Document

Report
The Other Side of the
HIV/AIDS Debate: Evaluating
Scientific Evidence Hidden in
Plain Sight
The public face of HIV is well-known

Although everybody is at risk

HIV is a sexually-transmitted virus that “selectively” preys on
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Gay men
African-Americans
Drug users
Just about all of Africa

We are encouraged to be tested

We have been told that the AIDS drugs are the salvation of
the entire African continent

HIV is not required to get AIDS
The public face of HIV is well-known

The journals that review HIV tests, drugs, and patients

As well as the instructional materials from
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Medical schools
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
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HIV-test manufacturers
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Will all agree with the public’s perception in the large print
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A different story emerges if you look at the fine print

This talk will focus on an analysis of that fine print
Analyze the statistics from the CDC
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
Mark Twain: There are three types of lies
1)
Lies
2)
Damned lies
3)
Statistics
Will this theory prove true when we examine the
statistics from the CDC’s website?
Analyze the statistics from the CDC

From 1981 - 2005, the CDC “estimated” the number of
HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons living with
AIDS) to be ~1 million (956,666)


At the end of 2003, the CDC revised their estimates – the
number of HIV/AIDS cases (diagnoses, deaths, and persons
living with AIDS) is estimated to be between 1,039,000 to
1,185,000
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This is a 0% increase
On the surface, this is a 23.9% increase in the number of HIV/AIDS cases
The actual estimated increase or decrease rate of HIV infection
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The 1981 US population (229,465,714)
The current US population (298,444,215)
The actual estimated HIV/AIDS cases decreased by 23.1%
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/At-A-Glance.htm
Analyze the statistics from the CDC:
Where are we today?

What made HIV a Black world epidemic and how do we
account for the following predicament?
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HIV has gone from a disease that infects white homosexual
males in the U.S.
To that of a disease that traveled across the Atlantic Ocean
and infected heterosexual Africans
Then, it crossed the Atlantic Ocean again to infect African
American males in prison
Now, HIV has somehow evolved with the intelligence that it
should skip the majority of the American population and become
synonymous with African Americans and women in particular
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/At-A-Glance.htm
Analyze the statistics from the CDC:
HIV/AIDS epidemic?

Depending on how you present the statistics, African Americans
are facing a serious epidemic


In 2005, the CDC said that African Americans (12–13% of the
American population) make up 49% of the estimated number of
HIV/AIDS cases diagnosed
Let’s analyze the same information a different way


In 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were diagnosed with
HIV/AIDS
The “estimated” percentage of people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

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African Americans (18,667/38,797,748) is 0.048%
U.S. population (38,096/298,444,215) is 0.013%
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/resources/factsheets/aa.htm
Analyze the statistics from the CDC:
HIV/AIDS deaths?

In 2004, the CDC “estimated” that 17,453 people died from
AIDS

If these estimated AIDS deaths are “real”, then these deaths can
be verified by looking at the actual number of deaths for that year
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/resources/factsheets/aa.htm
Leading causes of death in the U.S., 2004
Total Deaths
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Diseases of the heart
Malignant neoplasms (cancer)
Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke)
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (emphysema,
chronic bronchitis)
Unintentional injuries (accidents)
Diabetes mellitus
Alzheimer’s disease
Influenza and pneumonia
Nephritis and nephrosis (Kidney disease)
Septicemia (systemic infection)
Intentional self-harm (suicide)
Chronic liver/cirrhosis (liver disease)
Essential (primary) hypo and hypertension renal disease
Parkinson’s disease
Pneumonitis due to solids and liquids
All other causes
2,398,365
654,092
550,270
150,147
123,884
108,694
72,815
65,829
61,472
42,762
33,464
31,647
26,549
22,953
18,018
16,959
418,810
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_19.pdf
High public policy priority: Rethinking/revising


Although 62% of all
deaths recorded in the
U.S. in 2004 are caused
by heart disease, cancer,
strokes, and lower
respiratory diseases
If you follow the money
budgeted per death, it
becomes apparent, the
amount of NIH funds
allocated for HIV/AIDS
research (72.6%) are
excessive
http://www.fairfoundation.org/update.htm
Sexual transmission of HIV


The CDC says HIV is sexually transmitted
Padian NS et al., Heterosexual transmission of Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Northern California: Results
from a ten-year study


Followed 175 HIV-discordant couples

Although 25% of the couples had unprotected sex

No seroconversion after entry into the study was observed
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American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997;146(4):350-7
None of the unprotected individuals became HIV+
Sex has nothing to do with HIV/AIDS
David W. Rasnick, PhD, member of the Scientific Group for
the Reappraisal of AIDS, wrote a letter to the British
Medical Journal entitled ”Sex has nothing to do with AIDS”

(http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/326/7381/126/e)
Sexual transmission of HIV: The prostitute
paradox
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If HIV is sexually transmitted, it should be found in sextrade workers
Six additional studies published in prestigious scientific
journals that demonstrate HIV can not be sexually
transmitted
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Potterat J J et al. Mortality in a Long-term Open Cohort of Prostitute Women. Am J
Epidemiol 2004;159:778-785.
Modan, B et al. Prevalence of HIV antibodies in transsexual and female prostitutes,
American Journal of Public Health. 1992;82(4):590-592.
Hyams KC et al. HIV infection in a non-drug abusing prostitute population. Scandinavian
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1989;21(3):353-4.
Seidlin M et al. Prevalence of HIV infection in New York call girls. Journal of acquired
immune deficiency syndromes. JAIDS, 1988;1(2):150-4
Smith GL, Smith KF. Lack of HIV infection and condom use in licensed prostitutes.
Lancet. 1986;1392.
Brenky-Faudeux D, Fribourg-Blanc A. HTLV-III antibody in prostitutes. Lancet.
1985;2:1424.
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis
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David Rasnick, PhD
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Earned his living as a designer of protease inhibitors (more on
this later)
It has taken me 15 years of curiosity, acceptance, doubt, study,
understanding, new doubt, followed by new understanding, to
come to terms with HIV/AIDS--and I'm a scientist, I’m able to
plow through the intimidating technical literature
No wonder the public has bought the contagious AIDS theory
The truth is guarded by experts and hidden by a thick forest of
jargon, credentials, and all those papers
The fraud, incompetence, and outright lies produced by the cult
of HIV have already been documented
But holding the perpetrators accountable will not be easy
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis


Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhD and her group in Perth,
Australia published articles concluding that there is no evidence
for the existence of HI viruses

Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner VF, Papadimitriou JM. IS a positive
western blot proof of HIV infection? Biotechnology NY 1 993;1 1:696-707

Papadopulos-Eleopulos E: Is HIV the cause of AlDS? Continuum 1997;5:819.
Stefan Lanka, PhD – has experience in molecular biology,
molecular genetics, marine biology, and virology says all
retroviruses, including HIV, are biologically inexistent and their
phenomenology is based on laboratory artifacts

Lanka S. Fehldiagnose AIDS. Wechselwirkung l994;16:48-53.

Lanka S. HIV-Realität oder Artefakt? Raum und Zeit 1 995;77:1 7-27.

Lanka S. HIV - reality or artifact? Continuum 1995;3/1 :4-9
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis

Roberto A. Giraldo, MD
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Most serologic tests that look for the presence of antibodies against
germs use neat serum [undiluted]

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To prevent false positive reactions, some serologic tests use diluted
serum
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Tests that look for antibodies to hepatitis A and B viruses, rubella virus,
syphilis, hystoplasma and cryptococus, etc are just a few examples
Measles, varicelia, and mumps viruses use a dilution of 1:16
Cytomegalovirus uses a dilution of 1:20
Epstein-Barr Virus uses a dilution of 1:10
ELISA test for HIV uses a dilution of 1:400
If undiluted or neat serum is used, every human being on planet earth
will react positive to the ELISA test for HIV

Tested his own serum (HIV+ at less dilute concentrations)
(http://www.virusmyth.net/aids/data/rgelisa.htm) - 1998
Prominent scientists on the HIV=AIDS
hypothesis
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Rebecca Culshaw, PhD
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Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Univ Texas at Tyler,
BS, MS, PhD
Research Interests: Mathematical Biology
Five peer reviewed publications and seven conference papers in
ten years
Created quite a stir by announcing “Why I quit HIV” in March
2006, after having devoted ten years to mathematical modeling
of how HIV causes AIDS
The entire basis for this theory is wrong
AIDS is not a disease so much as it is a sociopolitical construct
that few people understand and even fewer question
http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig7/culshaw1.html
Understand the HIV/AID debate: Decouple
HIV from AIDS
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HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus

Retroviruses
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Contain the genetic material RNA rather than DNA
Contain genes that encode the proteins

gag, pol, env, and (often) pro
AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

As an illness, AIDS originated in the search by the CDC for sick
homosexual men, also suffering from Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) and/or
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)


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KS was named for Dr. Moritz Kaposi who first described it in 1872
Sarcoma is a cancer
Pneumocystis carinii is a common microorganism (fungus) that exists in
mammals (rats, guinea pigs, monkeys, dogs, sheep, humans, etc.)

First described around World War II in severely malnourished and
premature infants
Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS
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Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs (fungal infection)
Candidiasis esophageal
Cervical cancer (invasive)
Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal
disease)
Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary (fungal infection)
Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal for longer than 1 month
(protozoan parasite)
Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen or lymph nodes
(Herpes)
Encephalopathy
Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (for more than 1 month); or
bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis
Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (fungal infection)
Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (for more than 1 month) (parasitic
infection)
Kaposi's sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8 )
Lymphoma Burkitt's, immunoblastic or primary brain (variety of
cancers)
Clinical conditions redefined as HIV/AIDS
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Mycobacterium avium complex
Mycobacterium, other species, disseminated or extrapulmonary
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii)
(fungal infection)
Pneumonia (recurrent)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Salmonella septicemia (bacterial infection)
Toxoplasmosis of the brain (protozoan Toxoplasma gondii)
Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Wasting syndrome
Malaria
Dysentery
Leprosy
Vaccine and antibiotic damage
Amyl nitrate damage (poppers, used by homosexual males)
Malnutrition
HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items
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Can not detect the actual virus

There is no such thing as an AIDS test

They test for non-specific antibodies in the body

Antibodies are proteins, so please keep this in mind
throughout the rest of the presentation because this
designation will be used

Three types of molecules in the body (DNA is transcribed into RNA
and RNA is translated into Proteins)

There are inherent problems using antibody tests to
diagnose any disease

People do not necessarily have the virus that their
antibodies may appear to suggest they have
HIV antibody tests: Housekeeping items
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Examples of how misleading antibody tests are
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People can have positive antibody responses to certain
laboratory chemicals, but this does not mean they are infected
with laboratory chemicals
People vaccinated for polio will test positive for antibodies to
polio even though they don’t have polio
People exposed to TB will test antibody positive for TB but
this does not necessarily mean they are currently infected
with TB
The test for glandular fever measures antibody response to
red blood cells of sheep and horses, but a positive test does
not mean that someone is infected with sheep or horse blood,
or that animal blood causes glandular fever
These examples are shown to demonstrate why
antibody responses alone cannot determine if someone
is infected with a particular virus
HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted


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1988, the Mayo Clinic reported that “the Western Blot (WB)
method lacks standardization, is cumbersome, and is
subjective in interpretation of banding patterns”
1988, the Journal of the American Medical Association
published an article stating that 19 different labs, testing
ONE blood sample got 19 different WB results (JAMA,
260, 1988)
1993, a review in Bio/Technology reported that the FDA, the
CDC, the Department of Defense, and the Red Cross

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All interpret “WB” differently
All the other major US labs for HIV testing also have
their own criteria for interpreting WB
HIV antibody tests: Arbitrarily interpreted
HIV status depends on where you live
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11 interpretations of what
constitute HIV+
Africa is the easiest place
to be deemed HIV+
Australia is the hardest
6 different U.S.
interpretations
People can literally move
to a different location and
they will no longer be
HIV+
What other contagious
disease do you know of
that behave in this
manner?
AFR = Africa; AUS = Australia; FDA = US Food and Drug Administration; RCX = US Red Cross;
CDC = US Center for Disease Control; CON = US Consortium for Retrovirus Serology Standardization;
GER = Germany; UK = United Kingdom; FRA = France; MACS = US Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study 1983-1992
HIV antibody tests: No virologic gold
standard

The medical literature adds something truly astounding!

1987, the New England Journal of Medicine reported that the meaning
of positive tests will depend on the joint (ELISA/WB) false positive
rate
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1996, Journal of American Medical Association reported: The diagnosis
of HIV infection in infants is particularly difficult
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Because there is no reference or “gold standard”
1997, Abbott laboratories, the world leader in HIV-test production
stated
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The real rate is unknown because there is no recognized gold standard
At present, there is no recognized standard for establishing the “presence
or absence” of HIV antibody in human blood
2000, the Journal AIDS reported that "2.9% - 12.3%" of women in a
study tested positive, depending on the test used

Since there is no established gold standard test, it is unclear which of these
two proportions is the “best estimate” of the real prevalence rate
No virologic gold standard: Insert from
Abbott Laboratory
http://www.healtoronto.com/testkits.html
High false positive rate with HIV tests
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1985, at the beginning of HIV testing, it was reported in
the New England Journal of Medicine
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1992, the Lancet reported ("HIV Screening in Russia")
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For 66 true positives, there were 30,000 false positives
In pregnant women, "there were 8,000 false positives for 6 confirmations"
2000, the Archives of Family Medicine reported
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"68% to 89%” of all repeatedly reactive ELISA (HIV antibody) tests were
likely to represent false positive results
The more women we test, the greater "the proportion of false positive and
ambiguous (indeterminate) test results"
The tests described above are standard HIV tests, the
kind promoted in the ads

ELISA or EIA (Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbant assay)
HIV tests are non-specific: ELISA & WB

The ELISA is the first test that is used for HIV detection
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If you test HIV+, a second ELISA is recommended, if you test HIV+
again, then a Western Blot (WB) is performed
ELISA - a mixture of proteins, which are said to come only from
HIV, is exposed to a blood sample and any antibodies in the blood
that can bind to these proteins are allowed to do so
If all of the proteins in the mixture come from HIV, “and” if all of
the antibodies recognize only HIV proteins, a positive reading means
that a person has been exposed to HIV
1993, Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, PhD

The proteins in the mixture are not unique to HIV for the ELISA or WB

The antibodies in the blood samples are not specific only to HIV
proteins
Papadopulos-Eleopulos, E., Turner, V.F., Papadimitriou, J.M. 1993.
"Is a positive Western Blot proof of HIV infection?" Bio/Technology. 11:696-707
HIV tests are non-specific: Example of a
Western Blot
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All retroviruses
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Contain genes that encode
for the proteins (gag, pol,
env)
In the U.S., there are 5
major proteins used to
determine a person’s HIV
status
env
gp160
gp120
gp 41
gag
p55
p18
p24
pol
p65
p51
p31
Image reproduced from Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology, 2000. ASM Press.
HIV tests are non-specific: Analyzing the
important protein bands in the WB

Analysis of the five proteins that determines a person’s HIV
status


p24: Found in all endogenous retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2)
p31: The amino-acid sequences of the "purified HIV (p30-p32)” are
identical to that of a normal protein found in the human immune system
called "Class II histocompatibility DR proteins"
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

Henderson, L.E., Sowder, R., Copeland, T.D., et. al. 1987. "Direct identification of Class II
histocompatibility DR proteins in preparations of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III." J.
Virol. 61:629-632.
p41: Protein called actin - the most abundant protein in human cells

In some cells, actin accounts for 15% of the total cellular content

Actin filaments drives shape changes, cell locomotion, chemotactic migration
and participate in muscle contraction
p120, p160 - oligomers of p41, for instance (p 120 = p40 *3 and p160 =
p40*4)
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
1. Anti-carbohydrate antibodies
2. Naturally-occurring antibodies
3. Passive immunization: receipt of gamma or immune globulin
4. Leprosy
5. Tuberculosis
6. Mycobacterium avium
7. Systemic lupus erythematosus
8. Renal (kidney) failure
9. Hemodialysis/renal failure
10. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients
11. Flu
12. Flu vaccination
13. Herpes simplex I
14. Herpes simplex II
15. Upper respiratory tract infection (cold or flu)
16. Recent viral infection or exposure to viral vaccines
17. Pregnancy in multiparous women
18. Malaria
19. High levels of circulating immune complexes
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
20. Hypergammaglobulinemia (high levels of antibodies)
21. False positives on other tests, including RPR (rapid plasma
reagent) test for syphilis
22. Rheumatoid arthritis
23. Hepatitis B vaccination
24. Tetanus vaccination
25. Organ transplantation
26. Renal transplantation
27. Anti-lymphocyte antibodies
28. Anti-collagen antibodies (found in gay men, haemophiliacs,
Africans of both sexes and people with leprosy)
29. Serum-positive for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody
(both found in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoantibodies)
30. Autoimmune diseases: Systemic lupus erythematosus,
scleroderma, connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis
31. Acute viral infections, DNA viral infections
32. Malignant neoplasms (cancers)
33. Alcoholic hepatitis/alcoholic liver disease
34. Primary sclerosing cholangitis
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
35. Hepatitis
36. "Sticky" blood (in Africans)
37. Antibodies with a high affinity for polystyrene (used in
the test kits)
38. Blood transfusions, multiple blood transfusions
39. Multiple myeloma
40. HLA antibodies (to Class I and II leukocyte antigens)
41. Anti-smooth muscle antibody
42. Anti-parietal cell antibody
43. Anti-hepatitis A IgM (antibody)
44. Anti-Hbc IgM
45. Administration of human immunoglobulin preparations
pooled before 1985
46. Hemophilia
47. Hematologic malignant disorders/lymphoma
48. Primary biliary cirrhosis
49. Stevens-Johnson syndrome
50. Q-fever with associated hepatitis
51. Heat-treated specimens
66 factors known to generate a false
positive on HIV tests
52. Lipemic serum (blood with high levels of fat or lipids)
53. Hemolyzed serum (blood where haemoglobin is
separated from the red cells)
54. Hyperbilirubinemia
55. Globulins produced during polyclonal gammopathies
(which are seen in AIDS risk groups)
56. Healthy individuals as a result of poorly-understood
cross-reactions
57. Normal human ribonucleoproteins
58. Other retroviruses
59. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies
60. Anti-nuclear antibodies
61. Anti-microsomal antibodies
62. T-cell leukocyte antigen antibodies
63. Proteins on the filter paper
64. Epstein-Barr virus
65. Visceral leishmaniasis
66. Receptive anal sex
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
1. Agbalika F, Ferchal F, Garnier J-P, et al. 1992. False-positive antigens related to emergence of a 25-30 kD
protein detected in organ recipients. AIDS. 6:959-962.
2. Andrade V, Avelleira JC, Marques A, et al. 1991. Leprosy as a cause of false-positive results in serological assays
for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1. Intl. J. Leprosy. 9:125.
3. Arnold NL, Slade RA, Jones MM, et al. 1994. Donor follow up of influenza vaccine-related multiple viral enzyme
immunoassay reactivity. Vox Sanguinis. 67:191.
4. Ascher D, Roberts C. 1993. Determination of the etiology of seroreversals in HIV testing by antibody
fingerprinting. AIDS. 6:241.
5. Barbacid M, Bolgnesi D, Aaronson S. 1980. Humans have antibodies capable of recognizing oncoviral glycoproteins:
Demonstration that these antibodies are formed in response to cellular modification of glycoproteins rather than
as consequence of exposure to virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1617-1621.
6. Biggar R, Melbye M, Sarin P, et al. 1985. ELISA HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and
immune complexes in healthy Africans. Lancet. ii:520-543.
7. Blanton M, Balakrishnan K, Dumaswala U, et al. 1987. HLA antibodies in blood donors with reactive screening tests
for antibody to the immunodeficiency virus. Transfusion. 27(1):118.
8. Blomberg J, Vincic E, Jonsson C, et al. 1990. Identification of regions of HIV-1 p24 reactive with sera which
give "indeterminate" results in electrophoretic immunoblots with the help of long synthetic peptides. AIDS Res.
Hum. Retro. 6:1363.
9. Burkhardt U, Mertens T, Eggers H. 1987. Comparison of two commercially available anti-HIV ELISA's: Abbott
HTLV-III ELA and DuPont HTLV-III ELISA. J. Med. Vir. 23:217.
10. Bylund D, Ziegner U, Hooper D. 1992 Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Lab. Med.
12:305-333.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
11. Challakere K, Rapaport M. 1993. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ELISA results in low-risk
subjects. West. J. Med. 159(2):214-215.
12. Charmot G, Simon F. 1990. HIV infection and malaria. Revue du practicien. 40:2141.
13. Cordes R, Ryan M. 1995. Pitfalls in HIV testing. Postgraduate Medicine. 98:177.
14. Dock N, Lamberson H, O'Brien T, et al. 1988. Evaluation of atypical human immunodeficiency virus immunoblot
reactivity in blood donors. Transfusion. 28:142.
15. Esteva M, Blasini A, Ogly D, et al. 1992. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic
lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:1071-1073.
16. Fassbinder W, Kuhni P, Neumayer H. et al. 1986. Prevalence of antibodies against LAV/HTLV-III [HIV] in
patients with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis and following renal transplantation. Deutsche
Medizinische Wochenschrift. 111:1087.
17. Fleming D, Cochi S, Steece R. et al. 1987. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in low-incidence areas. JAMA.
258(6):785.
18. Gill MJ, Rachlis A, Anand C. 1991. Five cases of erroneously diagnosed HIV infection. Can. Med. Asso. J.
145(12):1593.
19. Healey D, Bolton W. 1993. Apparent HIV-1 glycoprotein reactivity on Western blot in uninfected blood donors.
AIDS. 7:655-658.
20. Hisa J. 1993. False-positive ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus after influenza vaccination. JID. 167:989.
21. Isaacman S. 1989. Positive HIV antibody test results after treatment with hepatitis B immune globulin. JAMA.
262:209.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
22. Jackson G, Rubenis M, Knigge M, et al. 1988. Passive immunoneutralisation of human immunodeficiency virus in
patients with advanced AIDS. Lancet, Sept. 17:647.
23. Jindal R, Solomon M, Burrows L. 1993. False positive tests for HIV in a woman with lupus and renal failure.
NEJM. 328:1281-1282.
24. Jungkind D, DiRenzo S, Young S. 1986. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell
lymphotropic virus type III [HIV] antibody test. J. Clin. Micro. 23:381.
25. Kashala O, Marlink R, Ilunga M. et al. 1994. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and
human T-cell lymphotropic viruses among leprosy patients and contacts: correlation between HIV-1 crossreactivity and antibodies to lipoarabionomanna. J. Infect. Dis. 169:296-304.
26. Lai-Goldman M, McBride J, Howanitz P, et al. 1987. Presence of HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in immune serum
globulin preparations. Am. J. Clin. Path. 87:635.
27. Langedijk J, Vos W, Doornum G, et al. 1992. Identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by HIV-1
false-positive sera. AIDS. 6:1547-1548.
28. Lee D, Eby W, Molinaro G. 1992. HIV false positivity after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet. 339:1060.
29. Leo-Amador G, Ramirez-Rodriguez J, Galvan-Villegas F, et al. 1990. Antibodies against human immunodeficiency
virus in generalized lupus erythematosus. Salud Publica de Mexico. 32:15.
30. Mackenzie W, Davis J, Peterson D. et al. 1992. Multiple false-positive serologic tests for HIV, HTLV-1 and
hepatitis C following influenza vaccination, 1991. JAMA. 268:1015-1017.
31. Mathe G. 1992. Is the AIDS virus responsible for the disease? Biomed & Pharmacother. 46:1-2.
32. Mendenhall C, Roselle G, Grossman C, et al. 1986. False-positive tests for HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in
alcoholic patients with hepatitis. NEJM. 314:921.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
33. Moore J, Cone E, Alexander S. 1986. HTLV-III [HIV] seropositivity in 1971-1972 parenteral drug abusers - a
case of false-positives or evidence of viral exposure? NEJM. 314:1387-1388.
34. Mortimer P, Mortimer J, Parry J. 1985. Which anti-HTLV-III/LAV [HIV] assays for screening and comfirmatory
testing? Lancet. Oct. 19, p873.
35. Neale T, Dagger J, Fong R, et al. 1985. False-positive anti-HTLV-III [HIV] serology. New Zealand Med. J.
October 23.
36. Ng V. 1991. Serological diagnosis with recombinant peptides/proteins. Clin. Chem. 37:1667-1668.
37. Ozanne G, Fauvel M. 1988. Perfomance and reliability of five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits
in screening for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody in high-risk subjects. J. Clin. Micro. 26:1496.
38. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E. 1988. Reappraisal of AIDS - Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary
cause? Med. Hypo. 25:151.
39. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, and Papadimitriou J. 1993. Is a positive Western blot proof of HIV
infection? Bio/Technology. June 11:696-707.
40. Pearlman ES, Ballas SK. 1994. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus screening test related to rabies
vaccination. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118-805.
41. Peternan T, Lang G, Mikos N, et al. Hemodialysis/renal failure. 1986. JAMA. 255:2324.
42. Piszkewicz D. 1987. HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies after immune globulin. JAMA. 257:316.
43. Profitt MR, Yen-Lieberman B. 1993. Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Inf. Dis.
Clin. North Am. 7:203.
44. Ranki A, Kurki P, Reipponen S, et al. 1992. Antibodies to retroviral proteins in autoimmune connective tissue
disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 35:1483.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
45. Ribeiro T, Brites C, Moreira E, et al. 1993. Serologic validation of HIV infection in a tropical area. JAIDS.
6:319.
46. Sayers M, Beatty P, Hansen J. 1986. HLA antibodies as a cause of false-positive reactions in screening enzyme
immunoassays for antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type III [HIV]. Transfusion. 26(1):114.
47. Sayre KR, Dodd RY, Tegtmeier G, et al. 1996. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western blot
tests in non-infected blood donors. Transfusion. 36:45.
48. Schleupner CJ. Detection of HIV-1 infection. In: (Mandell GI, Douglas RG, Bennett JE, eds.) Principles and
Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990:1092.
49. Schochetman G, George J. 1992. Serologic tests for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In
AIDS Testing Methodology and Management Issues, Springer-Verlag, New York.
50. Simonsen L, Buffington J, Shapiro C, et al. 1995. Multiple false reactions in viral antibody screening assays after
influenza vaccination. Am. J. Epidem. 141-1089.
51. Smith D, Dewhurst S, Shepherd S, et al. 1987. False-positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions for
antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in a population of midwestern patients with congenital bleeding
disorders. Transfusion. 127:112.
52. Snyder H, Fleissner E. 1980. Specificity of human antibodies to oncovirus glycoproteins; Recognition of antigen by
natural antibodies directed against carbohydrate structures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1622-1626.
53. Steckelberg JM, Cockerill F. 1988. Serologic testing for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Mayo Clin.
Proc. 63:373.
54. Sungar C, Akpolat T, Ozkuyumcu C, et al. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients. Nephron. 67:251.
References - factors known to cause a false
positive on HIV tests
55. Tribe D, Reed D, Lindell P, et al. 1988. Antibodies reactive with human immunodeficiency virus gag-coated
antigens (gag reactive only) are a major cause of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity in a bood donor
population. J. Clin. Micro. April:641.
56. Ujhelyi E, Fust G, Illei G, et al. 1989. Different types of false positive anti-HIV reactions in patients on
hemodialysis. Immun. Let. 22:35-40.
57. Van Beers D, Duys M, Maes M, et al. Heat inactivation of serum may interfere with tests for antibodies to
LAV/HTLV-III [HIV]. J. Vir. Meth. 12:329.
58. Voevodin A. 1992. HIV screening in Russia. Lancet. 339:1548.
59. Weber B, Moshtaghi-Borojeni M, Brunner M, et al. 1995. Evaluation of the reliability of six current anti-HIV1/HIV-2 enzyme immunoassays. J. Vir. Meth. 55:97.
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61. Yale S, Degroen P, Tooson J, et al. 1994. Unusual aspects of acute Q fever-associated hepatitis. Mayo Clin.
Proc. 69:769.
62. Yoshida T, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, et al. 1987. Evaluation of passive particle agglutination test for antibody to
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63. Yu S, Fong C, Landry M, et al. 1989. A false positive HIV antibody reaction due to transfusion-induced HLADR4 sensitization. NEJM.320:1495.
64. National Institue of Justice, AIDS Bulletin. Oct. 1988.
Low CD4 T-cell count: Non-HIV/AIDS
diagnosis




Prior to 1993, the definition of AIDS required clinical symptoms
of serious disease
According to the 1993 redefinition of AIDS, clinically healthy
but HIV+ people in the US have "AIDS" when their CD4 cell
count drops below 200.
This redefinition is absurd - a variety of physical and even
psychological conditions have been shown to cause very low CD4
cell counts in "HIV negative" individuals
Literally overnight, this change of definition caused the number
of people with "AIDS" in the United States to double


From 1993 to 1997, the CDC disclosed the percentage of AIDS
patients that had AIDS'93, but not AIDS'87
Starting in 1998, the CDC would no longer disclose which percentage
of AIDS cases was "AIDS'93" but not "AIDS'87", and stonewalled
all attempts of AIDS rethinkers to acquire it
Low CD4 T-cell count: A Variety of causes
account for this phenomenon
















Many viral infections
Bacterial infections
Parasitic infections
Sepsis
Tuberculosis
Coccidioidomycosis (acquired from inhalation of spores)
Burns
Trauma
Intravenous injections of foreign proteins
Malnutrition
Over-exercising
Intravenous drug users
Pregnancy
Normal daily variation
Psychological stress and social isolation
Malaria
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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county residents. Am J Epidemiol; 109(2): 186-203.
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31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
Cassone (1999). In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of HIV protease inhibitors. J Infect Dis; 180; 448-453.
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human pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol; 15; 103-111.
Castle S, Wilkins S, Heck E, Tanzy K, Fahey J (1995, September). Depression in caregivers of demented patients is
associated with altered immunity: impaired proliferative capacity, increased CD8+, and a decline in lymphocytes with
surface signal transduction molecules (CD38+) and a cytotoxicity marker (CD56+ CD8+). Clin Exp Immunol;101(3):48793
CDC (1999). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.
Chandra RK (1997, August). Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr; 66(2) :460S-463S
Chirenda J (1999). Low CD4 count in HIV-negative malaria cases, and normal CD4 count in HIV-positive and malaria
negative patients. Cent Afr J Med; Volume 45(9): page 248.
Christeff N, Gharakhanian S, Thobie N et al. (1992). Evidence for changes in adrenal and testicular steroids during
HIV infection. J Acquired Imm Def Syn; 5: 841-846.
Coodley GO, Loveless MO, Nelson HD et al. (1994). Endocrine function in the HIV wasting syndrome. J Acquired Imm
Def Syn; 7: 46-51.
Culver KW, Ammann AJ, Partridge JC, Wong DF, Wara DW, Cowan MJ (1987, August). Lymphocyte abnormalities in
infants born to drug-abusing mothers. J Pediatr;111(2):230-5.
Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Marmor M et al. (1987, July). Development of AIDS, HIV seroconversion, and
potential cofactors for CD4 cell loss in a cohort of intravenous drug users. AIDS 1(2): 105-111.
Feeney C, Bryzman S, Kong L, Brazil H, Deutsch R, Fritz LC (1995, Oct). T-lymphocyte subsets in acute illness. Crit
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Fox CH (1996). The pathogenesis of HIV-disease. J Nutr; 126(10 Suppl): 2608S.
Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, et al (1984). Frequent Detection and Isolation of Cytopathic Retro-viruses
(HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and at Risk for AIDS. Science ; 224:500-502.
Garrett L (2001). Change in Guidelines for HIV; U.S. officials to tout new treatment policy. Newsday (New York,
NY), January 17, 2001, Wednesday, page A22.
Goldman (2000). Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 21st edition, W.B. Saunders, Inc.
Goodkin K, Feaster DJ, Asthana D, et al. (1998, May). A bereavement support group intervention is longitudinally
associated with salutory effects on the CD4 cell count and number of physician visits. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol: 5(3);
382-91.
Guyton AC & Hall JE (1996). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Saunders; New York
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37.
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41.
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44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
Hegde HR, Woodman RC, Sankaran K (1999, March). Nutrients as modulators of anergy in acquired immune deficiency
syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India; 47(3): 318-25
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55;364-379.
House et al. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science ;241:540-545.
Junker AK, Ochs HD, Clark EA et al. (1986, Sep). Transient immune deficiency in patients with acute Epstein-Barr
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Kennedy S, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1988 Mar). Immunological consequences of acute and chronic stressors:
mediating role of interpersonal relationships. Br J Med Psychol; 61(Pt 1):77-85.
Keusch GT & Thea DM (1993). Malnutrition in AIDS. Med Clin North America: 77(4); 795-813.
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psychiatric inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine; 46(1): 15-23.
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in immunity and health. Psychosomatic Medicine; 53;345-362.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1992). Acute, psychological stressors and short-term immunological changes.
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Kotze M (1998). Ability of the total lymphocyte count to accurately predict the CD4+ T-cell count in a group of
HIV1-infected South African patients. Int Conf AIDS - 1998; 12: 810 (abstract no. 42187)
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Leserman J, Jackson ED, Petitto JM, et al. (1999) Progression to AIDS: the effects of stress, depressive
symptoms, and social support. Psychosomatic Medicine; 61; 397-406.
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(1996 Feb). Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. J Clin Endocrinol
Metab ;81(2):791-6
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for AIDS. Medical Hypotheses: 50; 67-80.
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levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Biological Psychiatry; 32: 756-765.
Stefanski V, Engler H (1998 Jul). Effects of acute and chronic social stress on blood cellular immunity in rats. Physiol
Behav;64(5):733-41
The viral load test: Polymerase chain
reaction (PCR)
PCR is method of rapidly synthesizing many copies of a specific
segment of DNA



PCR is the biotechnology version of the Xerox machine
The amount of DNA you have to study increases exponentially
Viral load tests suppose to measure the amount of HIV RNA
present in the blood stream, but, instead they measure genetic
fragments, not levels of active virus in the body

The viral load hypothesis fails to answer two important
questions

1.
2.
If billions of HIV are present, why is PCR necessary to find them?
If PCR is the only way HIV can be detected, how is it possible for
scientists to verify the results of PCR?
The viral load test: Invalid and not
reproducible

Nobel Laureate Kary Mullis, the inventor of the PCR method
has stated publicly that "viral load" tests are invalid

The “so-called viral load numbers” are not reproducible, not
even when the same technology is used

A nationwide team of orthodox AIDS researchers led by
doctors Benigno Rodriguez and Michael Lederman of Case
Western Reserve University in Cleveland

Disputed the value of viral load tests standard used since 1996
to assess health, predict progression to disease, and grant
approval to new AIDS drugs after their study of 2,800 HIV
positives concluded viral load measures failed in more than
90% of cases to predict or explain immune status
Published in the September 27, 2006 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association
The viral load test: Invalid and not
reproducible

In a study by French
researchers


The samples contained the same
load of this alleged “HIV” as
quantified by p24 measurements


15 HIV-1 strains using 3 viral load tests
were analyzed
p24: Found in all endogenous
retroviruses (HTLV-1, HTLV-II, HIV-2)
If the tests were true
measurement of HIV RNA the
results should have been the
same for all strains in a given
test and all tests for a specific
strain

Every number to the right of the first
column should be identical
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 15:174.
Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS
statistics from the CDC’s website


In 2005, the CDC estimated that 38,096 people were
diagnosed with HIV/AIDS
African Americans (12–13% of the American population)
make up 49% of the estimated number of HIV/AIDS cases
diagnosed


(38,096 *0.49) 18,667
If HIV exits, the actual HIV diagnoses that should have
occurred can be calculated by subtracting


The diagnoses that are a direct result of a low CD4 cell count
The false positives generated from the joint ELISA/WB test
Another analysis of the HIV/AIDS
statistics from the CDC’s website




1/2 (38,096) of those diagnosed with HIV/AIDS are from a
low CD4 count (19,048)
Assuming a 90% false positive rate based upon the joint WB
and ELISA antibody tests 19,048 *0.90 (17,143)
The HIV/AIDS cases should have been 38,096 – 19,04817,143 (1,905 people in the entire U.S.)
Since 49% of those estimated to be infected with HIV are
African Americans


This means that 933 out of ~39 million African Americans may
have this thing that is called “HIV”
Since antibodies are really not a good measure to detect any
disease, then this number should be reduced to “Zero”
If commerce laws were applied equally

HIV tests would have to bear a disclaimer just like
cigarettes

“WARNING"









This test will not tell you if you are infected with a virus
It may confirm that you are pregnant
It may confirm that you have used drugs or alcohol
It may confirm that you have been vaccinated
It may confirm that you have a cold, liver disease, arthritis
It may confirm that you are stressed, poor, hungry, or tired
It may confirm that you are an African
It will not tell you if you are going to live or die
In fact, we really do not know what testing “positive or
negative” means at all
Liam Scheff is an investigative journalist whose research was the basis for the 2004 BBC documentary,
"Guinea Pig Kids," about the forced use of experimental AIDS drugs.
The fine print: Summary of scientific
evidence

They tell you, unabashedly

HIV tests are arbitrarily interpreted

HIV tests are not standardized (no gold standard)

The term HIV does not describe a single entity


HIV describes a collection of non-specific, cross-reactive
cellular material

HIV can not be sexually transmitted

HIV is not required for AIDS
What is causing people to become sick?
The Drugs: HIV therapy - AZT

Liquid Plummer

Developed in the 1960s as a chemotherapy for leukemia

A "nucleoside analog" drug, or DNA chain terminator

Stops the DNA molecule from duplicating

Kills cells that try to reproduce

Chemotherapies are notoriously immunosuppressive


The idea for cancer treatment is that a short shock program of maybe two or three
weeks will kill the tumor while only half-killing the patient

Then you get the person off the therapy as quickly as possible

Then build up the person’s immune system
Officially acknowledged side effects

Diarrhea, dementia, lymphoma (cancer), muscle wasting, and T-cell depletion, which are
also AIDS-defining conditions
The Drugs: HIV therapy – protease
inhibitors

Proteases



Are some of the most important enzymes (proteins) that we
have
They aid in the breakdown of proteins in the body (digestion
of protein)
Protease inhibitors

Throw your body out of homeostasis

Inhibit the body's natural proteases

Prevent the digestion of proteins


If the digestive process is incomplete, undigested proteins can
wind up in a person’s circulatory system, as well as in other parts
of the body
Will cause an autoimmune response
Side effects - protease inhibitors

Invirase (Hoffmann-LaRoche inserts)

Body as a whole: allergic reaction, chest pain, edema, fever, intoxication, parasites
external, retrosternal pain, shivering, wasting syndrome, weight decrease

Cardiovascular: Cyanosis, heart murmur, heart valve disorder, hypertension, hypotension,
syncope, vein distended

Endocrine/Metabolic: Dehydration, dry eye syndrome, hyperglycemia, xerophthalmia

Gastrointestinal: Cheilitis, constipation, dysphagia, eructation, feces bloodstained, feces
discolorred, gastralgia, gastritis, gastrointestinal inflammation, gingivitis, glossitis,
hemorrhage rectum, hemorrhoids, hepatomegaly, melena, pain pelvic, painful defecation,
pancreatitis, parotic disorder, salivary glands disorder, stomatitis, tooth disorder,
vomiting

Hematlogic: Anemia, microhemorrhages, pancytopenia, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia

Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthritis, back pain, cramps muscle, musculoskeletal
disorders, stiffness, tissue changes, trauma

Neurological: Ataxia, bowel movements frequent, confusion, convulsions, dysarthria,
dysesthesia, heart rate disorder, hyperesthesia, hyperreflexia, hyporeflexia, mouth dry,
numbness face, pain facial, paresis, poliomyelitis, progressive multifocal
leukoencephalopathy, spasms, tremor
Side effects - protease inhibitors

Invirase (continued)





Psychological: Agitation, amnesia, anxiety, depression, dream excessive, euphoria,
hallucination, insomnia, intellectual ability reduced, irritability, lethargy, libido
disorder, overdose effect, psychotic disorder, somnolence, speech disorder
Reproductive System: Prostate enlarged, vaginal discharge
Resistance Mechanism: Abscess, angina tonsillaris, candidiasis, hepatitis, herpes
simplex, herpes zoster, infection bacterial, infection mycotic, infection
staphylococcal, influenza, lymphadenopathy, tumor
Respiratory: Bronchitis, cough, dyspnea, epistaxis, hemoptysis, laryngitis,
pharyngitis, pneumonia, respiratory disorder, rhinitis, sinusitis, upper respiratory
tract infection
Skin and Appendages: Acne, dermatitis, dermatitis seborrheic, eczema, erythema,
folliculitis, furunculosis, hair changes, hot flushes, photosensitivity reaction,
pigment changes skin, rash maculopapular, skin disorder, skin nodule, skin
ulceration, sweating increased, urticaria, verruca, xeroderma

Special Senses: Blepharitis, earache, ear pressure, eye irritation, hearing
decreased, otitis, taste alteration, tinnitus, visual disturbance

Urinary system: Micturition disorder, urinary tract infection
Side effects - protease inhibitors

Crixivan (Merck, Sharp & Dohme inserts)



Body as a whole/site unspecified: Abdominal distention, chest pain,
chills, fever, flank pain, flu-like illness, fungal infection, malaise, pain,
syncope
Cardiovascular system: Cardiovascular disorder, palpitation
Digestive system: Acid regurgitation, anorexia, aphthous stomatitis,
cheilitis, cholecystitis, cholestasis, constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia,
eructation, flatulence, gastritis, gingivitis, glossodynia, gingival
hemorrhage, increased appetite, infectious gastroenteritis, jaundice,
liver cirrhosis

Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia, lymphadenopathy, spleen disorder

Metabolic/Nutritional/Immune: Food allergy

Musculoskeletal system: Arthralgia, back pain, leg pain, myalgia, muscle
cramps, muscle weakness, musculoskeletal pain, shoulder pain, stiffness
Side effects - protease inhibitors

Crixivan (continued)





Nervous system and psychiatric: Agitation, anxiety, anxiety disorder, bruxism,
decreased mental acuity, depression, dizziness, dream abnormality, dysesthesia,
excitement, fasciculation, hypesthesia, nervousness, neuralgia, neurotic disorder,
paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, sleep disorder, somnolence, tremor, vertigo
Respiratory system: Cough, dyspnea, halitosis, pharyngeal hyperemia, pharyngitis,
pneumonia, rales/rhonchi, respiratory failure, sinus disorder, sinusitis, upper
respiratory infection
Skin and skin Appendage: Body odor, contact dermatitis, dermatitis, dry skin,
flushing, folliculitis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, night sweats, pruritus,
seborrhea, skin disorder, skin infection, sweating, urticaria
Special senses: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, eye pain, eye swelling,
orbital edema, taste disorder
Urogenital system: Dysuria, hematuria, hydronephrosis, nocturia, premenstrual
syndrome, proteinuria, renal colic, urinary frequency, urinary tract infection, urine
abnormality, urine sediment abnormality, urolithiasis
Side effects – AIDS drugs
Photos of an infant with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, a
blistering, peeling, potentially fatal skin rash. It is one of the
known side-effects of the AIDS drug Nevirapine (Viramune).
Viramune is one of the primary drugs being readied for
distribution in Africa.
“Viramune is not a cure for HIV-1 infection.”
Side effects – Protease inhibitor effects
BUFFALO HUMPS" between the shoulders and protruding
abdomen
Confidential name-based HIV infection
reporting

There are 33 States and 4 Dependent Areas that will not
release your name if you test HIV +



Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Idaho,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota,
Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New
Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio,
Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas,
Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and
the U.S. Virgin Islands
Illinois is not on that list
AIDS in Africa: The Bangui definition

In 1985, the WHO called a meeting in Bangui, the capital
of the Central African Republic, to define African AIDS

The meeting was presided over by CDC official Joseph
McCormick

McCormick wrote about it in his book "Level 4 Virus
hunters of the CDC," saying…

If I could get everyone at the WHO meeting in Bangui to agree on
a single, simple definition of what an AIDS case was in Africa,
then, imperfect as the definition might be, we could actually start
counting the cases

The result was - African AIDS would be defined by physical
symptoms: fever, diarrhea, weight loss, and coughing or itching
AIDS in Africa: an epidemiological paradigm, Science, 1986
In Africa, HIV status is irrelevant


Even if you test negative, you can be called an AIDS
patient
In 1992, a study in Ghana: 59% of the seronegative (HIVnegative) group were clinically diagnosed as having AIDS

All the patients had three major signs: weight loss, prolonged
diarrhea, and chronic fever


Lancet, October, 1992
Across Africa: 50% (2215 out of 4383) African AIDS
patients from Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Lusaka, Zambia, and
Kinshasa, Zaire, were HIV-antibody negative

British Medical Journal, 1991
In Sub-Saharan Africa




~60% of the population lives and dies without safe drinking water,
adequate food, or basic sanitation
Sep, 2003 report in the Ugandan Daily "New Vision" outlined the
situation in Kampala, a city of ~ 1.3 million inhabitants, which, like
most tropical countries, experience seasonal flooding
In the flood zone

Heaps of unclaimed garbage among the crowded houses

Countless pools of water that provide a breeding ground for mosquitoes
and create a dirty environment that favors cholera

Latrines are built above water streams

During rain - residents open a hole to release the feces from the latrines

The rain then washes away the feces to the streams

The residents fetch water from the streams
Some defecate in polythene bags, which they throw into the
stream (flying toilets)
False positive rate in South Africa

Dec 2002 – an article published by a fifth-year medical
student at Bristol University in Britain


Mukai Chimuterngwende-Gordon
83% chance that the HIV test mechanism in Africa called Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (Elisa)
would produce false results
http://new.hst.org.za/news/index.php/20030118/

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