American History Concepts

Report
U.S. History
CST Review
Stuff You Should Remember from 8th
grade History
Pre-Revolutionary America:
1600s-1780
Major events that led to
constitutional democracy
The Columbian Exchange
1. The Columbian Exchange
a. Transfer of organisms (living
things)
-between the Old World & the
New World
The Columbian Exchange
From the New World
to the Old World: Corn, tomatoes, chocolate
From the Old World to the New World:
Wheat, rice, sugarcane
Triangular Trade
1. Trans-Atlantic flow of
goods
a. Trade between
England, Africa, and the
New World (colonies)
Triangular Trade
b. Americans become dependent
on British made goods
-Manufactured goods
exchanged for slaves
-Slaves exchanged for rum and
guns
The Great Awakening
1. Religious Movement in the
Colonies
a. Cause:
-Jonathan Edwards
preached need for revival of
religious beliefs
The Great Awakening
b. Effects:
-belief that all people are equal before
God
-Led to the belief in freedom of
individual choice
-encouraged religious enthusiasm
and political independence
The Mayflower Compact
1. Signed in 1620
a. Contract signed on the
Mayflower
- rules
b. First example of selfgovernment by colonists
Declaration of Independence
1. Goals:
a. to explain why the
colonies chose to be
free from England
b. Promotes the idea
that government
should guarantee the
rights of its citizens
Declaration of Independence
c. Lists grievances
(complaints)
directed against the
British King
d. Written by Thomas
Jefferson
After the Revolution
1. Most Northern state constitutions
called for
a. The gradual elimination of
slavery
The Whiskey Rebellion
1. Demonstrated (showed)
-the authority (power) of the
federal government
Shay’s Rebellion
1. Demonstrated
-weakness of the state
governments
2. Resulted in support for
-revising the Articles of
Confederation
The U.S. Constitution:
1780-1790
-How
is power shared
between citizens, states and
the federal government?
The Constitutional Convention
1. 1st time people met to
write the rules for a
government
2. Many compromises
were made between
the states
Constitutional Convention
3. Attended by
Delegates=Representatives for their
state
a. most supported representative
government
4. The Framers= writers of the
Constitution
Constitutional Convention
5. Framers agreed that:
a. representatives would be
elected by citizens
b. Political authority would still
originate from the people
The Three-fifths Compromise
1. The Issue: Would slaves have
been counted as part of the
population?
2. Compromise: Only 3/5 slaves
were counted for purposes of
representation and taxation
The Great Compromise
1. Allowed equal representation in the
Senate
-allowed 2 senators per state
-benefits states with small
populations
The Great Compromise
2. Allowed representation according to
population in House of
Representatives
-states with larger population gain
more representation
-benefits states with large
populations
The Legislative Branch
1. Two Houses
a. Senate
b. House of Representatives
2. Based on English Parliament
a. House of Lords/Commons
Separation of Powers
1. 3 branches
a. All deal with laws
- Legislative (makes them)
ex. Congress
-Executive (enforces them)
ex. The President
-Judicial (interprets them)
ex. The Supreme Court
Checks and Balances
1. Keeps the branches in check
a. President can veto a bill
passed by Congress
b. Congress can impeach the
President
c. The Supreme Court can
declare a law unconstitutional
Checks and Balances
2. Limits the power of any one
branch of government
The Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights
1. The first 10 amendments to the
Constitution
2. Protects fundamental (basic)
liberties of American citizens
The Bill of Rights
1. The 1st amendment guarantees
-freedom of speech
-freedom of the press
-freedom to petition the
government
-freedom of religion
-freedom of assembly
Bill of Rights
2. Other Rights and Protections
a. Right to a trial by jury
b. Protection from unreasonable
searches
c. Freedom of the press
d. Right to keep and bear arms
The 10th Amendment
1. Attempt to balance national
(aka federal) and state
government power
The Foundation of American
Politics
-How much government do we
need?
How a bill becomes a law.
1. Introduction of bill
2. Committee Action
3. House signs
4. President signs or
vetoes
President
Washington’s Administration
1. The 1st Political Parties Formed
a. Cause: Disagreement about the
expansion of federal power
Alexander Hamilton
1. He supported business and
business supported him
-Advocated a loose
interpretation (construction) of
the U.S. Constitution
Thomas Jefferson
1. He supported small
farmers
a. Advocated strict
interpretation
(construction) of the
U.S. Constitution
Alexander Hamilton
1. Favored a National Bank
2. Favored a strong national
(federal) government
3. He disagreed with Jefferson
4. Supporters formed the
Federalist Party
Thomas Jefferson
1. Favored a weak national
(federal) government
2. He disagreed with Hamilton
3. His supporters formed the
Democratic-Republican Party
The New Nation:
1790-1810
George Washington’s Farewell
Address
1. Urged Americans to:
a. Value & Maintain a Sense of
Unity
George Washington’s Farewell
Address
b. Avoid entangling alliances with
other nations
c. Avoid the formation of political
parties (factions, divisions, etc)
American Literature
1. James Fenimore Cooper
a. Portrayed individualism and the
pioneer spirit
-The Last of the Mohicans
American Literature
2. Washington Irving
a. Wrote short stories
relating to topics in American
history
-The Legend of Sleepy
Hollow
Early Foreign Policy:
1812-1840
Louisiana Purchase
1. New Territory
a. U.S. (Jefferson) purchased from
France (Napoleon)
b. Doubled the size of the U.S.
2. Exploration
a. Lewis and Clark
War of 1812
I. CAUSES:
1. European Interference
a. England and France
seized American trading
ships
2. Embargo Act of 1807
a. Jefferson attempts to
limit European
interference
War of 1812
3. Impressment (kidnapping) of
American sailors
II. Effects
1. American Victory leads to
Increased Patriotism
2. Growth of American Manufacturing
(Factories)
Monroe Doctrine- 1823
1. Proclaimed by President
Monroe
a. Purpose: to prevent
future European
expansion in North and
South America
Changes in the West:
1820-1850
Circle the West
President Andrew Jackson
1. Elected 1828
a. Spoils System =Jacksonian
Democracy
-gave his supporters government jobs
b. Opposed the National Bank
-believed it was corrupt and benefitted
wealthy businessmen
President Andrew Jackson
3. Policy of Indian Removal
a. The Trail of Tears
-Forced relocation of the Cherokee
-Resettled them in the west
-Their land given to white farmers
and miners
The belief that the U.S. was meant to
spread west across the continent to the
Pacific
is…France
GreatOcean
Britain
Mexico
Manifest Destiny
Texas Becomes Independent
of Mexico
1. Americans settle in Mexican Territory
(Texas)
a. Settlers rebel and wage war with
Mexico
b. “Remember the Alamo”
c. Republic of Texas established
(1836-1846)
War with Mexico
Cause:
1. Texas annexed by U.S.
a. President Santa Anna still
claimed sovereignty over Texas
2. War declared (Mexican-American
War)
War with Mexico
Circle the Mexican
Cession on the map.
Effects:
1. U.S. Victory
a. Offers $15 million for ½
of Mexico’s Territory
(Mexican Cession)
-later formed states
such as California
California Prior to Gold Rush
1. Part of New Spain
2. The Missions
a. 1st settlements in
California
b. military forts
c. spread Christianity to
native population
California Gold Rush (1848)
1. Effects:
a. Population BOOMS (increases)
b. Chinese come to Ca.
c. California applies for statehood
d. Admitted as a free state
Women in the West
1. Gained new status
a. More rights than in the East
2. Laura Ingalls Wilder
a. Wrote about frontier life
Women in the West
3. Annie Bidwell
a. Pioneer who contributed to women’s
suffrage
4. Slave Women
a. Could earn money and buy freedom
5. Wyoming
a. Granted suffrage (right to vote) to
women
Changes in the Northeast:
1820-1850
Circle the Northeast
Henry Clay’s American System proposed
to improve the nation’s transportation
system and trade by…
…creating more canals
and roads
Northern European Immigration
1. Immigrants from
a. Germany, Scandinavia
and Ireland
2. Migrate to American
Cities
a. work in factories
b. Cities grow
Irish Immigration
1. The Great Irish Famine
a. Potato crop failure
b. millions starve
c. People emigrate from Ireland
d. Immigrate to American cities
Women’s Suffrage Movement
1. Movement to gain Women’s
right to vote
2. Leaders included:
a. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-wrote The Declaration of
Sentiments
Women’s Suffrage Movement
c. Lucretia Mott
-organized the Seneca Falls Convention
(the first public women’s rights meeting in
the U.S.)
d. Susan B. Anthony
- made speeches advocating women’s
suffrage
American Art
1. Transcendentalism
a. Philosophy that taught the spiritual
world is more important that the physical
world
2. Important transcendentalists
a. Ralph Waldo Emerson
and Henry David Thoreau
-encouraged individualism
American Art
b. Louisa May Alcott
-wrote Little Women
c. Herman Melville
-wrote Moby Dick
d. Nathaniel Hawthorne
-wrote The Scarlet Letter
Changes in the South:
1820-1850
Circle the South.
Cotton Gin
1. Machine
a. Invented by Eli Whitney
b. Cleaned cotton
quicker
c. Made cotton 50 times
more profitable
d. Increased # of slaves
Growing Importance of Cotton in
the South
1. Growth in plantation owners
a. Increasing number of Southern
millionaires
b. Southerners opposed tariffs
(taxes on trade with foreign countries)
c. North depended on Southern
cotton for textile industry
Southern Society
1. Economy based on slave labor
2. Rigid Social class system
3. Political power held by plantation
owners
The Abolition Movement:
1820-1860
Abolitionists
1. John Q. Adams
a. Attempted to abolish slavery by
proposing an amendment to the
Constitution
2. Theodore Weld
a. Attempted to change public opinion
as an anti-slavery writer
Abolitionists
3. William Lloyd Garrison
a. printed newspaper (The Liberator)
b. called for immediate end to slavery
4. Frederick Douglass
a. former slave, Public orator,
published anti-slavery newspaper,
wrote autobiography
Abolitionists
5. John Brown
a. Attempted to end slavery
through armed insurrection
6. Harriet Tubman
a. Helped runaway slaves
escape through the
Underground Railroad
The State’s Rights Doctrine
1. The idea that a state can
nullify a federal law that it
deems unconstitutional
The State’s Rights Doctrine
2. Idea first used by Jefferson to nullify the
Alien and Sedition Acts (later repealed)
a. Laws that limited the rights of
immigrants and free speech
3. Idea used later by slave-states to defend
slavery
The Missouri Compromise …
12
11 Free
States
1. Proposed by Henry Clay
2.maintained the balance
between slave and free states
3.Banned slavery above MO’s
southern border
12
11 Slave
States
The Wilmot Proviso
1. Attempt to prevent slavery from
expanding into the land won from Mexico
Compromise of 1850
1. Also Proposed by Henry Clay
2. Attempt to please the North and the
South
a. To please the North
-CA admitted as a free state
Compromise of 1850
b. To please the South
-Congress would not be allowed
to restrict slavery in the territories won
from Mexico
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1. Proposed that slavery be allowed
wherever a majority of people
agreed to it
(popular sovereignty)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
2. Got of rid of limits on slavery put
forth in Missouri Compromise
3. Led to a civil war in Kansas
(“Bleeding Kansas”)
Dred Scott vs. Sandford
1. A slave sued for his freedom
a. his owner had taken him to
territories where slavery was illegal
2. Supreme Court decided he could not be
free
a. slaves were not citizens and
therefore could not sue in U.S. courts
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
1. Lincoln was against expanding slavery
in the territories
2. Douglas supported popular sovereignty
(majority rules) to determine where
slavery would be legal
The Civil War:
1861-1865
State vs. Federal Power
1. Doctrine of Nullification
a. The idea that a state can reject a
federal law
b. Proposed by John C. Calhoun
State vs. Federal Power
1. Webster-Hayne Debate
a. Debate over the doctrine of
nullification
b. Daniel Webster defended the
federal government as a representative
of the people
The Northern-Southern Border
1. Formed by
a. the Mason-Dixon Line
b. the Ohio River,
c. and Missouri’s
northern border
The North’s Geography
1. Characterized by Rivers
a. provide transportation
b. way to trade
c. and energy source for factories
The South’s Geography
1. Characterized by Cotton Plantations
a. Cotton was withheld from Europe as
way to persuade them to help the
South
The Northern Economy
3. The Factory system
a. People worked for low wages in
dangerous conditions
b. Factory owners grew rich
c. Factory jobs attracted immigrants
The Southern Economy
1. The Plantation System
a. Slaves worked for no wages
b. Plantation owners grew rich
Lincoln’s Presidency
1. First term: 1860-1864
a. Upon his election, the
South seceded from the
Union
b. Main goal:
Maintain unity-preserve the
union
Lincoln’s Presidency
c. The Civil War dominated his
presidency
d. March 1865 begins his second term
e. April 1865 assassinated by John
Wilkes Booth
“A House Divided…” Speech
“A house divided against itself
cannot stand.”
Lincoln argued that he U.S. would
have to abolish or allow slavery in
every state.
st
1
Lincoln’s
Inaugural
Address
“We are not enemies, but friends. We must
not be enemies…”
1. Lincoln called for unity and preservation
of the Union
The Gettysburg Address
1. Speech to dedicate the Gettysburg
battlefield as a cemetery
2. Similar to the Declaration of
Independence
a. Both support self-government and
human rights
The Emancipation
Proclamation
1. Decreed that all slaves in
Confederate territories
captured by Union forces
would be granted freedom
2. Gave the Civil War a
symbolic purpose—to end
slavery in the U.S.
nd
2
Lincoln’s
Inaugural
Address
“With malice toward none, with charity for
all…to do all which may achieve and cherish
a just and lasting peace among ourselves…”
1. Lincoln’s vision for after the Civil War
was to be characterized by peacemaking
and rebuilding
Union Advantages
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Higher population
Factories
Railroads
Naval power
Strong Presidential leadership (Lincoln)
The Anaconda Plan
1. Union strategy for winning the war
a. Establishing a naval blockade of all
Southern Ports
-to prevent South from selling
cotton in exchange for supplies
b. To gain control of Mississippi River
Confederate Advantages
1. Experienced generals
a. Robert E. Lee
-fought for the Confederacy did not
want to fight his home state (Virginia)
2. Fought on its own territory
a. Knowledge of terrain
b. Stronger determination to defend
Major Civil War Battles
1. Ft. Sumter
a. 1st battle
2. 1st Battle of Bull Run
a. 1st major battle, Confederate victory
b. showed Union had underestimated
the Confederacy
Major Civil War Battles
3. Battle of Antietam
a. Bloodiest day in
American history
(25,000 dead and wounded)
4. Battle of Gettysburg
a. Turning point of the war
b. Confederacy did not regain its
strength after this Union victory
Major Civil War Battles
5. Siege of Vicksburg
a. Union wins control of entire
Mississippi River
6. Sherman’s March
a. Path of destruction laid throughout
Georgia with goal of ending the war
Technological Advances
1. Rifles
a. Increased accuracy
2. Minie Ball
a. Bullets that traveled farther
Technological Advances
3. Ironclad warships
a. such as Merrimack (aka Virginia)
and the Monitor
b. Accurate firing
c. Ended the use of wooden warships
Lee surrenders to Grant
1. At Appomattox Court House
a. April 9, 1865
2. Grants offers generous terms
a. Allows Confederates to return home
with private possessions and provides f
ood
The Reconstruction:
1865-1870
New Amendments
1. The 13th, 14th, and 15th
Amendments
a. intended to protect Civil
Rights of freedmen
th
13
th
14
The
and
Amendments
1. 13th Amendment
a. abolished slavery
2. 14th Amendment
a. granted citizenship to
anyone born in the U.S.
The 15th Amendment
3. 15th Amendment
a. granted former slaves the right to vote
Freedmen’s Bureau
1. Provide assistance to former slaves
a. Established schools for former
slaves
b. Provided food and clothing
c. Provided agricultural training
d. Protected individual rights
Jim Crow Laws
1. Laws passed in the late 1800s
a. Targeted African-Americans in the
South
b. Denied many civil rights
Congressional
Reconstruction
1. Rebuilding the South
a. Led by a Republican Congress
2. Required Southern states to:
a. Rewrite state constitutions that
granted African-American men the right
to vote
b. Ratify the 14th amendment
The Transformation of
American Society:
1865-1910
Not a leader of “Big Business”
($$$)
John D.Ford
Rockefeller
Henry
Andrew
Carnegie
Founder of
Standard
Oil
Founder
of Ford
Steel
Industrialist
First American
Motor
Company
Samuel
Gompers
billionaire
Immigration
1. New Immigrants
a. from Southern and Eastern
Europe
2. Settle in large cities
a. b/c of growing industries (more jobs)
b. Leads to ethnic neighborhoods
The Labor Movement
1. Child Labor in factories
a. Was common b/c factory owners
could pay them less
The Labor Movement
2. Factory jobs give rise to
a. American Federation of Labor
-union that tried to gain higher
wages and better working conditions

similar documents