Road to the Agricultural Revolution

Report
Ancient History CST
REVIEW
Stuff you should remember
from 6th grade history
1
Paleolithic Era
• Paleolithic Era also
means Old Stone
Age.
• The Paleolithic or
old stone age
began 2 million
years go.
2
Paleolithic Era
• Homo Sapiens during
this period were:
– Nomads
– The first to make simple
tools and weapons.
– Make cave art
– Master the use of Fire.
– Develop a language
– Living in clans
3
Neolithic Era
• Neolithic Era also
means the New
Stone Age.
Homo Sapiens during
this period:
• Developed agriculture (farming)
• Domesticated (tamed) animals
• Used advanced tools like spears
• Developed weaving skills
4
What did it all lead to?
• All of these developments
led to the rise of settlements and
agriculture.
• Increased the
world’s population
• The first cities
• This advanced
homo sapiens
towards civilization.
5
River Valley Civilizations
Major river systems
supported permanent
settlements and
civilizations:
a) Agriculture led to food
surpluses
b) Food surpluses led to
complex societies with
different classes
c) Complex societies led to
centers of culture and
power (cities)
Civilization
River (s)
Mesopotamia Euphrates &
Tigris
Egypt
Nile
Kush
Nile
6
Geography
The Fertile
Crescent
• Area of land
between the
Persian Gulf and
the
Mediterranean
Sea in
Southwest Asia
7
Geography
One land… two rivers
• Mesopotamia means = “land
between the rivers”
– Tigris River and Euphrates
River
• Both rivers flooded once a year
and left thick bed of silt.
– Silt: rich, new soil farmers
could plant and harvest
enormous quantities of wheat
8
and barley
Geography
City-States
-Geography separated
Sumerian cities from
each other--the desert
made travel and
communication
difficult
-Had a fortress to
protect it from invaders,
since it had no natural
barriers for protection
9
Religion
Polytheism:
Belief in Many Gods
Priests:
served as rulers--go
between humans and gods
10
Achievements
Science and Technology
• Invented the wheel,
the sail, the plow
• First to use bronze.
• Developed first writing
system called
cuneiform
• Built irrigation
systems- water their
crops
11
Politics
Power of the Priests
• Sumer’s earliest governments
were controlled by temple
priests
– Farmers believed they
needed blessings for
success of their crops
– Priests were the middle man
for the gods
– Priests demanded portion of
farmer crops as tax
12
Politics
City-States
•A city-state was an
independent state made
up of a city and the
surrounding land and
villages
•-Each had its own
government and culture
13
Code of Hammurabi
• King of Babylonia (today
southwestern Iraq)created a
set of 282 laws that
governed the people of
Babylonia
• Brought order and justice
to society
• Covered everyday life
• Influenced later codes of
law, even that of Greece
and Rome
14
Economy
• Specialization of Labor:
people had different jobs to
help society
• Increasing trade along rivers
– traded with Egypt
• Development of the world’s
first cities
15
Mesopotamian Society
Kings and Priests
Wealthy merchants
Farmers
Slaves
16
Egypt
17
Geography
• Nile River – 4,100
miles long, flows
northward
• Every year in July the
river flooded
regularly leaving
behind silt (rich soil).
• The Nile-- longest
river in the world!
• Natural barriers kept
out invaders: deserts
on both sides of the
Nile,cataracts (river
rapids), delta
marshes
18
Religion
• Polytheistic
• Deities controlled forces of
nature & human
activities
• Gods & goddesses
worshipped to make life
go smoothly
• Gods were seen as good
to the people of Egypt
• Built huge temples to
honor gods
• Believed in afterlife
– Osiris – god of the dead
19
Book of the Dead
• Important manuscript written in ancient Egypt
• Collection of spells and prayers
• Egyptians would study it to receive life after
death
• The god Osiris would grant life after death if
people knew the magic spells
20
Achievements
• Developed first
paper called
papyrus
• Hieroglyphics:
writing system
using picture
symbols to
represent sounds
21
Achievements in Math and Science
• Knowledge in math
= skillful engineers
– Pyramids
– Palaces
• Egyptian architects
first to use stone
columns in homes,
palaces and
temples
22
Achievements in Math and Science
• Developed a 12
month, 365 day
calendar from
studying the stars
– So accurate it was only
6 hours off from
today’s calendar year
23
Egyptian Art
• Architecture reflected
religious beliefs (eternal
life)
• Art emphasized life after
death
24
Politics
• Egyptian kings = pharaohs =gods
• Pharaohs stood at center of religion as well as
government and army
• Type of Government = Theocracy (government
from god(s))
• Kingdoms were dynasties (line of rulers from
the same family)
25
Economics
• Farming--allowed
Egyptians to have more
food than needed
Lower Egypt
(surplus)
• Irrigation: watering
crops
• Also used for
transportation,
drinking, bathing,
cooking, cleaning
• Traded with
Mesopotamians
Upper Egypt
26
Social Structure
In order of rank:
1. Pharaoh
2. Priests and nobles
3. military
4. Traders, artisans,
shopkeepers, and
scribes
5. Farmers and herders
6. Unskilled workers
7. slaves
27
Ancient Israelites
28
The First Israelites
• Originally herders and
traders from Mesopotamia
(Iraq) that later traveled to
Canaan (today Lebanon,
Israel, and Jordan)
• They were monotheistic,
believing only in one God.
• Abraham = founding figure
of Judaism, Christianity, and
Islam
29
The Ten Commandments
• Moses =Ten Commandments
• While in the Sinai Desert for 40 years,
according to the Bible, Moses was given
the Ten Commandments.
• The Ten Commandments were the laws
of God that the Israelites were expected
to follow.
30
The Ten Commandments
• These laws became part of the Torah,
which is the Hebrew Bible.
• The Torah explained what God
considered to be right and wrong.
• Why important? The Ten
Commandments helped shape the
basic moral laws of many nations.
31
Judaism
• Jews meet on the
Sabbath in a
synagogue
• Exodus = escape from
slavery in Egypt
32
Judaism
•The Hebrew faith is
known as Judaism
•Followers of Judaism
are known as Jews
• Hebrew is the
language of Judaism
33
The Survival of Judaism
• Diaspora = Jews were scattered
throughout the world.
• Rabbis = teachers of Judaism
34
Ancient Greece
35
Geography
• Mountainous
geography led to
independent citystates
• Bodies of water
(Aegean Sea, Black
Sea, and
Mediterranean Sea)
were used for trade
36
Politics
• Early city-states were ruled by kings
=monarchy
• Some city-states had a few wealthy
people rule= oligarchy
• Other city-states supported one wealthy
person to rule them = tyranny (similar to
a monarch, but without the legal right to
rule)
37
The Persian Empire
• Founded by King Cyrus in 559 B.C.E. (ruled a
diverse population)
– Each region (satrapy) was allowed to have
its own ruler
• Expanded to include all of Western Asia and
Egypt
• Tried to conquer Greece twice
– King Darius and King Xerxes (both failed)38
Effects of the Persian Wars
• Greek victory
creates a sense
of unity
• Athens had
control of Greece
through the
Delian League.
• Athens becomes
rich and
powerful
39
Athens and Sparta
• Athens used its ports and navy to
defeat the Persian army during the
Persian Wars
• Sparta used its well-trained army to
defeat the Persian army.
40
Athens and Sparta
• In Athens, eligible people focused on
being good citizens by participating in
governing the Athenian empire.
• In Sparta, everyone focused on being
or raising good soldiers.
41
Athenian Democracy
• One city-state (Athens), allowed people to
rule=democracy
• Athenian democracy-anyone could be a
citizen except:
– Women
– Slaves
– Men not from Athens
– Men who did not own property
42
Direct democracy
• Government of ancient Athens
• People would gather at large
meetings to decide on
government issues
• Every free male citizen would
vote first hand on laws and
policies
• This was possible in Athens since
fewer than 6,000 citizens
attended assemblies to vote
every ten days
43
Representative Democracy
• Citizens select representatives that will
make governmental decisions on their
behalf
• A government in which people vote for
representatives. The representatives make
rules and laws that govern themselves and
the people.
• This is the same kind of government we have
in the United States
44
The Peloponnesian War
• After the Persian Wars,
Athens became very
powerful and rich
– Other city-states felt Athens
became too greedy and
powerful
• Sparta formed alliances
and declared war on
Athens= Peloponnesian
War
• Sparta Won
45
Effects of the Peloponnesian
Wars
• Ended the reign of Athens
• Oligarchy replaced democracy
• Macedonia becomes the next great
power
46
The Rise of Alexander the Great
• King of Macedonia (Philip)
was assassinated
• Alexander became king of
Macedonia
• Conquered the Greek citystates, Egypt, the Persian
Empire, Western Asia, parts
of India and Pakistan (the
known world)
• Spread Greek culture
(Hellenism)
47
Hellenistic Culture
• Blend of Greek culture with
Egyptian, Persian and Indian
influences
48
Religion
• Greeks had a
polytheistic
religion=belief in
many gods
• Mythology=
explained
changing of the
seasons and the
mysteries of
nature.
49
Religion
•Greek gods/goddesses
had many human
qualities such as love,
hate, and jealousy
•Greek gods competed
and fought with each
other. (Zeus, Hera,
Athena, Poseidon, Hades,
and more)
50
Homer
• Homer=Greates
t Greek story
teller
• Told epic poems
about the Trojan
War = The
Odyssey and
The Illiad
51
Greek Art
– Sculptures
showed freedom
of
movement and
energy
- Sculptors tried to
capture
perfection
52
Greek Architecture
• Temples and buildings
– Parthenon
– Acropolis
– Amphitheatres
• Columns
– Doric (plain)
– Ionic (balanced)
– Corithian (decorative)
• Still used today
53
Greek Drama
• Greeks invented drama:
• Tragedy – a serious
stories about love, hate,
war or betrayal
• Comedy – stories with
humor and satire which
means they poked fun at
customs or respected
people
54
History
• Herodotus – Greek
historian who is
known as the “father
of history”
– wrote about the
Persian Wars
• Thucydides –wrote
about the
Peloponnesian War.
55
Science
• Archimedes
– Discovered the
principles of
density and
buoyancy
• Hippocrates –the
founder of medicine
56
Math
• Euclid – the father of geometry
• Pythagoras –founded the Pythagorean
theorem
57
Ancient India
58
Geography
• Heavy rains=Monsoons
flooded rivers
• Indus River and Ganges River supported
agriculture
• Agriculture led to civilization in IndiaMohenjo Daro
59
Aryan Invasions
• Indo-European (Aryan) people arrived at
India and blended with the native Harrapa
people
• They brought
– New language (Sanskrit)
– new gods
– horses
– Weapons made of iron
• They conquered more of India
60
The Caste System
Aryans also brought the caste system
Brahman
Warriors
Merchants
Untouchables
61
Hinduism
• Belief in many gods= polytheistic
– gods like Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
• Based on the gods of the Aryans
• Stories of the gods written in the Rig
Veda
62
Hinduism
•Includes belief in
reincarnation=reborn into a
different body after you die
•Reborn until moksha
(release) is achieved
63
Hinduism
-Collections of sacred
(holy) books
– Rigveda
– Bhagavad Gita
• Stories, prayers and
guide to a good life
64
Buddhism
• Founder=Siddhartha
Gautama
• Born as a Brahma prince
• Sheltered from pain and
suffering
65
Siddhartha Gautama
• At the age 25 he left
the palace
• He saw 4 men
suffering
– Old man
– Sick man
– Dead man
– Poor man
66
Siddhartha Gautama = Buddha
• He realized every living thing suffers
• He wandered the forests of India looking
for enlightenment = wisdom.
• He found it and became Buddha= the
enlightened one.
67
Four Noble Truths
1st Noble Truth:
Every living thing suffers.
2nd Noble Truth:
The cause of suffering is desire.
68
Four Noble Truths
3rd Noble Truth:
The only way to end suffering is to give
up all desires
4th Noble Truth:
The way to get over these desires is to follow
the Eight Fold Path
69
Eight Fold Path
• Nirvana= Release from all selfishness and pain
• Eightfold Path:
– Right view
- Right action
– Right intention
- Right effort
– Right speech
- Right mindfulness
– Right livelihood
- Right concentration
70
Buddhism Spreads
• Emperor Asoka= Maurya Empire
• Asoka converted to
and spread Buddhism
• He helped people by building
roads, hospitals, schools, temples,
and monasteries
71
Indian Advances
• advanced math
–Concept of
zero
–decimal system
• Weapons=
steel
72
Ancient China
73
Origin
• Yellow and Yangtze
Rivers
• Flood in the spring
(when snow melts)
• Provided silt and water
for farming rice and
wheat
74
Staircase with _3_ steps
• Barriers = made
governing, trade, and
communication difficult
• mountains = Himalayas
• deserts = Gobi
– Both were barriers
• river valleys = Yangtze
and Yellow rivers
75
Daoism(Taoism)
• Founder: Lao- Tsu
• Philosophy that promotes a
peaceful society
• People should give up
worldly desires
• Turn to nature and the Dao -the force that guides all things
• Seek inner peace and live in
harmony with nature
76
Confucianism
• Founder: Confucius
• Wanted to bring peace to
society
• Put needs of family and
community first
• Each person has a duty
• Education is important
• Respect elders
• Be polite
77
Shi Huangdi and The Qin
Dynasty
• First emperor of China
• Unified China
• Used Legalism = strict laws and
punishments
• Strong central government
• Created one currency
• Constructed canals and roads
• First emperor to construct the Great
Wall of China
78
The Han Dynasty
• Use of civil service
examinations--talented
people fill government jobs
• Use of bureaucracy was
needed to rule China since
its population was large
• Country was secure under
armies of the Han dynasty
79
The Silk Road
• A large network of land
and sea trade routes
• Used by armies,
merchants, and
missionaries
• Spread Buddhism,
goods and ideas
80
The Roman Empire
81
Geography
• Located in Italian Peninsula
• Next to the Tiber River =
transportation, fertile soil
• Surrounded by hills = protection
82
Legendary Figures
• Romulus and
Remus (twin
brothers) =
legendary founders
of Rome
• The Aeneid = story
of Aeneas, ancestor
of the Romans
83
Historical Figures
• Cincinnatus
– early dictator who gave up his power
• Julius Caesar
– Army general, dictator, ended the Republic
• Cicero
– Famous senator
– Against dictators
84
Roman Government
• Roman Republic
– Consuls = 2 men in charge
– Senate = advised the
consuls
– Assembly = citizens who
voted
– Tribune = spoke for the
poor, elected, could veto
(forbid) decisions made by
the senate
85
Roman Expansion
• The 1st and 2nd Punic Wars
– Conquered the Mediterranean Sea
– Made conquered cities pay taxes to Rome
• Roman governors managed conquered
lands
• Trade
– Use of trade routes
– Use of currency
86
Republic to Empire
Governors = generals (in
charge of army)
– ignored the Republic
Governors (like Julius Caesar)
did what they wanted
– Senate lost power to
governors
– the senate assassinated
Caesar
87
Republic to Empire
• Augustus =1st Roman
Emperor
• Changed government
– Kept the senate and the
consuls
– emperor could veto
(forbid) senate’s decisions,
and control the army
• Empire = rule by emperor,
republic gone
88
Jewish Diaspora
• Rome conquered
Palestine = Jewish
homeland
• Roman emperor =
considered himself a god
• Jews forced to worship
him= they refused
• Emperor Hadrian forces
Jews to leave Palestine
89
Rise of Christianity
• Started in Israel
• Founded by a Jewish man =
Jesus of Nazareth
• Faith contains many ideas from Judaism
– Monotheism
– 10 commandments
– belief in the final prophet =the messiah
90
Rise of Christianity
Jesus
– Born 30 b.c.e.
– Preached love for everyone including
enemies
– Gathered 12 apostles = students
– People called him messiah (king)
– Roman and Jewish leaders worried Jesus
might become too powerful
– Jesus was sentenced to crucifixion (nailed
to a cross)
91
Christianity Spreads
• 4 Gospels = books written by
4 of Jesus’ students
– Only source of information on
Jesus
• Paul of Tarsus (apostle of
Jesus)
– Spread information about Jesus
throughout Roman territories
92
Christianity Spreads
Ideas spread by Paul:
• The holy trinity (God,
Jesus, and the holy spirit
= 3 in one)
• Jesus died for people’s
sins
• He was resurrected and
went up to heaven
93
Christianity Spreads
Christianity was able to spread quickly and
easily because of Pax Romana (Roman
Peace):
– very safe to travel
94
Architecture and Engineering
Arches
• a doorway or window without beams
Aqueducts
• brought clean water to cities from hills
95
Architecture and Engineering
Roads = improved travel,
trade, communication
Sewers =
carried away waste
Domes and vaults= created
buildings with high ceilings
Bath houses = for exercise,
relaxation, and bathing
96
Language and Literature
Latin
• Language of
Rome
– Led to
Spanish,
Italian,
French,
Portuguese,
Romanian
97
Language and Literature
Roman Historians
• Livy (The Punic
Wars)
• Tacitus
Roman Playwrights
• Terence and Plautus
– Both influenced
Shakespeare
Roman Philosophers
• Seneca (stoicism)
• Cicero
Roman Poets
• Ovid (Love Poems)
• Virgil (The Aeneid)
98
Science
Galen
• Book of medicine used for 1,000 years
Mining
• Gold and silver
Concrete
• For large buildings
Water mills
• For grinding grain
99

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