The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing Disorders

Report
Reaching Sensory Processing
Disorders: Working to
Benefit ADD/ADHD to Autism through
Structure and Function
Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA
360 E Irving Park RD, Roselle, IL
(630) 894-8778
www.drchapple.com
Selected 2006-2008 “Guide To America’s Top Chiropractors”
2008 “ Five Star Excellence Award in Chiropractic”
What are Sensory Processing
Disorders?
 Any condition which demonstrates the
inability to process information through the
Senses.
 Interestingly the DMSR only acknowledges
the sensory component in ASD as a
secondary finding( Diagnosed by language,
social and behavioral variations).
Inter-related Conditions?
ADD/ADHD
AUTISM
PDD
SPD
CHALLENGED
“Normal” Children
Prevalence
 ADD/ADHD: 5 Million Children in USA alone
 Autism: Every 21 minutes another Child is Diagnosed.
 Challenged Child: 12 to 30% of Children.
How is Information Gathered for Our
Sensory System?
 Through Senses
 Through Reflexes
 Reflexes and Sensory Processing Can’t be
Separated
Body Senses Include
 Far Senses - Allow us to
respond to stimuli outside
our body:
Hear
See
Taste
Touch
Smell
 Near Senses - Or
Hidden Senses –
Automatically respond
within our body to stimuli:
Body Position/Awareness
Movement/Balance
Reflexes and the Sensory System:
 Primitive Reflexes
 Postural Reflexes
What are the Primitive Reflexes?
 Primitive reflexes are automatic
survival responses to stimuli (Sensory
Input) which develop during uterine life
and should be fully present at birth.
Anatomy of Primitive Reflexes:
 Within the brainstem
– Oldest part of the brain (Reptilian or PreCortical) => Midbrain => Cortical
 Automatic vs Volitional
 Stimulus elicited (e.g. A Chocolate Cookie)
 Survival / Instinctual
Primitive Reflexes Charted
A Closer Look at Primitive Reflexes
Fear Paralysis Reflex
Palmar Reflex
Fetal Tuck Reflex
Moro Reflex
Clasping Reflex
• Facilitates the 1st “Breath of Life”
• Only PR connected to ALL senses
• Matures to “Adult startle response”
– Shoulders shrug w/ head turn
• If underdeveloped maybe factor in
SIDS
Grasping Reflex
• Related to early feeding
(hand/mouth)
Stimulation bilaterally inhibits Moro
Reflex
• Matures to “Pincer Grip”
•
Plantar Reflex
•
Trouble w/Gait, Run, Toe Walk
Rooting/Suck Reflex
•
Cardinal Points Reflex
Hand-mouth neurologic link
A Closer Look at Primitive Reflexes
Continued
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck
Reflex
Spinal Galant Reflex
Kicking & Vestibular reflex
• Assist birth process
• Enables the fetus to “feel” sound
• Reduced by Auditory Integrative
Training
• In Utero provides continuous
motion stimulating balance/
neural connections
• Assists & reinforces birth
process
• First eye-hand coordination
• Integrates vestibular w/ other
senses; enhances myelination
• If underdeveloped maybe factor
in SIDS
Spinal reflex
A Closer Look at Primitive Reflexes
Continued
Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex
Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex
Rolling reflex
• First assistance of body to defy
gravity
• Influences body muscle tone in
horizontal halves (crawl)
• Crawl assist hand-eye
coordination essential for
reading & writing
Vestibular reflex – Forward &
Backward
• Backward emerges w/ Postural
Reflexes
• Early method of response to
gravity
- Giving sense of direction based
where in space
• Shared circuit of eyes & brain
• Influences muscle tone
throughout the body
What If Primitive Reflexes don’t
Integrate?
 Primitive reflexes that remain and do not integrate,
are “Retained” and therefore postural reflexes do
not develop fully resulting in a “Reflexive No Man’s
Land” or “ A Reflexive Seesaw” (e.g. Car stuck in
the Snow).
 Thus the body remains under the influence of
involuntary responses instead of voluntary.
 Retained Primitive Reflexes cause:
 Difficult voluntary movements and Balance
 Irregular Visual Perception
 Irregular Auditory Processing
 Irregular Sensory Perception
Observing SPD’s
An Individual defined as having SPD concerns
exhibits variations of sensory activity in :
Frequency
Intensity
Duration
Observed as either as a Hypersensitivity or a
Hyposensitivity
The Sensitivity of the Seven Senses
in SPD
 Hypersensitive -
 Hyposensitive - requires
requires less stimulation







Avoids sounds
Overwhelmed by intense visual
Object to textures and gag
Avoid textures and being touched
Avoids odors
Rigid and uncoordinated
Apprehensive running, climbing and
swinging
more stimulation







Appears to ignore sound
Appears uninterested by visual
Tastes inedible objects
Chews and presses into objects
Unaware of unpleasant odors
Limp and clumsy
Craves rocking, twirling and fidgets
How SPD Presents
More Specific Symptoms of
Retained Reflexes:
Fear Paralysis Reflex
•
•
Oppositional Defiance
“The Screaming Child”
Moro Reflex
Palmar Reflex
•
Poor Manual Dexterity (Thumb)
• Speech Difficulties
• Manual Tasks Inhibit Talking
• Difficult writing (w/Mouth Motion)
•
Aggressive or Withdrawn
• Overactive (Ready-Fire-Aim)
• Overemotional (Weeping Anger)
• Learning Difficulty (Pupils problem w/
black print on white paper
• Visual attention drawn to outside edges
(Peripheral Vision)
• Hypersensitive to ALL senses
• Adrenal Fatigue=> Weak Immune
• Overall effects emotional profile
Plantar Reflex
•
Trouble w/Gait, Run, Toe Walk
More Specific Symptoms of
Retained Reflexes:
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck
Reflex:
• Easily Distracted
• Poor Pencil Grip, Excessive Grip
• Missing Visual Reading Fields
When reading
• Difficult Distance Perception
• Poor Ball Skills
• Difficult cross crawling on stomach
(Barrier crossing midline)
• Difficult tasks involving both sides of
Body ; Favors same side motion & since
choice of side not automatic becomes
unnecessary source of confusion
• Learning Difficulty
Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex:
•
•
Poor Judgment of Balance, Space,
Distance, Depth, Motion & Time
• Motion Sickness & Dislike P.E.
• “Floppy” or “Rigid” Child
• Fatigue when Neck Flexed
Learning/Visual Difficulty (Mirror Write)
More Specific Symptoms of
Retained Reflexes:
Rooting/Suck Reflex
•
Symmetrical Tonic Neck
Reflex
Difficult Chew, Speech and Dribble
• Relation to manual dexterity
•
•
•
Spinal Gallant Reflex:
• Delayed Sitting
• Abnormal Gait/Posture
• Poor Bladder & Bowel/ Bed Wetting
•
“Ant’s in Pants” Child
• Poor Concentration & Learning Difficulty
•
Poor Posture, (Ape like) Walk
“W” leg position w/ floor sitting
Poor Hand-eye coordination- eating
Swim better underwater w/ less gravity
The Next Developmental Step
 As higher brain centers mature or the PR’s
Integrate more voluntary Postural Reflexes
and Cortical development occurs
Postural Reflexes:
• The Righting Reflexes (Quadruped)
• Equilibrium Reactions (Bipedal)
Developmental Movement Patterns
The Building Blocks of movement and understanding
CONTRALATERAL
Integrates all previous patterns; Gains ability to intend
HOMOLATERAL
Differentiates right and left side of the body; Gains mobility
HOMOLOGOUS
Differentiates upper and lower halves of the body; Gains the ability to act
SPINAL MOVEMENT
Differentiates front and back of the body; Gains the abilityto attend
NAVEL RADIATION
Differentiation and connection
MOUTHING
First limb to reach, grasp, hold and let go
BREATHING
Simplest ground of physical presence
The Significance of Primitive to
Postural Reflexes:
 Primitive Reflexes
 Form foundations for later body functions
 Postural Reflexes
 Provide the framework within which body systems operate
The Integrity of one effects the Integrity of the
Other
(The Model Home)
Learning Hierarchy
Academic Functioning
Development of logic and reasoning for schooling-reading, writing and math
Conception
Making sense of the world
Language
Development of speech
Perception
Development of sight, hearing and touch
Motor Patterns
Development of correct motor pattern, crawling and climb
Postural Reflexes
Development of ability to be in an upright posture and balance against gravity
Primitive Reflexes
Emergence and integration of survival reflexes along with hearing and touch competence
Difficulty with Senses and Reflexes
Difficulty with Skills
Motor/ Muscle Tone
Cognition
Communication
Socialization
Independence
Difficulty with Behaviors
Impulsiveness
Self Control
Distractibility
Frustration
Social
Emotional
SPD Expression
 Cause:
Difficulty with Senses
and Reflexes
 Effect
Difficulty with Skills and
Behavior
Low Self Esteem
Intervention
 Traditional
Treats causes as genetic, prepostnatal trauma and unknown
Treatment is geared from outside
the body to inside the body ( e.g.
Behavioral Modification)
Reactive
(The Model Home)
 Alternative
Treats the structure in order to
improve the function as cause is
a Sensory & Reflex imbalance
System Overwhelmed
Treatment is geared from inside
the body to outside the body (e.g.
Chiropractic and Craniosacral Therapy (CST)
Proactive
(The Model Home)
Controlling the Senses and the
Reflexes
 The Central Nervous System (CNS),
comprised of the brain, brain stem, the
cranial nerves, the spinal cord and the nerve
attachments controls the senses and the
reflexes.
CNS Involvement
 Hear………………………………CN 8 (Vestibular Cochlear)
 See………………………..CN 2(Optic)..CN 3(Occulomotor),
CN 4(Trochlear)..CN 6 (Abducens)
 Taste………………………………..CN 9(Glossopharyngeal)
 Touch……..............................Afferent and Spinal Pathways
 Smell…………………………………………..CN 1 (Olfactory)
 Body Position...................CN 8, Brain stem and Spinal cord
 Movement………………………..Brain stem and Spinal cord
Cranial Nerves Involvement
CNS Structure and Function
 The Cranium and Spinal Cord are the boney
structures protecting the CNS.
Improper
Structure
(Alignment and Position)
Improve
Structure
Improper
Function
Improper
Sensory and Reflex Processing
(Motion and Nerve Communication)
Improve
Function
Improve
Sensory and Reflex Processing
The “PROFOUND” Link
 The CNS and its intimately related boney
protective network form the profound link of
communication and functional interaction
between an individual’s internal and external
environments.
Craniosacral Therapy (CST)
 Focuses on relieving pressure on the brain
and spinal cord through manual pressure
techniques used at the cranium and sacrum.
The Craniosacral System
 Consists of membranes and cerebral spinal
fluid, which protect the CNS.
 Restrictions in this system are detected, and
corrections are identified through manual
monitoring of the craniosacral rhythm
(CSR).
The Bones to the Senses and
Reflexes
The Bones in Motion
Variations in CSR.
 Variations in the CSR (6-12 bpm) could
indicated any number of motor, sensory,
reflex or neurological impairments, as well
as causes of pain.
The Chiropractic Approach to the
CNS
 Chiropractors identify the necessity for the
reduction of Subluxations, and utilize gentle
spinal pressure techniques called
Adjustments in order to remove
Subluxations.
What are Subluxations?
 CNS irritation characterized by:
–
–
–
–
–
Irregular boney mechanics or spinal misalignment
Nerves imbalances
Muscle irritations
Tissue inflammation
Degenerative wear
The poor structure or mechanics involved in creating
Subluxations results in poor motor, sensory, reflex and
neurological function, as well as causes of pain.
Spinal Involvement
A Step in the Right Direction
 75% of imperfections from poor foot
mechanics are transmitted up through the
spine via Presso-receptors.
 Digital Foot Scan…. Orthotics
The Best of Both Worlds
 CST and Chiropractic adjustments work to restore
more appropriate motor, sensory, reflex and
neurological input and therefore improve function.
 Improve Structure
Improve Function
 Working inside to out and not outside to in.
Synchronizing Structure and
Function
 Primitive Reflexes

CST
Chiropractic
 Postural Reflexes

CST
Chiropractic
 Core Activation

CST
Chiropractic
 Presso-Receptors

Orthotics
Homework: Primitive Reflexes
 Starburst
 Snow Angel
 Stomach Fly
 Stomach Twist
Homework: Postural Reflexes
* Gross motor function proceeds Fine motor function
* Exercise is in essence Gross motor function and correlates
to higher academic achievement
* Chiropractic has been shown to increase exercise
performance 2 to 4x’s when compared to exercise alone.

The Better Alignment, Motion, Balance and
Strengthen….The Better the Posture,
Health and Life.
Measuring CNS Function
 Health care practitioners are challenged to
quantify variations of the CNS
communication with SPD conditions.
 Frequently conventional tests such as blood
markers, MRI’s and EEG’s appear
unremarkable.
The CNS Simplified
Noninvasive Testing of the CNS
 Infrared Thermography
Measures temperature
variations along the spine as
indications of imbalances in the
Autonomic nervous system
which result from subluxations
within the CNS.
 Surface Electromyography
Illustrates the effectiveness of
motor nerves by measuring the
amount of current at the muscle,
with imbalances being indication
of subluxations within the CNS.
Infrared Thermography
Surface Electromyography
More Scans
Clarification:
 There is no HealthCare that is guaranteed
or without risk.
 However, Chiropractic and CST are among
the most safe effective in benefiting the
CNS.
A Mom’s Story
Dear Parents,
After a frustrating year of indifferent doctors
who ignored my concerns about my son,
finding Dr Chapple was like a gift.
Over weeks of therapy he has improved
considerably. He no longer cocks his
head. Spins or presses his forehead
onto me.
In Fact, we took him for a haircut, and for
the first time he sat still for the whole
thing….No unfinished haircut, frantic
barber or parents.
It’s sad, but I had never really noticed that
he didn’t run very much before. When
he did…he ran on his toes with a very
awkward gait. Now he races around on
his little feet for the sheer joy of running
that all children have.
More Resources:
 www.icpa4kids.com
 www.upledger.com
 www.autismspeaks.com
 www.movementbasedlearning.com
Some Help from Michelangelo…
 “the danger that exist is not aiming to high
and reaching it, but aiming to low and
achieving it.”
 We can never aim to high for our children
The Structure and Function of
Sensory Processing Disorders:
Working to Benefit
from
ADD/ADHD
to
Autism
Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA
360 E Irving Park RD, Roselle, IL
(630) 894-8778
www.drchapple.com
Selected 2006-2008 “Guide To America’s Top Chiropractors”
2008 “ Five Star Excellence Award in Chiropractic”
Abstract
Reaching Sensory Processing Disorders: Working to
Benefit ADD/ADHD to Autism through Structure and Function
So frequently Sensory Processing Disorders: ADHD to Autism, are
addressed through a variety of behavioral and biochemical approaches that
the significance of the biomechanical aspects of these conditions can be
underestimated. Experts state that if a cluster of irregular nervous system
reflexes remain unaddressed they will prevent ”sustained long term
improvement".
This presentation introduces the importance of the nervous
system with its biomechanical relationships to the spine and cranium, and
the noninvasive approaches of Chiropractic and Craniosacral therapy for the
benefit of individuals struggling with sensory processing concerns and retained
primitive reflexes.

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