Developing mathematics in the Developing World

Report
Mathematics and the Developing Countries:
Mathematics in Africa
Andreas Griewank
Humboldt Universität Berlin, [email protected]
Gareth Witten
Laure Pauline Fotso
Mohamed Jaoua
Wandera Ogana
Bernard Philippe
Leif Abrahamsson
TSOU Sheung Tsun
University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
University of Nairobi, Kenya
Uppsala University , Sweden
University of Cape Town , SA
Nice/Tunisia
INRIA Rennes
Oxford University, [email protected] EMS
[email protected], Amsterdam
1
Challenges with the development of advanced
Centres of Excellence
Gareth Witten, University of Cape Town , SA
• Mathematics and science are
key priorities
• Research Chairs - 21 scientists
in different fields. The aim is to
create 56 research chairs by
2008, and 210 by 2010.
• Several Centres of Excellence increase in the applications of
mathematics
• Increase in graduates from
mathematics departments due
to new postgraduate courses
in “modern” applied
mathematics programmes, e.g.
mathematical finance,
mathematical biology.
[email protected], Amsterdam
2
Challenges with the development of
advanced Centres of Excellence
Gareth Witten, University of Cape Town , SA
• A Student's perspective • Remedies
-
Lack of career path
Affirmative action
Economics
Outdated curricula
• Institutional Perspective
- lack of collaboration and healthy
competition
- lack of motivation due to poor
remuneration
- Mutual support network
- Improved T&L in institutions
- Establish link between
industry and ed. Institutions
- improve standards of ed.
through peer-review process
- Encourage involvement of
the African Diaspora
[email protected], Amsterdam
3
5ECM
14 - 18 July 2008
Amsterdam RAI, The Netherlands
Mathematics and Developing
Countries Round Table:Case of
Mathematics in Cameroon
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
4
Plan
• Introduction
• Status Quo of mathematics in statistical
terms
• Challenges with the Development of
advanced centres of Excellences
– Barriers
– Remedies
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
5
Introduction
• Focus on the two topics :
• Status Quo of mathematics in statistical terms and
Challenges with the Development of advanced centres of
Excellences.
• With regard topic 1
– Information on FS of UYI where is the mother Department of
Mathematics in Cameroon.
– Projection on Department of Mathematics
– Statistics on departments of mathematics of Cameroonian
universities.
• Concerning topics 2
– barriers (political, economical and cultural)
– remedies
• Twining of departments
• Strategies to persuade African governments to support the
development of mathematics
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
6
Status Quo in statistical terms :
Facts on FS of UYI
• Human resources :
– Ratio teacher/students = 1/53 in 2007.
– 240 teachers (28 full Prof., 38 Ass. Prof. 139 Lecturers, 35
assistant lecturers)
• Infrastructures and equipment:
– classrooms capacity= 3200 seats,
– one main University library capacity= 200 seats,
– 80 computers (60 for students and 20 for teachers)
• Teaching load:
– to cover 80% of the program, 102491 hours are needed with
17% for lectures, 44% for tutorials 39% for practical lessons.
– Only 37% of these hours can be covered on normal duty need
of 63% of over time from teachers
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
7
Status Quo in statistical terms :
Facts on FS of UYI
• The teaching overload heavily and negatively affects the
quality of:
– Teaching;
– Thesis supervision or direction and
– Research.
• Teaching conditions: Use of old teaching techniques:
– ˂ 15% teachers have electronic lectures notes;
– ˂ 20% of courses have lectures notes manuals;
– 0 online lectures.
• Success rate:
– 30% at from level 1 to 2
– meantime for bachelor degree is 5 instead of 3 years
– from 3 students enrolled at level 1: 1 passes to 2, 1 repeats,
1drops out
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
8
Status Quo in statistical terms :
Facts on FS of UYI
Student population
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Level 1
4123
3602
4277
2930
4030
3870
5296
5302
7 064
Level 2
1188
1467
1519
1752
1760
1386
1860
2179
2 511
Level 3
814
1275
1604
1622
1967
2150
2271
2233
2 552
Level 4
313
685
877
1182
943
1452
1601
1505
1 456
Level 5
96
208
429
476
358
514
435
280
264
Total
6534
7237
Laure Pauline Fotso
8706
7962
9058
9372
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
11463
11499
13847
9
Status Quo in statistical terms :
Facts on FS of UYI
Student population
16000
14000
12000
Level 1
10000
Level 2
Level 3
8000
Level 4
6000
Level 5
4000
Total
2000
Laure Pauline Fotso
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
0
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
10
Status Quo in statistical terms : FS UYI
(Department of Mathematics)
• Human resources :26 teachers with: 4 full Prof., 2 Ass. Prof.,16
lecturers, 4 assistant lecturers.
• Infrastructures and Equipment : 09 office rooms (average 2
seats per room), 0 computer for undergraduate students,05
computers for 26 teachers
• Teaching load
–
–
–
–
Average teaching load per teacher =323 hours.
Average number of different subjects taught by a teacher = 3.8.
only 33.2% of hours can be covered on normal time.
Up to 67.7 % must be covered on overtime by permanent
teachers.
• Student population in 2007/2008 up to level 5
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Total
988
410
596
240
26
2260
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
11
Status Quo in statistical terms :
Departments of Mathematics of Cameroon
Student population in 2006/2007
U. Buea
U. Douala
ENSET
Level 1
2765(279) 312(24)
Level 2
Level 3
Bachelor
level
Level 4
FS
U. Yaoundé I
ENS
Total
FS
1779(244) 1250(239) 675(120)
5302(863)
235(21)
802(99)
395(80)
627(111)
2179(291)
365(34)
459(82)
496(81)
635(108)
2233(456)
912(79)
3040(425) 2141(400)
1937(339)
9714(1610)
20509(3132)
137(7)
Level 5
Total
U.
Dschang
212(14)
277(31)
82(13)
772(65)
1505(177)
2848(300)
215(14)
9(0)
23(4)
x(x)
534(27)
x(x)
2924(286) 1339(107)
2252(417) x(x)
11924(1818)
3328(456)
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
12
Status Quo in statistical terms :
Departments of Mathematics of Cameroon
Teacher population in 2006/2007
U. Buea
U. Douala
ENSET FS
U.
Dschang
U. Yaoundé I
ENS
Total
FS
Full Professor
6(0)
1(0)
1(0)
4(0)
8(1)
26(4)
Associate Professor
7(2)
1(0)
2(0)
7(1)
32(1)
48(2)
Lecturer
65(4)
30(x)
65(x)
66(x)
92(x)
133(16)
451(x)
Assistant Lecturer
67(x)
22(x)
25(x)
31(x)
22(x)
10(4)
177(x)
0(0)
5(x)
9(x)
0(0)
0(0)
30(4)
145(x)
59(x)
102(x)
108(x)
154(x)
247(30)
Teaching Assistant (held by
PhD students)
Total
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
46(5)
97(3)
44(x)
815(x)
13
Challenges with advanced centres of
Excellences: Barriers
• Political
– No policy of investment in research in general;
– No restriction at the entrance of the first level of the university:
with the exception of the University of Buea  “massicification
problem”  teachers at all levels heavily overloaded with teaching
hours  no time left to build and strengthen quality research
centres.
– Research carried out by African mathematicians is not perceived
by political power as appropriate for the local development of the
country
– Most African mathematicians continue to work on research topics
dealt with in their doctorate studies in Europe or North America.
– Few African mathematicians hold key decision making or taking
position.
– National Mathematical Society not functioning in some African
countries like Cameroon
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
14
Challenges with advanced centres of
Excellences: Barriers
• Economical
– Low salary condition  teachers invest themselves in parallel
activities  low quality research  stagnation of carrier
advancement. Example: only 6 teachers at the magisterial level
out of the 26 teachers of Math Dept of FS of UYI, ˃ 72%
stagnated as lecturers and usually remain to retirement.
– Insufficient research grants for PhD students. only 4 teaching
assistantships for more than 20 PhD students.
– Low seating capacity of classrooms  impossibility of
scheduling all the courses hours  insufficient coverage of the
full programme
– insufficient computers equipment for teachers as well as for
students
– Best PhD graduates immigrate to European or North American
universities for better leaving and teaching conditions.
– Poorly furnished library and no access to online publications
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
15
Challenges with advanced centres of
Excellences :Barriers
• Cultural
– Mathematicians are believed to be too squared to adjust in
society.
– Mathematicians do not know how to compromise in a world full
of compromises
– Classical logic is not in accordance with the African culture
where fuzzy reasoning and chaos reign. In African culture for
example, the concept of time and distance is irrelevant
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
16
Challenges with advanced centres of
Excellences: Remedies
•
Twining of departments
–
–
–
–
Co direction of Master and PhD thesis with mobility of students
and teachers will boost the quality of the thesis.
Visiting professors from the North
Joint project proposal redaction addressing key development
areas of Africa such as management of natural resources,
food security, health and corruption.
Departments from the developed countries can share with
their twins from developing countries:
•
•
•
•
access right to online scientific documentation
Access right to online lectures notes
Lectures notes manuals
software licences
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
17
Challenges with advanced centres of
Excellences: Remedies
•
Strategies to persuade African governments to support the
development of mathematics
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Creation of lobby groups
More mathematicians should develop interest in politics and do
politics to seat at the decision making and decision taking tables
African mathematicians should carry out more applied researches for
the development of Africa
Existing applied research results should be made visible
Good applied research projects for development should be proposed
to the government for funding.
African mathematicians should actively be involved in using their
knowledge in solving African daily problems
Sensitisation workshops on the use of mathematics for development
with concrete examples will help
Large diffusion through different type of media (written press, radio,
television, Internet, etc.) of concrete (visible in the country) examples
of the use of mathematics in solving African development problems
Laure Pauline Fotso
FS, University of Yaoundé I
Email: [email protected]
18
THANK YOU
Is Mathematical research an
issue for a developing country ?
Mohamed JAOUA
Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis & UNESCO Chair, Tunis
Problems a DC scientist has to face

Legitimacy





Doesn’t research compete education ?



Concentration vs dissemination
Specialization vs diversity
And the conflict on time and priorities …


They didn’t invent anything we use or need
We just don’t know how efficient they are
Are our researchers credible ?
Scarcity :


Material means … though Maths and even Applied Maths don’t need much
But what about human resources ?



: no evaluation system
Do we really need it now ?
And are we willing to pay the price ? Scientists, politicians, and people
They are scarce ...
And above all diverted to the single field providing recognition : politics
As for Applied Mathematics



Weak industry => no problems to solve
Weak technical management => no people to talk with
Aren’t applications too much « high tech », isn’t all this stuff beyond what’s
needed ?
Amsterdam 2008
Mohamed Jaoua
21
Applied Mathematics are crucial for DC
 Needed to « produce » engineers

A crucial point for any industrial
development
 Development : new paradigms have
upsurged from

The digital revolution




Mathematical and numerical modelling
are the heart of every industrial process
Targets are rapidly moving from high
tech applications to every day ones
Computer costs are dropping
The industrial globalization


Industrial processes are no longer local
Technology needs to be proceeded in any place
at its current level
 A new deal, with real opportunities for
those who master Mathematics and IT
Amsterdam 2008
Mohamed Jaoua
22
A tunisian experience
 1983-2008 : The LAMSIN

A « built from scratch » Applied Math laboratory





Relying on a serious mathematical background
80 researchers (30 PhD and 12 Professors)
3 research teams associated to INRIA, 2000 …
Good publication activity in international journals
Master and Doctoral School in Applied Maths
 A regional role, and an international recognition



Networks : TamTam (Maghreb), Sarima (Africa), …
UNESCO Chair « Maths and development » - awarded 2003
AUF regional Excellence Pole (2003 …)
 An indeed international place



Collaborative research on mutual interest topics
Co-advised PhD theses
Conferences (TAM-TAM, PICOF, CARI), workshops, ...
Amsterdam 2008
Mohamed Jaoua
23
Elements of strategy
 Gather together the research force


A single national lab for research … but
Its researchers teach in several Universities
 Push away the borders

Regional groupments


Maghreb, Africa, EuroMediterranean
Maximal international opening, bringing


Expertise, structure, legitimacy
North/South complementarities
 Jealously save the scientific independence


However, a global policy is crucial
1996 has been the turning point in Tunisia
 Better have a lot of luck …
Amsterdam 2008
Mohamed Jaoua
24
Main concerns
 How to deal with thematic transferts ?



Focus on methods acquisition
Relevance to local applications would come later
IT boom, and methods migration, have helped much
 Can brain drain be opposed in an open world ?



Make your place a nice one to work and live in
Produce more than they can take
Make globalization a chance to that respect (cf India)


North and South are finally on the same boat
Much can be done on the spot
 Governance is a crucial issue for the future


Relevant decisions regarding science need scientists
Building capacities is a long run task, needing broad
vision politicians, and a social control
Amsterdam 2008
Mohamed Jaoua
25
Thank you for your attention …
www.lamsin.rnu.tn
Amsterdam 2008
Mohamed Jaoua
26
Promoting mathematics in Africa
through the
African Mathematics Millennium
Science Initiative (AMMSI)
by
Wandera Ogana
AMMSI PROGRAMME DIRECTOR
School of Mathematics, University of Nairobi,
P.O. Box 30197, GPO 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
E-mail: [email protected]
Presented at the Round Table on Mathematics and the Developing World. 5th European
Congress of Mathematics, 17 th July 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
27
1.
BRIEF HISTORY
28
1.1 Millennium Science Initiative
(MSI)
Formulated and fostered by the World Bank
in late 1990’s
 Main Goal: Promote S&T spearheaded by
scientists in the Developing countries
 Administered by Science Initiative Group
(SIG)
 Activities in South America and Asia: Brazil,
Chile, Mexico, Vietnam etc

29
1.2 World Bank/SIG Initiative for
Africa
 Meetings organised through the African Academy
of Sciences (AAS) and the Thirld World Academy of
Sciences (TWAS), during 2000 – 2002, led to
establishment of initial stage of African MSI in:
Instrumentation & Information Technology
Biotechnology
Mathematics
 Meetings of writing group on Mathematics held
during 2003 – 2004
 African Mathematics Millennium Science Initiative
established in 2005
 Seed money by The Mellon Foundation and the
International Mathematical Union in 2005
30
2. OBJECTIVES
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
To strengthen the teaching and learning of
university mathematics and its
applications.
To support research in mathematics and
mathematics education
To enhance capacity through linkages
and networks
To undertake outreach and public
education in mathematics
To enhance the use of ICT in mathematics
teaching and learning
31
3
ADMINISTRATIVE
STRUCTURE
3.1 Distributed Network

Five Regional Offices each run by a
Regional Coordinator
 Central Africa: Yaounde, Cameroon (Prof. Bitjong





Ndombol)
Eastern Africa: Nairobi, Kenya (Prof. Wandera Ogana)
Southern Africa: Gabarone, Botswana (Prof. Edward Lungu)
Western Africa, Zone 1: Ibadan, Nigeria (Prof. Samwel Ilori)
Western Africa, Zone 2: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (Prof.
Hamidou Toure)
Programme Office located in Nairobi,
Kenya
33
3.2 AMMSI Programme Committee
Members: AMMSI Regional Coordinators
Main Functions:
To Write project proposals for funding
 To Formulate and design programmes
 To Implement activities
 To Liaise with collaborating institutions

34
3.3 Selection and Evaluation
Committee
Members:



Prof Bernt Øksendal, University of Oslo, Norway
(Facilitator)
Prof Augustin Banyaga, Pennsylvania State
University, USA
3rd Member to be appointed from Central Africa
Main Functions:



To select Fellowship candidates
To select and evaluate research projects
To evaluate the operations of AMMSI
35
4. ACTIVITIES TO DATE
36
4.1 Research/Visiting Scientist
Fellowships
To enable staff conduct research and
postgraduate teaching at host universities in
sub-Saharan African for periods ranging
from a few weeks to one year
 15 Fellowships awarded during 2005 – 2007
 Fellowship amounts increased from $ 3,000
in 2006 to $ 5,000 in 2007
 Impact of fellowships on collaboration,
linkages, research and publications

37
4.2 Postgraduate Scholarships
For Ph.D, M.Sc or Postgraduate Diploma
studies in universities in sub-Saharan
Africa
 Awarded 170 partial scholarships during
2005 – 2007
 Amounts in the range US $ 300 – 1,000
 Impact of scholarships on postgraduate
education, research, publications and
staff development

38
4.3 Support of Scientific Meetings





Conference on Representation Theory in
Geometry and Physics, Porto Novo, Benin
(2005)
Conference and Mathematical Biology
Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya (2006)
SAMSA Conference in Windhoek, Namibia
(2007)
In 2008 to support conference in Central
Africa
Support by The London Mathematical
Society to enable postgraduate students
attend conferences
39
4.4 Mentoring African Research in
Mathematics (MARM)
4.4.1 Main Objectives
Promote mentoring relationships between
mathematicians in other continents and subSaharan African colleagues, together with
their students.
Create joint research projects and cultivate
longer-term partnerships between institutions
in Africa and those elsewhere
40
4.4.2 Collaborating and Funding
Organisations

Collaborating Organisations:
International Mathematical Union (IMU)
The London Mathematical Society (LMS)
AMMSI

Funding Organisations:
The Nuffield Foundation (from 2005)
The Leverhulme Trust (from 2006)
41
4.4.3 Participation

The following universities in Africa are currently
participating:
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
University of Buea, Cameroon
Kwame Nkurumah University of Science &
Technology, Ghana


Six other universities have been selected to join
Mentors (and prospective mentors) are
distinguished mathematicians interested in
colaborative links with African universities
42
5
WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT
43
5.1 Positive
Making a difference to professional
careers through Fellowships
 Making a difference to academic future
through Scholarships
 Enabling publications by staff and
postgraduate students
 Enabling staff and institutions in different
continents to collaborate through MARM

44
5.2 Room for Improvement
Limited funds, hence small scholarship
and fellowship awards
 Lack of diversification of activities
 No funding of research activities
 No funding to support conference
attendance by African mathematicians
despite the wide interest expressed
 Looking for partners and support to
continue and extend activities

45
6. SUPPORTING
ORGANISATIONS
46
6.1 Financial Support
Mellon Foundation
 Nuffield Foundation
 Leverhulme Trust
 International Mathematical Union
 London Mathematical Society
 US National Committee on Mathematics

47
6.2 Facilities and Administrative
Support









Universite Gaston Berger, Senegal
University of Botswana, Botswana
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
University of Nairobi, Kenya
University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon
University of Yaounde I, Cameroon
University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Science Initiative Group (SIG)
African Academy of Sciences (AAS)
48
website :
http://www.ammsi.org
Partnership of INRIA with African research
teams: experience and evolution.
Bernard Philippe (INRIA)
• CARI & SARIMA experiences
• Principles of the sought partnership
• Some encountered difficulties and
associated questions
50
Two questions
• For co-advised PhD students, how to
obtain a definition of their teaching duties
compatible with their PhD registration?
• Some African master programmes only
exist because of the participation of
European lecturers. Is this acceptable to
continue the support of these
programmes?
51
International Science Programme
Uppsala University
Mathematics in Sub-Saharan Africa – an overview of Swedish cooperation,
by
Leif Abrahamsson ([email protected])
International Science Programme (ISP), at Uppsala University.
Focus:
To strengthen research and postgraduate education in basic sciences in developing
countries
International Programme in Physical Science (IPPS) 1961
International Programme in Chemical Sciences (IPICS) 1970
International Programme Mathematical Sciences (IPMS) 2001
Funded by SAREC (the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation, about 2.5 MEuro
2008) and Uppsala University (about 200 kEuro 2008).
52
International Science Programme
Uppsala University
ISP – university based organisation
 base for collegial co-operation
 recognition among foreign
universities
as direct co-operation as possible
Based on scientific criteria
Flexibility
Programmes headed by senior
scientists
From left to right: P. Weke, J. Owino (Nairobi), J. Mango (Makerere) and
I. Mahara (NUR).EAUMP-meeting in Kigali, March 2008.
53
International Science Programme
Uppsala University
54
International Science Programme
Uppsala University
ISP Supported Activites 2007
Activity
Number
PhD students
MSc/Mphil students
181
332
Scholarships within Sweden
(months)
Sholarships within rest of Europe
(months)
Scholarships within the Regions
(months)
PhD theses
MSc/Mphil theses
52 (251)
15 (60)
55 (227)
12
141
Math students at UEM in Maputo.
Publications in international Journals
Publications in regional/local Journals
Conference and Workshop contributions
140
56
256
55
International Science Programme
Uppsala University
WHERE? Current ISP-supported groups and networks
GNI per Capita USD 2003; World Bank Report 2005 LD as defined in ”The Least Developed
Countries 2002; UNCTAD/LDS/2002
AFRICA
Low Income Countries
LD
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
LD
Ethiopia
Ghana
Kenya
LD
Malawi
LD
Mali
LD
Mauritania
Nigeria
LD
Senegal
LD
Tanzania
LD
Uganda
LD
Zambia
Zimbabwe
300
640
90
320
390
170
290
430
320
550
290
240
380
480
ASIA
Low Income Countries
LD
Bangladesh
LD
Cambodia
LD
Lao PDR
400
310
320
Lower Middle Income Countries
Sri Lanka
930
LATIN AMERICA
Lower Middle Income Countries
Ecuador
1,790
Peru
2,150
SWEDEN
28,840
Category-1 countries
AFRICA
Burkina Faso
Ethiopia
Kenya
Mali
Mocambique
Rwanda
Tanzania
Uganda
Zambia
ASIA
Bangladesh
Cambodia
LATIN AMERICA
Bolivia
(”bilateral countries” in red)
56
International Science Programme
Uppsala University
•
IPMS
•
IPMS started in 2001. Total budget 2008: about 500 kEuro.
•
EAUMP (network between UoN, UDSM and Makerere; cooperation since 2002), support 2008: about 110
kEuro:
6 PhD-students started sandwich programme in 2003 (graduates in 2008/09) and 7 more in 2007.
A number of MSc-students have graduated (about 2 each year); regional MSc-courses.
Regional courses and workshops in cooperation with ICTP, and maybe with CIMPA in the future.
National University of Rwanda is to become member of the network.
•
•
•
•
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PDE, Modeling and Control (network between the universities in Ouagadougou, Nouakchott and SaintLouis; cooperation since 2003), support 2008: about 73 kEuro.
3 PhD-students started in 2007, and 3 more will start this year.
A number of MSc- and local PhD-students have already graduated.
The network runs the West African Training School (WATS) in cooperation with ICTP, with participating
students from many West African countries.
Ghana and Cameroon to be phased out this year, or next. Ethiopia is to be incorporated in the bilateral
Programme from 2009.
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International Science Programme
Uppsala University
ISP in the future.
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Support to research groups/departments only in so-called Category-1 countries.
No new collaboration, even in Category-1 countries.
Networks are not affected by these new rules, if Category-1 countries benefit from them.
Probably more involvement in bilateral programmes in basic science.
Bilateral programmes via SAREC:
- Total annual budget slightly less than 100 MEuro.
- 20% for basic science(?).
- At the moment only two programmes that involves mathematics: one at Universidad Eduardo
Mondlane in Maputo, Mocambique (Swedish coordinator at ISP), and one at the National
University of Rwanda in Butare, Rwanda (Swedish coordinator at Linköping University).
SAREC will be replaced by a new unit within Sida/Asdi from October 1, 2008.
(More) problems for mathematics:
- The content, etc of a bilateral programme is decided by the receiving university, and
mathematics is (usually) not a prioritised subject. Bilateral funds are not earmarked for
certain activities (principle of ownership), which could affect mathematics negatively.
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Tsou Sheung Tsun, Oxford University
59
Zentralblatt
61
Twinned institutions as of July 2008
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Individual Action
• Individual donations
- Book donation
- Donation through national society subscription
- Honorarium donation
• Short Courses
- Intensive courses
- „Cameos“
• Collaboration at Institute level
- Pay subscription
- Conference attendance
- More ...
• Stepping stone approach
- Brazil, China, India, Vietnam, ...
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Some relevant contacts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ICTP, Trieste, (Le Dung Trang)
SIU/NUFU, Bergen, (Ragni Piene, Oslo)
ISP, Uppsala, ( Leif Abrahamsson)
CIMPA, Nice, (Michel Jambu)
SIAM/NSF, (Barbara Keyfitz, Tony Chan)
DAAD, Bonn, Nairobi, Dehli, Johannesburg ... (German Gov.)
SARIMA Rennes (Phillipe Bernard )
London Mathematical Society, (John Ball)
CIMO, Helsinki (Matti Heiliö, Lappeenranta)
NRF, Pretoria (www.nrf.ac.za)
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•
•
•
ICMI, Paris (Michelle Artigue)
MSI, www.msi-sig.org
ANSTI, UNESCO, ( J.G.M. Massaquoi)
TWAS, Nairobi (H.A. Hassan)
• ICIAM (Alain Damlamian)
• [email protected] (Herb Clemens)
• [email protected] (TSOU Sheung Tsun)
• Thanks for the financial and organisational support of the last two.
[email protected], Amsterdam
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