Document

Report
Pine Terpene Biofuels &
Renewable Chemicals
Jennifer Lauture, MSc Student
Gary Peter, Professor
School of Forest Resources & Conservation
Alan Hodges, Extension Specialist,
Food & Resource Economics
Biofuels & Co-products
1st GENERATION BIOFUELS
Extraction
•Sugar
– Ferment to EtOH
– Sugar
•Starch
– Amylase + ferment
to EtOH
– Oil, animal feed
•Oil
– Transesterification
to biodiesel
– Glycerin
Come from domesticated plants breed &
selected for concentration & yield of
edible food molecules
2nd GENERATION BIOFUELS
Deconstruction
•Lignocellulose
– Sugar Platform
• Size reduction + degradation
+ fermentation
• Power, lignin
– Gas Platform
• Anaerobic digestion to biogas
• Gasification + catalytic
synthesis to liquid fuel
• Power
– Liquid Platform
• Cracking / pyrolysis +
upgrading
Non-edible parts of food plants & undomesticated
grasses & trees which have high heterogeneity &
low chemical uniformity
Southern Pines: The Renewable
Chemicals, Biofuels & Bioenergy Star
SUSTAINABLE
• Growth exceeds removals
• High harvest index, energy
positive, carbon negative due to
low inputs
• Largest biomass supply chain in
the world serves large markets
for “traditional” lignocellulose
products
• High value markets for mono- and
diterpenes collected as coproducts
– Pinene can be converted to JP-8 &
JP-10 jet fuels
• Wood & wood pellets for
electricity
• Lignocellulose biofuels from pine
being commercialized?
BIOLOGICALLY FEASIBLE
• Grows on land not suitable for
food production
• Year long carbon accumulation
• Established growing systems
based on robust empirical
knowledge
• Early stages of domestication
– 3rd generation of breeding
– Genetic engineering & clonal
propagation methods developed
• Naturally synthesizes & stores
lipids & terpenes in wood
– Inducible synthesis of terpenes in
wood
– Wood terpene content as high as
40% of wood dry weight
Pine Terpenes
• Pines naturally synthesize
a diversity of terpenes as
defense compounds
Pine Chemicals is a $3
Billion/Y Global Business
Biosynthe
sis
Extraction
Crude
Products
Pine
Live
Tree
Gum
Turpentine
& Rosin
850,000 Mg/y
• Terpenes accumulate in
naturally to >20% in
heartwood
– Constitutive synthesis
– Inducible synthesis
• Pinene dimers meet most
specs for jet fuel
Final
Products
Specialty
Chemicals
Pulp
mill
Specialt
y Resins
CTO &
CST
Wood
Turpentine&
Rosin
450,000 Mg/y
Flavors &
Fragrances
5,000 Mg/y
Industrial
Biofuels
FDACS Office of Energy Award: Develop
Cost Effective Tree Tapping Methods
• Tree size & health with
stimulators
– Age
– Stand treatment history
• Thinning
– Fertilization
• Pinestraw raking
– Fertilization
– Inducers
• Methyl jasmonate
• Ethephon
• MeJ + Ethephon
– In-tree injection post tapping
– Second year tapping of MeJ
treated trees
• Experimental design detects
interactions between stand and
tree features with inducers
• Test ARA (Applied Research
Associates) hydrotreating method
• Target is < $800/ton
J. Lauture

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