Department of Mathematics in Cameroon. – Projection on Department of Mathematics – Statistics on departments of mathematics of Cameroonian universities. • Concerning topics 2 – barriers (political, economical and cultural) – remedies • Twining of departments • Strategies to persuade African governments to support the development of mathematics Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 6 Status Quo in statistical terms : Facts on FS of UYI • Human resources : – Ratio teacher/students = 1/53 in 2007. – 240 teachers (28 full Prof., 38 Ass. Prof. 139 Lecturers, 35 assistant lecturers) • Infrastructures and equipment: – classrooms capacity= 3200 seats, – one main University library capacity= 200 seats, – 80 computers (60 for students and 20 for teachers) • Teaching load: – to cover 80% of the program, 102491 hours are needed with 17% for lectures, 44% for tutorials 39% for practical lessons. – Only 37% of these hours can be covered on normal duty need of 63% of over time from teachers Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 7 Status Quo in statistical terms : Facts on FS of UYI • The teaching overload heavily and negatively affects the quality of: – Teaching; – Thesis supervision or direction and – Research. • Teaching conditions: Use of old teaching techniques: – ˂ 15% teachers have electronic lectures notes; – ˂ 20% of courses have lectures notes manuals; – 0 online lectures. • Success rate: – 30% at from level 1 to 2 – meantime for bachelor degree is 5 instead of 3 years – from 3 students enrolled at level 1: 1 passes to 2, 1 repeats, 1drops out Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 8 Status Quo in statistical terms : Facts on FS of UYI Student population 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Level 1 4123 3602 4277 2930 4030 3870 5296 5302 7 064 Level 2 1188 1467 1519 1752 1760 1386 1860 2179 2 511 Level 3 814 1275 1604 1622 1967 2150 2271 2233 2 552 Level 4 313 685 877 1182 943 1452 1601 1505 1 456 Level 5 96 208 429 476 358 514 435 280 264 Total 6534 7237 Laure Pauline Fotso 8706 7962 9058 9372 FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 11463 11499 13847 9 Status Quo in statistical terms : Facts on FS of UYI Student population 16000 14000 12000 Level 1 10000 Level 2 Level 3 8000 Level 4 6000 Level 5 4000 Total 2000 Laure Pauline Fotso 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 0 FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 10 Status Quo in statistical terms : FS UYI (Department of Mathematics) • Human resources :26 teachers with: 4 full Prof., 2 Ass. Prof.,16 lecturers, 4 assistant lecturers. • Infrastructures and Equipment : 09 office rooms (average 2 seats per room), 0 computer for undergraduate students,05 computers for 26 teachers • Teaching load – – – – Average teaching load per teacher =323 hours. Average number of different subjects taught by a teacher = 3.8. only 33.2% of hours can be covered on normal time. Up to 67.7 % must be covered on overtime by permanent teachers. • Student population in 2007/2008 up to level 5 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Total 988 410 596 240 26 2260 Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 11 Status Quo in statistical terms : Departments of Mathematics of Cameroon Student population in 2006/2007 U. Buea U. Douala ENSET Level 1 2765(279) 312(24) Level 2 Level 3 Bachelor level Level 4 FS U. Yaoundé I ENS Total FS 1779(244) 1250(239) 675(120) 5302(863) 235(21) 802(99) 395(80) 627(111) 2179(291) 365(34) 459(82) 496(81) 635(108) 2233(456) 912(79) 3040(425) 2141(400) 1937(339) 9714(1610) 20509(3132) 137(7) Level 5 Total U. Dschang 212(14) 277(31) 82(13) 772(65) 1505(177) 2848(300) 215(14) 9(0) 23(4) x(x) 534(27) x(x) 2924(286) 1339(107) 2252(417) x(x) 11924(1818) 3328(456) Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 12 Status Quo in statistical terms : Departments of Mathematics of Cameroon Teacher population in 2006/2007 U. Buea U. Douala ENSET FS U. Dschang U. Yaoundé I ENS Total FS Full Professor 6(0) 1(0) 1(0) 4(0) 8(1) 26(4) Associate Professor 7(2) 1(0) 2(0) 7(1) 32(1) 48(2) Lecturer 65(4) 30(x) 65(x) 66(x) 92(x) 133(16) 451(x) Assistant Lecturer 67(x) 22(x) 25(x) 31(x) 22(x) 10(4) 177(x) 0(0) 5(x) 9(x) 0(0) 0(0) 30(4) 145(x) 59(x) 102(x) 108(x) 154(x) 247(30) Teaching Assistant (held by PhD students) Total Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 46(5) 97(3) 44(x) 815(x) 13 Challenges with advanced centres of Excellences: Barriers • Political – No policy of investment in research in general; – No restriction at the entrance of the first level of the university: with the exception of the University of Buea “massicification problem” teachers at all levels heavily overloaded with teaching hours no time left to build and strengthen quality research centres. – Research carried out by African mathematicians is not perceived by political power as appropriate for the local development of the country – Most African mathematicians continue to work on research topics dealt with in their doctorate studies in Europe or North America. – Few African mathematicians hold key decision making or taking position. – National Mathematical Society not functioning in some African countries like Cameroon Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 14 Challenges with advanced centres of Excellences: Barriers • Economical – Low salary condition teachers invest themselves in parallel activities low quality research stagnation of carrier advancement. Example: only 6 teachers at the magisterial level out of the 26 teachers of Math Dept of FS of UYI, ˃ 72% stagnated as lecturers and usually remain to retirement. – Insufficient research grants for PhD students. only 4 teaching assistantships for more than 20 PhD students. – Low seating capacity of classrooms impossibility of scheduling all the courses hours insufficient coverage of the full programme – insufficient computers equipment for teachers as well as for students – Best PhD graduates immigrate to European or North American universities for better leaving and teaching conditions. – Poorly furnished library and no access to online publications Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 15 Challenges with advanced centres of Excellences :Barriers • Cultural – Mathematicians are believed to be too squared to adjust in society. – Mathematicians do not know how to compromise in a world full of compromises – Classical logic is not in accordance with the African culture where fuzzy reasoning and chaos reign. In African culture for example, the concept of time and distance is irrelevant Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 16 Challenges with advanced centres of Excellences: Remedies • Twining of departments – – – – Co direction of Master and PhD thesis with mobility of students and teachers will boost the quality of the thesis. Visiting professors from the North Joint project proposal redaction addressing key development areas of Africa such as management of natural resources, food security, health and corruption. Departments from the developed countries can share with their twins from developing countries: • • • • access right to online scientific documentation Access right to online lectures notes Lectures notes manuals software licences Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 17 Challenges with advanced centres of Excellences: Remedies • Strategies to persuade African governments to support the development of mathematics – – – – – – – – Creation of lobby groups More mathematicians should develop interest in politics and do politics to seat at the decision making and decision taking tables African mathematicians should carry out more applied researches for the development of Africa Existing applied research results should be made visible Good applied research projects for development should be proposed to the government for funding. African mathematicians should actively be involved in using their knowledge in solving African daily problems Sensitisation workshops on the use of mathematics for development with concrete examples will help Large diffusion through different type of media (written press, radio, television, Internet, etc.) of concrete (visible in the country) examples of the use of mathematics in solving African development problems Laure Pauline Fotso FS, University of Yaoundé I Email: [email protected] 18 THANK YOU Is Mathematical research an issue for a developing country ? Mohamed JAOUA Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis & UNESCO Chair, Tunis Problems a DC scientist has to face Legitimacy Doesn’t research compete education ? Concentration vs dissemination Specialization vs diversity And the conflict on time and priorities … They didn’t invent anything we use or need We just don’t know how efficient they are Are our researchers credible ? Scarcity : Material means … though Maths and even Applied Maths don’t need much But what about human resources ? : no evaluation system Do we really need it now ? And are we willing to pay the price ? Scientists, politicians, and people They are scarce ... And above all diverted to the single field providing recognition : politics As for Applied Mathematics Weak industry => no problems to solve Weak technical management => no people to talk with Aren’t applications too much « high tech », isn’t all this stuff beyond what’s needed ? Amsterdam 2008 Mohamed Jaoua 21 Applied Mathematics are crucial for DC Needed to « produce » engineers A crucial point for any industrial development Development : new paradigms have upsurged from The digital revolution Mathematical and numerical modelling are the heart of every industrial process Targets are rapidly moving from high tech applications to every day ones Computer costs are dropping The industrial globalization Industrial processes are no longer local Technology needs to be proceeded in any place at its current level A new deal, with real opportunities for those who master Mathematics and IT Amsterdam 2008 Mohamed Jaoua 22 A tunisian experience 1983-2008 : The LAMSIN A « built from scratch » Applied Math laboratory Relying on a serious mathematical background 80 researchers (30 PhD and 12 Professors) 3 research teams associated to INRIA, 2000 … Good publication activity in international journals Master and Doctoral School in Applied Maths A regional role, and an international recognition Networks : TamTam (Maghreb), Sarima (Africa), … UNESCO Chair « Maths and development » - awarded 2003 AUF regional Excellence Pole (2003 …) An indeed international place Collaborative research on mutual interest topics Co-advised PhD theses Conferences (TAM-TAM, PICOF, CARI), workshops, ... Amsterdam 2008 Mohamed Jaoua 23 Elements of strategy Gather together the research force A single national lab for research … but Its researchers teach in several Universities Push away the borders Regional groupments Maghreb, Africa, EuroMediterranean Maximal international opening, bringing Expertise, structure, legitimacy North/South complementarities Jealously save the scientific independence However, a global policy is crucial 1996 has been the turning point in Tunisia Better have a lot of luck … Amsterdam 2008 Mohamed Jaoua 24 Main concerns How to deal with thematic transferts ? Focus on methods acquisition Relevance to local applications would come later IT boom, and methods migration, have helped much Can brain drain be opposed in an open world ? Make your place a nice one to work and live in Produce more than they can take Make globalization a chance to that respect (cf India) North and South are finally on the same boat Much can be done on the spot Governance is a crucial issue for the future Relevant decisions regarding science need scientists Building capacities is a long run task, needing broad vision politicians, and a social control Amsterdam 2008 Mohamed Jaoua 25 Thank you for your attention … www.lamsin.rnu.tn Amsterdam 2008 Mohamed Jaoua 26 Promoting mathematics in Africa through the African Mathematics Millennium Science Initiative (AMMSI) by Wandera Ogana AMMSI PROGRAMME DIRECTOR School of Mathematics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, GPO 00100, Nairobi, Kenya E-mail: [email protected] Presented at the Round Table on Mathematics and the Developing World. 5th European Congress of Mathematics, 17 th July 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 27 1. BRIEF HISTORY 28 1.1 Millennium Science Initiative (MSI) Formulated and fostered by the World Bank in late 1990’s Main Goal: Promote S&T spearheaded by scientists in the Developing countries Administered by Science Initiative Group (SIG) Activities in South America and Asia: Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Vietnam etc 29 1.2 World Bank/SIG Initiative for Africa Meetings organised through the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) and the Thirld World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), during 2000 – 2002, led to establishment of initial stage of African MSI in: Instrumentation & Information Technology Biotechnology Mathematics Meetings of writing group on Mathematics held during 2003 – 2004 African Mathematics Millennium Science Initiative established in 2005 Seed money by The Mellon Foundation and the International Mathematical Union in 2005 30 2. OBJECTIVES 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) To strengthen the teaching and learning of university mathematics and its applications. To support research in mathematics and mathematics education To enhance capacity through linkages and networks To undertake outreach and public education in mathematics To enhance the use of ICT in mathematics teaching and learning 31 3 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE 3.1 Distributed Network Five Regional Offices each run by a Regional Coordinator Central Africa: Yaounde, Cameroon (Prof. Bitjong Ndombol) Eastern Africa: Nairobi, Kenya (Prof. Wandera Ogana) Southern Africa: Gabarone, Botswana (Prof. Edward Lungu) Western Africa, Zone 1: Ibadan, Nigeria (Prof. Samwel Ilori) Western Africa, Zone 2: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (Prof. Hamidou Toure) Programme Office located in Nairobi, Kenya 33 3.2 AMMSI Programme Committee Members: AMMSI Regional Coordinators Main Functions: To Write project proposals for funding To Formulate and design programmes To Implement activities To Liaise with collaborating institutions 34 3.3 Selection and Evaluation Committee Members: Prof Bernt Øksendal, University of Oslo, Norway (Facilitator) Prof Augustin Banyaga, Pennsylvania State University, USA 3rd Member to be appointed from Central Africa Main Functions: To select Fellowship candidates To select and evaluate research projects To evaluate the operations of AMMSI 35 4. ACTIVITIES TO DATE 36 4.1 Research/Visiting Scientist Fellowships To enable staff conduct research and postgraduate teaching at host universities in sub-Saharan African for periods ranging from a few weeks to one year 15 Fellowships awarded during 2005 – 2007 Fellowship amounts increased from $ 3,000 in 2006 to $ 5,000 in 2007 Impact of fellowships on collaboration, linkages, research and publications 37 4.2 Postgraduate Scholarships For Ph.D, M.Sc or Postgraduate Diploma studies in universities in sub-Saharan Africa Awarded 170 partial scholarships during 2005 – 2007 Amounts in the range US $ 300 – 1,000 Impact of scholarships on postgraduate education, research, publications and staff development 38 4.3 Support of Scientific Meetings Conference on Representation Theory in Geometry and Physics, Porto Novo, Benin (2005) Conference and Mathematical Biology Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya (2006) SAMSA Conference in Windhoek, Namibia (2007) In 2008 to support conference in Central Africa Support by The London Mathematical Society to enable postgraduate students attend conferences 39 4.4 Mentoring African Research in Mathematics (MARM) 4.4.1 Main Objectives Promote mentoring relationships between mathematicians in other continents and subSaharan African colleagues, together with their students. Create joint research projects and cultivate longer-term partnerships between institutions in Africa and those elsewhere 40 4.4.2 Collaborating and Funding Organisations Collaborating Organisations: International Mathematical Union (IMU) The London Mathematical Society (LMS) AMMSI Funding Organisations: The Nuffield Foundation (from 2005) The Leverhulme Trust (from 2006) 41 4.4.3 Participation The following universities in Africa are currently participating: Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia University of Buea, Cameroon Kwame Nkurumah University of Science & Technology, Ghana Six other universities have been selected to join Mentors (and prospective mentors) are distinguished mathematicians interested in colaborative links with African universities 42 5 WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT 43 5.1 Positive Making a difference to professional careers through Fellowships Making a difference to academic future through Scholarships Enabling publications by staff and postgraduate students Enabling staff and institutions in different continents to collaborate through MARM 44 5.2 Room for Improvement Limited funds, hence small scholarship and fellowship awards Lack of diversification of activities No funding of research activities No funding to support conference attendance by African mathematicians despite the wide interest expressed Looking for partners and support to continue and extend activities 45 6. SUPPORTING ORGANISATIONS 46 6.1 Financial Support Mellon Foundation Nuffield Foundation Leverhulme Trust International Mathematical Union London Mathematical Society US National Committee on Mathematics 47 6.2 Facilities and Administrative Support Universite Gaston Berger, Senegal University of Botswana, Botswana University of Ibadan, Nigeria University of Nairobi, Kenya University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon University of Yaounde I, Cameroon University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Science Initiative Group (SIG) African Academy of Sciences (AAS) 48 website : http://www.ammsi.org Partnership of INRIA with African research teams: experience and evolution. Bernard Philippe (INRIA) • CARI & SARIMA experiences • Principles of the sought partnership • Some encountered difficulties and associated questions 50 Two questions • For co-advised PhD students, how to obtain a definition of their teaching duties compatible with their PhD registration? • Some African master programmes only exist because of the participation of European lecturers. Is this acceptable to continue the support of these programmes? 51 International Science Programme Uppsala University Mathematics in Sub-Saharan Africa – an overview of Swedish cooperation, by Leif Abrahamsson ([email protected]) International Science Programme (ISP), at Uppsala University. Focus: To strengthen research and postgraduate education in basic sciences in developing countries International Programme in Physical Science (IPPS) 1961 International Programme in Chemical Sciences (IPICS) 1970 International Programme Mathematical Sciences (IPMS) 2001 Funded by SAREC (the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation, about 2.5 MEuro 2008) and Uppsala University (about 200 kEuro 2008). 52 International Science Programme Uppsala University ISP – university based organisation base for collegial co-operation recognition among foreign universities as direct co-operation as possible Based on scientific criteria Flexibility Programmes headed by senior scientists From left to right: P. Weke, J. Owino (Nairobi), J. Mango (Makerere) and I. Mahara (NUR).EAUMP-meeting in Kigali, March 2008. 53 International Science Programme Uppsala University 54 International Science Programme Uppsala University ISP Supported Activites 2007 Activity Number PhD students MSc/Mphil students 181 332 Scholarships within Sweden (months) Sholarships within rest of Europe (months) Scholarships within the Regions (months) PhD theses MSc/Mphil theses 52 (251) 15 (60) 55 (227) 12 141 Math students at UEM in Maputo. Publications in international Journals Publications in regional/local Journals Conference and Workshop contributions 140 56 256 55 International Science Programme Uppsala University WHERE? Current ISP-supported groups and networks GNI per Capita USD 2003; World Bank Report 2005 LD as defined in ”The Least Developed Countries 2002; UNCTAD/LDS/2002 AFRICA Low Income Countries LD Burkina Faso Cameroon LD Ethiopia Ghana Kenya LD Malawi LD Mali LD Mauritania Nigeria LD Senegal LD Tanzania LD Uganda LD Zambia Zimbabwe 300 640 90 320 390 170 290 430 320 550 290 240 380 480 ASIA Low Income Countries LD Bangladesh LD Cambodia LD Lao PDR 400 310 320 Lower Middle Income Countries Sri Lanka 930 LATIN AMERICA Lower Middle Income Countries Ecuador 1,790 Peru 2,150 SWEDEN 28,840 Category-1 countries AFRICA Burkina Faso Ethiopia Kenya Mali Mocambique Rwanda Tanzania Uganda Zambia ASIA Bangladesh Cambodia LATIN AMERICA Bolivia (”bilateral countries” in red) 56 International Science Programme Uppsala University • IPMS • IPMS started in 2001. Total budget 2008: about 500 kEuro. • EAUMP (network between UoN, UDSM and Makerere; cooperation since 2002), support 2008: about 110 kEuro: 6 PhD-students started sandwich programme in 2003 (graduates in 2008/09) and 7 more in 2007. A number of MSc-students have graduated (about 2 each year); regional MSc-courses. Regional courses and workshops in cooperation with ICTP, and maybe with CIMPA in the future. National University of Rwanda is to become member of the network. • • • • - - PDE, Modeling and Control (network between the universities in Ouagadougou, Nouakchott and SaintLouis; cooperation since 2003), support 2008: about 73 kEuro. 3 PhD-students started in 2007, and 3 more will start this year. A number of MSc- and local PhD-students have already graduated. The network runs the West African Training School (WATS) in cooperation with ICTP, with participating students from many West African countries. Ghana and Cameroon to be phased out this year, or next. Ethiopia is to be incorporated in the bilateral Programme from 2009. 57 International Science Programme Uppsala University ISP in the future. - Support to research groups/departments only in so-called Category-1 countries. No new collaboration, even in Category-1 countries. Networks are not affected by these new rules, if Category-1 countries benefit from them. Probably more involvement in bilateral programmes in basic science. Bilateral programmes via SAREC: - Total annual budget slightly less than 100 MEuro. - 20% for basic science(?). - At the moment only two programmes that involves mathematics: one at Universidad Eduardo Mondlane in Maputo, Mocambique (Swedish coordinator at ISP), and one at the National University of Rwanda in Butare, Rwanda (Swedish coordinator at Linköping University). SAREC will be replaced by a new unit within Sida/Asdi from October 1, 2008. (More) problems for mathematics: - The content, etc of a bilateral programme is decided by the receiving university, and mathematics is (usually) not a prioritised subject. Bilateral funds are not earmarked for certain activities (principle of ownership), which could affect mathematics negatively. 58 Tsou Sheung Tsun, Oxford University 59 Zentralblatt 61 Twinned institutions as of July 2008 62 Individual Action • Individual donations - Book donation - Donation through national society subscription - Honorarium donation • Short Courses - Intensive courses - „Cameos“ • Collaboration at Institute level - Pay subscription - Conference attendance - More ... • Stepping stone approach - Brazil, China, India, Vietnam, ... 63 Some relevant contacts • • • • • • • • • • ICTP, Trieste, (Le Dung Trang) SIU/NUFU, Bergen, (Ragni Piene, Oslo) ISP, Uppsala, ( Leif Abrahamsson) CIMPA, Nice, (Michel Jambu) SIAM/NSF, (Barbara Keyfitz, Tony Chan) DAAD, Bonn, Nairobi, Dehli, Johannesburg ... (German Gov.) SARIMA Rennes (Phillipe Bernard ) London Mathematical Society, (John Ball) CIMO, Helsinki (Matti Heiliö, Lappeenranta) NRF, Pretoria (www.nrf.ac.za) • • • • ICMI, Paris (Michelle Artigue) MSI, www.msi-sig.org ANSTI, UNESCO, ( J.G.M. Massaquoi) TWAS, Nairobi (H.A. Hassan) • ICIAM (Alain Damlamian) • [email protected] (Herb Clemens) • [email protected] (TSOU Sheung Tsun) • Thanks for the financial and organisational support of the last two. [email protected], Amsterdam 64