Closing the Achievement Gap - P

Report
State of Education
Closing the Achievement
Gap in California
2009
CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Jack O’Connell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
Who Are Our Students?
A Historical Perspective
California Students Enrolled in Public Schools
JACK O’CONNELL
6,229,980
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
4,944,484
4,046,156
1980
1990
2009
California is Educating 2.2 Million More
Students, a 54% Increase in 29 Years
2
Total K-12 Enrollment for
1980-81: 4,046,156
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
AmericanIndian
32,647, 1%
Asian/Pacific
Islander
221,899, 5%
Filipino
64,425, 2%
White
2,282,828,
56%
Hispanic
1,045,186,
26%
Black
399,171, 10%
3
Total K-12 Enrollment for
1990-91: 4,944,484
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Pacific
Islander
26,942, 1%
AmericanIndian,
38,122, 1%
Filipino
109,650, 2%
Asian
387,734, 8%
White
2,259,317,
45%
Hispanic
1,702,363,
34%
Black
426,356, 9%
4
Total K-12 Enrollment for
2008-09: 6,229,980
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Multiple
170,038, 3%
AmericanIndian
48,383, 1%
Asian
510,499, 8%
Pacific
Islander
38,733, 1%
Filipino
165,480, 3%
White
1,849,078,
29%
Black
477,776, 8%
Hispanic
3,026,956,
47%
5
Different Challenges,
Different Needs
Special Education
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
677,875
474,000
361,000
10.8%
9.6%
8.9%
1980
1990
2008
That’s an 87.8% increase in 28 years
6
Different Challenges,
Different Languages
JACK O’CONNELL
English Language Learners
1,553,091
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
741,000
24.7%
326,000
15.0%
8.1%
1980
1990
2008
That’s a 376% increase in 28 years
7
Different Challenges,
Different Needs
JACK O’CONNELL
Students Eligible for Free and Reduced-Priced Meals
3,118,053
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
1,757,188
51%
36%
1990
2008
That’s a 78% increase in 18 years
8
Different Challenges,
Different Needs
JACK O’CONNELL
Per Pupil Spending Adjusted for Inflation
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
$8,765
$8,185
$8,085
$7,307
1988
1997
2008
2009
That’s just a 12% increase in 21 years
9
High Expectations
JACK O’CONNELL
California High School
Graduation Requirements
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
High School Exit
Exam
1 year Algebra I
No State
Requirements
1980
3 years English
3 years English
2 years Math
2 years Math*
2 years Science
2 years Science
3 years Social
Studies
3 years Social
Studies
1 year Fine Arts or
Foreign Language
1 year Fine Arts or
Foreign Language
2 years Physical
Education
2 years Physical
Education
1990
2007
10
California’s National Per
Pupil Funding Comparison
JACK O’CONNELL
$13,064
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
$9,963
$9,787
$7,571
$7,561
+ $2,392
+ $5,493
+ $2,216
- $10
N
N
Yo
rk
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at
ew
a
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ia
rn
ifo
al
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11
Yet…
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
“There are significant signs of
progress in California’s schools, in
spite of the tremendous challenges
they face.”
-- Jennifer Imazeki
Professor of Economics
San Diego State University
2008 PACE Policy Brief
12
California’s 10-Year-Road
to High Standards,
Assessments, Accountability
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
World class standards for every subject,
grade:
• Testing, teacher professional development,
accountability linked to standards
• Highlights achievement gap, uses data to
drive decisions, focus resources
Keys to successful reform:
•
•
•
•
Hold all students to same high standards
Measure progress
Target resources
Support teachers
13
English Language Arts
Percentage of Students Scoring At or Above Proficient
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
50%
46%
40%
35%
35%
2003
2004
2005
42%
43%
2006
2007
2008
2009
That’s a 31% increase in 6 years
14
Elementary School Level
Academic Performance Index (API)
Range of API Scores for Each Decile Rank
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1999
Base
=
Decile 1
2000
Base
Decile 2
2001
Base
Decile 3
2002
Base
Decile 4
2003
Base
Decile 5
2004
Base
Decile 6
2005
Base
Decile 7
Decile 8
2006
Base
Decile 9
2007
Base
Decile 10
15
Closing the Achievement Gap
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Yet, an achievement gap exists between our
white students and students of color, as well as
gaps with our English learners, poor students,
and students with disabilities.
In California, the achievement gap represents a
majority of students.
Closing the gap will improve the lives and futures
of our students and secure the future for our
state.
16
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
17
African American & Latino
7th Graders Read at About the
Level of White 3rd Graders
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
681
647
648
640
White 3rd
Grader
White 7th
Grader
Black 7th Latino 7th
Grader
Grader
CAT/6 2008
Source: California Department of Education, 2008
18
Relative to other countries, black and Latino students in the
US perform below the international average, and on par with
the average student in many transitioning economies
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
19
Achievement Gap:
A Moral and Economic Crisis
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Fewer well-paid, low skilled jobs.
• Global economy demands problem
solvers, innovators, higher-level
thinkers, strong communication skills
• Our students today must compete
against students from all over the world.
20
If the United States had closed the racial
achievement gap, GDP would be
$310 billion to $525 billion higher in 2008
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
21
Even at the low end the various achievement gaps
impact the economy more than recent recessions
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Achievement gap GDP impact
GDP recession impact
-0.2
-0.9
Additional gain high-end
estimate
Low end
estimate
-1.9
-2.7
-3.1
3.7
-6.3
2.2
4.7
4.9
2.8
2.9
9.2
ap
lg
na
tio
p
ga
p
ga
s
m
e
st
e
p
ga
a
rn
te
In
Sy
m
co
In
l
ia
ac
R
1973- 1980 1981- 1990- 2007- Q4
75
82
91
08 2008
15.8
22
The US’s poor performance is striking considering its
high income per capita, which is generally correlated
with level of educational achievement
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
23
In general, top-performing educational systems
have smaller socioeconomic gaps in performance
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
24
Jack O'Connell
State of Education 2006
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
“Sadly, too many people view
(California’s) diversity as a big problem.
I don't. Instead, I say: Imagine! Imagine
the potential of that diversity in today's and tomorrow's - global economy. If we
educate these students, well, our state
would not only be able to compete more
effectively, but it would be able lead our
nation and the world economically. "
25
P-16 Council Report
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• January 2008,
Council releases
CTAG report
– Not intended to be
comprehensive
– But important steps
to follow
• Makes 14
recommendations
26
Closing the Gap Has Been a
Primary Goal for School Leaders
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
86%
58%
37%
0%
5%
14%
Somewhat Disagree
Somewhat Agree
Gap Closers
Strongly Agree
Non Gap Closers
27
Access
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
California needs better alignment of
K-16 educational systems:
• Fix the disconnect between what
K-12 expects of a high school
graduate and what business and
higher education need from a
high school graduate
28
Our Workforce Has Changed
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
1960
Skilled 20%
Unskilled
60%
Professional
20%
29
Our Workforce Has Changed
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
2000
Unskilled
15%
Professional
20%
Skilled 65%
30
Students and Parents are
Clear: Their Goal is College
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
94%
Students
96%
Parents
Source: U.S. DOE, NCES, Getting Ready to Pay for College: What Students and Their Parents
Know About the Cost of College Tuition and What They Are Doing to Find Out, September 2003.
31
How important to you is it that California’s
K-12 public schools prepare students for college?
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Black, 90
Latino, 89
White, 69
Very important
32
Access
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
California needs better alignment of
K-16 educational systems
• Partnering with Education Roundtable
• CSU Center for Closing the Achievement
Gap
• Joining American Diploma Project
-
K-12
Higher ed
Business
Career Tech
33
Postsecondary Expectations
for Achieve Analyses of EAP
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
 CST/EAP Blueprints
–
–
–
–
Grade 11 English CST
EAP Direct Writing Assessment Scoring Rubric
Algebra II CST
Summative Math CST
 ICAS
– Competencies in Academic Literacy (2002)
– Competencies in Mathematics (1997)
 ADP Benchmarks
34
EAP
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Achieve 2009 Preliminary Analysis
EAP
Assessment
addresses
college
readiness
content in
English and
mathematics
Postsecondary
Expectations
EAP
California K-12
Standards
Achieve | AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT
35
5
Culture and Climate
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
The Achievement Gap is about
more than just poverty.
We have to have honest
discussions about race.
36
Mathematics
Percentages of Economically Disadvantaged & Percentages of Not Economically
Disadvantaged Students Scoring at Proficient and Above, 2008
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
58%
38%
33%
40%
31%
24%
African American
or Black
Hispanic or Latino
Economically Disadvantaged
White
Not Economically Disadvantaged
37
Leaders Provide Structured
Opportunities for Faculty to
Discuss Race and Ethnicity
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
77%
42%
21%
21%
16%
0%
14%
9%
Strongly
Disagree
Somewhat
Disagree
Gap Closers
Somewhat
Agree
Strongly Agree
Non Gap Closers
38
Culture and Climate
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Conduct a Climate Survey
• Develop a tool for assessing the
“organizational health” of a school
SPI to develop world-class professional
development on what it means to be
culturally responsive
• Bring experts together from around the
country
• Draw on existing research and
pedagogy
P-16 Council Recommendation 5
39
Strategies
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Continuous learning systems – schools
and districts making the most progress
are those that constantly look at their
data and find ways they can do things
better to foster student success.
• Announced an over $2 million grant from the Hewlett
and Gates Foundations to envision a world-class
data system.
Provide more professional development
on the use of data.
40
Recommended Use of Data
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
60%
29%
Percent of Respondents Recommending Use of Data
Gap Closers
Non Gap Closers
41
Data: A Case Study
of Fresno USD Hires
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
2005
Other: 15%
CSU Fresno
Hires: 85%
42
Hiring Teachers With Higher Gallup
TeacherInsight Scores Increases Student
Achievement
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
The Research
• A study of teachers drawn from
19 cities and regions with
education from prestigious
universities.
• Gain scores for their students
were calculated.
–
–
–
Significant gains = more than a
years gain within one academic
year
Solid gains = gains occurring,
but not at the significant level
Limited gains = not making
significant progress
TeacherInsight Score
The Results
• Students in the classrooms of
teachers with higher Gallup
TeacherInsight scores made more
achievement gains than the students
in lower scoring teachers’
classrooms
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Limited
Student
Achievement
Gains
0-51% 52-57%58-62% 63100%
Solid and
Significant
Student
Achievement
Gains
43
Source: TeacherInsight and Student Achievement , June 23, 2005 By: Dee Drozd, M.S. For a copy of the research paper call
402-951-2003
Data: A Case Study
of Fresno USD Hires
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
2009
Not
Qualified:
59%
Qualified:
41%
1152 CSU Fresno Applicants
44
Data: A Case Study
of Fresno USD Hires
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
2009
CSU Fresno:
38%
Other: 62%
45
21st Century
Data Assessments
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Continuous
learning
systems
• Informs
instruction
• Linked to higher
ed and career
46
Focusing our Attention on
Closing the Achievement Gap
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• The goal of closing the achievement
gap demands a kind of focused desire.
It calls for a willingness to change, to be
bold, and to try new ideas.
• The time has come for us to answer this
call. Together we can close the
achievement gap and open the door to
a better future for every student, without
exception.
47
Comments or Questions?
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Comments and questions can
be directed to the CDE P-16 Unit
at 916-319-0908 or by
e-mail at [email protected]
48

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