Major Nickel Producers of the World (per Eramet 2005

Report
Processing Technology vs
Nickel Laterite Ore
Characteristic
Agus Superiadi
PT Inco.Tbk
Presentation Outlines
Types of Nickel Deposit
World Nickel Mineral Resources
Nickel Laterite Development
Processing Technology of Nickel Laterite
Processing vs Ni Laterite Ore Characteristic
Summary
Types of Nickel Deposits
Sulphide nickel deposits
– Nickel as nickel sulphide  pentlandite, millerite
– Nickel ores processed through milling and smelting
Laterite nickel deposits
– Oxide Ni deposits: Ni as hydroxide in the ferruginous zone
– Clay silicate deposits: Ni as clay silicate
– Hydrous silicate deposits: Ni as hydrous-silicate in saprolite
– Nickel ores processed through pyro-metallurgy (smelting) or
hydro-metallurgy (leaching)
WORLD’S LAND-BASED Ni RESOURCES
Mt
Ore
%
Ni
Relative
%
0.58
Contained
Nickel
Mt
62
SULPHIDES
10,594
LATERITES
10,382
1.32
140
69%
TOTAL
20,976
0.96
202
100%
31%
WORLD Ni PRODUCTION & RESOURCES
PRIMARY Ni PRODUCTION
WORLD Ni RESOURCES
60%
70%
LATERITE
SULPHIDE
LATERITE
40%
SULPHIDE
30%
LATERITE vs. SULPHIDE DEPOSITS
CUBA
PHILIPPINES
INDONESIA
NEW CALEDONIA
AUSTRALIA
LATERITES
SULPHIDES
World Nickel Laterite Deposits
Albania
Cuba
Guatemala
Columbia
Greece
Dominican
Republic
Burundi
Burma
Philippines
Ivory Coast
Venezuela
Brazil
India
Ethiopia
Indonesia
Zimbabwe
Madagascar Australia
Producing Countries
Non Producing Countries
PNG
New
Caledonia
World Nickel Laterite Resources
(Distribution by Contained Nickel)
America
8%
Africa
Other
4%
Caribbean
25%
8%
Australia
8%
Philippines
11%
Indonesia
16%
New
Caledonia
20%
DEFINITION OF LATERITES
Nickel laterites are:
– Residual soils
– Have developed over mafic/ultramafic rocks
– Through processes of chemical weathering and supergene
enrichment
– Under tropical climatic conditions
Laterites are source of metals:
– Ni, Co, Cr, Fe (from laterites derived from ultramafic rocks)
– Al (from laterites derived from aluminous rocks)
Laterisation
SiO2
PATH OF
LATERISATION
All compositions a re shown
in te rms of the thre e oxide s
Be drock
H a rd
Sa prolite
Soft
Sa prolite
Limonite
MgO
FeO or F2O3
LATERITE PROFILE
On Unserpentinised Peridotite, Sorowako
Red Laterite (Hematite)
Yellow Laterite (Limonite)
Saprolite zone
Bedrock pinnacle
Considerations for developing
a nickel laterite project
Nickel grade; cobalt grade
Resource tonnage / Life of Mine / scale of operation
Ore chemistry and mineralogy
Upgradeability of ore
Process selection
Availability of cheap power supply
Selection of fuel
Availability of raw materials: water, silica flux, aggregate
Availability of infrastructure
Location of project
Mining method
Environmental considerations
Negotiations with local and central governments
Funding of the project
Selection of engineer and contractor
PROCESSING OF Ni LATERITES
Pyrometallurgical processing
(Ore is melted)
– Ferro-nickel
– Ni-matte
– Ni Pig Iron
Hydrometallurgical processing (Leaching by acid)
– PAL (Pressure acid leaching) – HPAL
– AL (Atmospheric Leaching)
– Heap Leaching
Combined pyro and hydro process (Caron)
(Ore is reduced at high temperature, then leached)
Ferro-Nickel Projects in the world
Project
Owner
Country
Remarks
Cerro Matoso
BHP-B
Columbia
Codemin
Anglo
Brazil
Doniambo
SLN/Eramet
New Caledonia
Exmibal
Ex. Inco
Guatemala
Falcondo
Falconbridge
Dominican Rep.
Fenimark
FENI (govt.)
Macedonia
Closed
Hyuga
Sumitomo
Japan
Imported ore
Larymna
Larco
Greece
Loma de Hiero
Anglo
Venezuela
Morro do Niquel
Anglo
Brazil
Closed
Oheyama
Nippon Yakin
Japan
Imported ore
Onca-Puma
Vale Inco
Brazil
PAMCO
Nippon Steel
Japan
Imported ore
Pomalaa
ANTAM
Indonesia
Some imported ore
Mothballed
Nickel-Matte Projects of the world
Project
Owner
Country
Sorowako
PT Inco
Indonesia
Doniambo
SLN/Eramet
New Caledonia
Remarks
HPAL Projects of the world
Project
Owner
Country
Remarks
Moa Bay
Cuba Niquel
Cuba
First HPAL
Australia
Shut down
Bulong
Cawse
Norilsk
Australia
Murrin-Murrin
Minara
Australia
Coral Bay
Sumitomo
Philippines
Goro
Vale Inco
New Caledonia
Under construction
PNG
Under construction
Australia
Under construction
Ramu River
Ravensthorpe
BHP-B
CARON Projects of the world
Project
Owner
Country
Nicaro
Union del Niq
Cuba
Punta Gorda
Union del Niq
Cuba
Nonoc
Remarks
Philippines
Closed
Imported ores
QNI
BHP-Billiton
Australia
Tocantins
Niquel Toc.
Brazil
Heap Leach Projects of the world
Project
Owner
Country
Remarks
Caldag
European
Nickel
Turkey
First Heap Leach
project
Ravensthorpe
BHP-B
Australia
Part of flow sheet
Murrin-Murrin
Minara
Australia
Expansion of project
Piaui
Vale
Brazil
Being fast-tracked for
production
PYROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSING
Ferro-Nickel Process
Nickel-Matte Process
Upgrading in the mine
Upgrading in the mine
Drying of ore
Drying of ore
Upgrading after drying
Upgrading after drying
Calcining
Calcining
Electric Furnace Smelting
Electric Furnace Smelting
Refining Furnace
Converting
Ferro-Nickel Product
20 – 50% Ni
Nickel-Matte Product
78% Ni
PYROMETALLURGY
Important concerns:
Slag should not attack refractory (S/M ratio)
Melting temperature should be suitable (S/M; Fe)
Olivine should not be introduced to the furnace
Appropriate reduction of ore prior to smelting
Ni/Fe ratio in the ore for ferro-nickel operation
HYDROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSING
HPAL Process
Heap Leaching Process
Ore Preparation: wetting, screening,
crushing, ore beneficiation
Ore Preparation: wetting, screening,
crushing, ore beneficiation
Pre Heating through flash steam
Heap Formation
Pressure Acid Leach in autoclave
Acid Dripping
Pregnant solution
Heat recovery from leached pulp
Sequential Precipitation of metals
CCD thickening and washing
Neutralization
Neutralisation of pregnant solution
Precipitation of metals by adding H2S/alkali
Solid/liquid separation
Ni/Co products as mixed sulphides, oxides,
hydroxides
Ni/Co concentrate
HYDROMETALLURGY
Important concerns:
HPAL
Amounts of soluble Mg and Al in ore (acid consumers)
Acid to ore ratio required for process
Minimum operating temperature required to leach
What is the appropriate pressure during leaching
Retention time in the autoclave
Rheological behaviour during slurrying
How to recover metals in the back end of processing
What product to make
Heap Leaching
Clay content
Fe content
Moisture content
Weather
Limonite Development
Hydro vs Pyro
Good
Hydro
Hydro
HydroPyro
Fair
Hydro
HydroPyro
HydroPyro
Pyro
Pyro
Fair
Good
Poor
Poor
Saprolite Development
Note:
The selection of processing technology must consider:
• Ore characteristic (Chemistry and Mineralogy)
• Ni/Co grades (include potential upgrading)
• Metal recovery
• Mineability (Ore thickness and continuity)
• Capital and Operating costs (potential hydro-electric power, Residual Storage Facility,
Water source, Limestone source,
Existing infrastructure, etc)
• Market demand
Hydro vs Pyro
Item
Hydrometalurgy Pyrometalurgy
Note
Ore type
Limonitic
Saprolitic
Hydro needs low Mg, Pyro needs high Mg
Energy Requirement
Low
High
Pyro needs 3-4 times more energy
Technology Risk
High
Low
Sulphuric Acid with High Pressure/Temperature
Environmental Risk
High
Low
Sulphuric Acid and other dangerous Chemicals
Metal Recovery
High
Low
Pyro-nickel losses into dusts and slags, Co can not be separated
Capital Cost
High
Very High
The capital cost for Pyro can be lower if hydro-power available
Operating Cost
Low
High
Hydro - less energy, higher metal recovery, Co credit
Pyrometallurgy
Process
Main Feed
Electricity
Require
Capital
Cost
Operating
Cost
Fe-Ni
Smelting
Saprolite
Very High
Very High
High
Ni Matte
Smelting
Saprolite
Very High
Very High
High
Ni Pig Iron
Limonite
Moderate
Moderate
Very High
Hydrometallurgy
Process
Main
Feed
Electricity
Require
Capital
Cost
Operating
Cost
HPAL
Limonite
Low
High
Low
Caron
Saprolite
Moderate
Very High
High
Heap
Leach
Limonite
Very Low
Moderate
Low
Chloride
Leach
Limonite
Saprolite
Moderate
High
Low
SUMMARY
Ore Characteristics (chemistry and mineralogy) are very critical in
selecting processing technology.
HPAL is a preferred technology (if the ore is rich in limonite) because
less energy required.
Ferronickel and Nickel matte smelter is a good alternative for
saprolitic laterite ore with potential hydro electric power.
Heap Leach and NPI are attractive since less capital investment
required.
A Feasibility Study (Geology, Mining, Processing including
Metallurgical testworks, Infrastructures, AMDAL, etc) is required to
justify the project execution.
THANK YOU

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