PQA™ Plus

Report
Certification Training
Pork Quality Assurance Plus®
I
PQA Plus® is composed of two main elements:
■ Food Safety
■Animal Well-being
2
Elements:
1. Certification for individuals
2. Site Status for sites(farms)
3. Third-party verification
process
3
We Care:
• Ethical Principles:
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–
–
–
–
4
Produce safe food
Protect and promote animal well-being
Ensure practices to protect public health
Safeguard natural resources
Provide a work environment that is safe
Contribute to a better quality of life in our communities
Basis for the 10 GPP’s
• Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
principles (HACCP)
• The Food and Drug Administration’s Compliance
Policy Guide (CPG) 7125.37 – “Proper Drug Use
and Residue Avoidance by Non-veterinarians.”
• The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act
(AMDUCA) of 1994
• Science-based animal care and well-being
guidelines.
5
Good Production Practices (GPPs)
I
The PQA Plus
program is built upon
10 Good Production Practices
6
GPP # 1
Establish and implement an efficient
and effective herd health
management plan.
7
Herd Health Management Plan
Should include:
■ Regular herd evaluations
by a veterinarian
■ Biosecurity
■ Rodent & pest control
■ Cleaning & disinfecting
procedures
8
1
1
Regular veterinary health evaluations
■ Fulfill VCPR requirements
(Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship)
■ Help determine current herd health status
■ Provide “fresh set of eyes”
■ Provide opportunity to plan and strategize
9
1
Biosecurity
Managing to prevent the
transmission of diseases and
disease agents
■External
■ Keeping disease out of the herd
■Internal
■ Preventing disease movement
within the herd
10
Biosecurity
Develop SOPs for biosecurity
that may include:
■ Limiting visitors and other traffic
■ Isolating incoming animals
■ Using all-in, all-out flow
■ Using shower-in, shower-out
■ Keeping facility clean
■ Knowing your herd disease profile
11
1
Rodent and pest control
1
Rodents and other pests are biosecurity hazards
■ Pests also include: Birds, insects, cats & dogs
■ Prevent entry into facilities
■ Remove food sources
■ Remove living & hiding
spaces
■ Bait & trap
12
1
Cleaning & disinfecting procedures
■ Remove organic matter
■
Manure, bedding, etc…
■ Thoroughly clean building and equipment
■ Disinfect
■ Allow to dry before repopulating
13
GPP #1 - Summary
A herd health management plan should
include these important components:
■ Regular herd evaluations by a veterinarian
■ Biosecurity
■ Rodent & pest control
■ Cleaning & disinfecting procedures
GPP #2
Use an appropriate veterinarian/client/patient
relationship (VCPR) as the basis for
medication decision-making.
15
2
Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship
A VCPR as defined by the U.S. Code of Federal
Regulations (21 CFR Part 530) includes:
■
■
■
A veterinarian assumes the role of making medical judgments for
animals and owner/animal caretaker agrees to follow the
veterinarian’s instructions
The veterinarian has sufficient knowledge of the herd/animals
The veterinarian is available for follow-up care
Such a relationship can exist only when the veterinarian has recently seen
and is personally acquainted with the keeping and care of the animals by virtue of
examination of the animals and/or by medically appropriate and timely visits to the
premises where the animals are kept.
16
2
AMDUCA
Federal Animal Medicinal Drug Use
Clarification Act (AMDUCA) of 1994
■
■
■
■
17
Permits extra-label drug use by veterinarian with
a VCPR
Risks are increased, extended withdrawal times
may be necessary
Treatment records should be kept by the
producer for 1 year after the animal is marketed
Does not include medicated feeds,
including VFD feeds
Animal Drug Categories
2
■ Over-the-Counter (OTC)
■ Prescription (Rx)
■ Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD)
18
Over-the-Counter (OTC)
■ Widely available
■Farm stores, mail-order, veterinary clinics
■ No purchase restrictions
■ Must be used according to label
19
2
Prescription (Rx)
■ Available only through veterinarians, pharmacists
or distributors with a prescription on file
■ Requires veterinary order
■ Must be used according to label and/or any
additional veterinarian’s directions
20
2
2
Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) Drug
■ Antimicrobial used in or on feed
■ Use requires a VFD order issued within a VCPR
■ VFD allows producer to purchase medicated feed
with a VFD drug
■ Records must be maintained for 2 years
21
Extra-label Drug Use
2
Examples of extra-label use include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Increasing the dosage
Changing the frequency of administration
Changing the route of administration
Changing the duration of treatment
Treating a disease or condition not on the label
Changing species or life stage on the label
Legal only if on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
Extra-label use is NEVER legal for a VFD.
22
Compounding
AMDUCA also allows a
veterinarian with a VCPR to
compound drugs for the client.
■
■
23
Combining two or more FDA-approved
drugs
Veterinarian assumes responsibility for
safety and efficacy of compound
2
Residue Testing
If the residue status of an animal or group is
in doubt, conduct a residue test.
This may be due to:
■
■
■
24
ID tags or markings missing
Accidental animal access to medicated feed
Lost or damaged records
2
GPP #2 - Summary
 Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship –
– Veterinarian has assumed responsibility for making medical judgments
– Owner or other caretaker agrees to follow the instructions of the veterinarian
– VCPR only exists when a veterinarian has recently seen and is personally acquainted with
the keeping and care of the animal(s)
 Approved animal drug categories:
– Over-the-Counter (OTC)
– Prescription (Rx)
– Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD)
 Only when a VCPR exists - FDA approved drugs can legally be used
in food-producing animals in a way other than directed on the label
– Extra label use is prohibited in medicated feeds
 According to FDA, VFD records must be kept
for 2 years
GPP # 3
Use antibiotics responsibly.
26
Use antibiotics responsibly
3
The basis for using antibiotics
responsibly during pork production in
order to protect public health
involves:
-Evaluating their use to protect animal
health
-Optimizing their effectiveness, and
-Minimizing the risk of developing
antibiotic resistance
27
Three Purposes of Antibiotics
3
Pork producers use antibiotics for three purposes
■ Treatment of illness
■ Prevention of disease
■ Improvement of nutritional
efficiency
28
Take steps to decrease the need for
antibiotics
• Preventive strategies can help decrease the
need for antibiotics
–
–
–
–
–
29
Biosecurity programs
Appropriate animal husbandry
Hygiene
Routine health monitoring
Vaccination programs
Assess the
advantages/disadvantages
A. Other management options should be
considered
B. Treat only as long as needed
C. Review the need for continuing preventative
antibiotic therapy
D. Consider other impacts of using antibiotics
30
Use antibiotics only
when they provide measurable benefits
A. Assess the benefits of all uses
B. Assessment should be based on scientific
data
31
Responsible Use Guidelines
3
■ Use veterinary input as the basis for all medication
■
■
■
■
32
decision-making
Use antibiotics for treatment only when there is
an appropriate clinical diagnosis
Limit antibiotic treatment to ill or at-risk animals
Antibiotics that are important in treating antibiotic
resistant infections in human or veterinary
medicine should be used in animals only after
careful review and reasonable justification.
Minimize environmental exposure
GPP #3 - Summary
 Pork producers use antibiotics for three purposes:
– Treatment
– Prevention
– Nutritional Efficiency
• Principles and guidelines for responsible antibiotic use:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Take appropriate steps to decrease need
Assess the advantages and disadvantages of all uses
Use only when they provide measurable benefits
Use professional veterinary input
Used for treatment only when there is an appropriate clinical diagnosis
Treat the fewest animals indicated
Use only after careful review and reasonable justification
Minimize environmental exposure
GPP # 4
Identify, track and maintain medication and
treatment records for all treated animals.
34
4
Identification of Treated Animals
Treated pigs, or groups of
treated pigs, must be
identifiable from the time of
treatment until the withdrawal
time has elapsed.
35
Individual Identification
Individual animals may be identified with:
■ ID cards - Work best with adult animals housed singly
■ Paint marks - Short term, rub off easily
■ Tattoos - Permanent, harder to apply and read
■ Ear tags - Easy to see, cumbersome to apply, can be lost
■ Ear notches – Permanent, requires familiarization with
site-specific system
36
4
Group Identification
Treated animals housed in a group may be
identified by:
■Pen or room number
■Group (building or site)
Groups must remain intact until the withdrawal time
has elapsed. Any animals removed must be
identified individually.
37
4
5
Medication and Treatment Records
Records on treated animals should be
maintained for these purposes:
■Food safety – Ensure that
withdrawal time has elapsed
■Regulatory – Documentation of
proper drug usage
■Management – Analyzing and
planning production
Treatment records should be kept for 12 months.
38
FDA Compliance Policy Guide
5
(CPG 7125.37)
Minimum FDA required recordkeeping includes:
Date
9-17-XX
39
Animal
ID
145
Product
name
Penicillin
Amount
given
2cc
Route
IM
Given by
Withdrawal
time
Chuck
7 days
GPP 4 Summary
 Records on treated animals should be
maintained for these purposes:
– Food safety
– Regulatory
– Management
 There are various tools and methods of
identifying treated pigs and groups of pigs.
 The FDA has developed minimum requirements
expected of producers while maintaining
medication and treatment records.
– Written record should be kept on file for one year
after the hogs have been marketed.
GPP # 5
Adhere to medication withdrawal times.
41
Withdrawal Times
5
Withdrawal time is the length of time it takes for
a medication level in the body to fall below the
safe level for humans (as established by the FDA).
■ Always read and
understand the label,
package insert, or feed tag
42
Maximum Residue Level (MRL)
■ Other countries may require withdrawal times for
products different than the United States.
■
43
For more information on export MRLs visit:
http://www.pork.org
5
GPP #5 - Summary
 Withdrawal time - period required for the
medication to be metabolized, broken-down,
or excreted so that the level remaining in the
body of the animal is below the level
established as safe for humans
 Other countries may require withdrawal
times different than the United States for
some products
GPP # 6
Properly store, label, and account
for all drug products and
medicated feeds.
45
Medication Storage
6
All medication should be treated
as perishable
■ Temperature – Some require refrigeration,
others fine at room temperature
■ Sunlight – Some require dark storage
■ Expiration – Check expiration date before
using
Always read and follow storage instructions on the label, tag, or insert.
46
Medication Storage
6
■ Store injectables in clean, sealed containers
■ Use clean needle to withdraw medication
■ Feed pre-mixes should be stored in clean, dry
pest-free areas
■ Dispose of unwanted medications properly
47
Medication Identity
Preserve the identity of
medications
■ Store medication in original
container if possible
■ Do not store medication in a syringe
48
6
Medication Labels
6
Labels contain the following important information:
■Trade name
■Active ingredient
■Indications
■Dosage and directions for use
■Precautions
■Cautions
■Warnings – withdrawal times
■Manufacturer’s lot number
■Expiration date
49
Medication Inventory
Drug inventory and usage
records help to:
■ Monitor treatment trends
■ Reconcile treatment records
with inventory
■ Prevent waste or theft
50
6
GPP #6 - Summary
 Drug labels contain the following information:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Trade name
Active ingredient
Indications
Dosage and directions for use
Precautions
Cautions
Warnings –withdrawal times
Manufacturer’s lot number
Expiration date
– Always read and follow storage instructions on the
label, tag, or insert.
GPP # 7
Use proper administration techniques, needleuse procedures, observance of withdrawal times
and methods to avoid marketing adulterated
products for human food.
52
Administering Medications
7
Typical routes of medication delivery include:
■Oral
■Topical
■Injectable
53
Administering Medications
1. Oral
■Given through the mouth
■Good for large groups of animals
■ Water or feed delivery
■Reduced stress to animals receiving medication
and caretakers giving it
54
7
Administering Medications
2. Topical
■
55
Applied to the skin
■
Sprays
■
Dusts
■
Pour-ons
■
Dips
7
Administering Medications
3. Injectable
■ Useful when treating
individual animals
■ Practical way of
medicating pigs that are
too sick to eat or drink
and for some medications
that are poorly absorbed
from the gut
56
7
7
Administration of Injectable Drugs
Five Methods of Giving Injectable Medications
57
■
In the muscle (Intramuscular - IM)
■
Under the skin (Subcutaneous – SQ)
■
In the nasal passages (Intranasal – IN)
■
In the abdominal cavity (Intraperitoneal – IP)
■
In the vein (Intravenous – IV)
7
Administration of Injectable Drugs
In the Muscle (Intramuscular - IM)
■
■
■
■
58
Use spot on neck behind and below ear
Do not use a needle to inject in the ham or
loin
If using an alternative technique, work with
veterinarian or packer to determine
acceptability
Use proper needle gauge and length
7
Administration of Injectable Drugs
Under the skin (Subcutaneously - SQ)
■
Inject only into clean, dry areas
■
Use the proper length needle
■
Insert at the proper angle
■ Slide the needle under the skin away from the site of skin
puncture before depositing the product
■
■
59
Small pigs: use the loose flaps of skin in the flank
or behind the elbow
Larger pigs: inject in neck behind the ear
7
Administration of Injectable Drugs
Other Injection Methods
■
In the nasal passages (Intranasal - IN)
■
In the abdominal cavity* (Intraperitoneal - IP)
■
In the vein* (Intravenous - IV)
*Technique should only be used upon veterinary guidance
as serious injury, including death of the pig, can occur.
60
Standard Operating Procedure
for Needle Usage
A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for
needle usage should include:
■ Broken needle
prevention
■ Animal identification
■ Packer notification
procedures
61
7
SOP: Points to Consider
1. Evaluate the strength and detectability
characteristics of the needles you are
using
2. Provide needle-use
guidelines to all animal
caretakers
NEVER straighten a bent needle!
62
7
SOP: Points to Consider
Identification of hogs
■ Establish a plan for
identifying hogs known or
suspected of harboring a
broken needle
■ Provide permanent ID
■ Record all pertinent
information
■ Ensure employee training
63
7
SOP: Points to Consider
Communications with your packer
■ Find out from your packer their
policies for at-risk pigs
64
7
Disposal of Sharps
■ Needles, knife blades and syringes
(sharps) must be disposed of properly
according to your state or local
regulations
■ Use rigid, puncture-resistant container
■ Container should be clearly labeled as a
biohazard waste container
■ When full, the cap should be securely
tightened and sealed
65
7
GPP #7 - Summary
 Medications are commonly administered to pigs in
three ways:
– Orally
– Topically
– Injectable
 There are five ways to give injectable medications to
pigs:
–
–
–
–
–
In the muscle (Intramuscular - IM)
Under the skin (Subcutaneous – SQ)
In the nasal passages (Intranasal – IN)
In the abdominal cavity (Intraperitoneal – IP)
In the vein (Intravenous – IV)
 Never straighten a bent needle.
GPP # 8
Follow appropriate on-farm
feed and commercial feed
processor procedures.
67
Feed Manufacturing
Goals for manufacturing quality feed include:
■ Meets nutritional
specifications
■ Meets desired medication
level (if medicated)
■ Free of contaminants (or
below tolerance levels)
68
8
Medicated Feed and cGMPs
8
Guidelines for processing medicated feed are known
as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs)
and set standards for:
■ Manufacturing facilities
■ Ingredients
■ Manufacturing processes
■ Monitoring
■ Labeling
■ Recordkeeping
69
cGMPs
■ Buildings and grounds – Clean,
adequate space, pest controls in place
■ Equipment – Capable of task, in good repair,
accurate meters and scales
■ Workspace and storage – Designed to
prevent contamination, physically separated
from other areas
70
8
cGMPs
■ Product Quality Assurance
■ Consider analyzing feeds periodically
■ Establish equipment cleanout procedures
■ Labeling
■ Receive, handle, and store medications and their labels
in a way that prevents confusion
■ Recordkeeping
■ Written inspection and production records kept for
1 year, samples of feed and ingredients kept for 6
months
71
8
Mixing Medicated Feeds
Proper drug concentrations
are important to:
■ Achieve desired benefits of the
drug
■ Prevent adverse health effects
or violative residues
72
8
GPP #8 - Summary
 To prevent feed contamination current Good
Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) outline
standards for:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Manufacturing facilities
Ingredients
Manufacturing processes
Monitoring
Labeling
Recordkeeping
GPP # 9
Develop, implement and document
an animal caretaker training
program.
74
9
Caretaker and Employee Training
All animal caretakers
involved in the herd’s
production must be
trained and the training
must be documented.
75
PTSDR Method of Training
• Throughout a training program, a technique
called the PTSDR method may be used to train
others.
76
PTSDR Method of Training
 Step 1: Prepare Stage
– Focus on objectives and outcomes to achieve within
the training
– Determine the time constraints needed for an
employee to obtain a desired skill
– Identify any activities that should be implemented
– Gather the materials needed to carry out activities
and the entire training program
77
PTSDR Method of Training
 Step 2: Tell Stage
– Address the key points needed to obtain knowledge
and skills
 Focus on objectives and outcomes identified in the Step 1
 Step 3: Show Stage
– Demonstrate how to complete the specific task
78
PTSDR Method of Training
 Step 4: Do Stage
– Learner practices what they have seen and heard in
Steps 2 and 3
 Step 5: Review Stage
– Individual is evaluated on his or her performance
– After evaluation, the individual is given feedback and
recommendations for improvement
79
Document Training
▲Individual
Development Plan
▲Group Training Record
◄Individual
Training
Record
80
GPP #9 - Summary
 All animal caretakers must be properly trained
 The PTSDR method may be used to train others
and consists of five steps:
1) Prepare, 2) Tell, 3) Show, 4) Do and 5) Review.
 Training must be documented
GPP # 10
Provide proper swine care to
improve swine well-being.
82
Care and Well-being Principles
Proper swine care and
well-being requires
commitment on the
caretaker’s part.
83
10
10
Recordkeeping
■ Veterinary/Client/Patient
Relationship (VCPR)
■ Medication and treatment
records
■ Caretaker training
program including:
■Euthanasia
■Animal handling
■Husbandry
84
Emergency Backup Support
■Written action plan
■ Covers various emergencies – fire, weather,
■
power outage, etc...
Telephone numbers for owner, veterinarian,
fire and police
■Emergency detection system
■ Alarms for power failure, drastic temperature
■
changes
Facility location may allow for visual
detection
■Emergency backup system
■ Automated intervention in the event of a
■
85
mechanical ventilation failure
Test backup system regularly
10
PQA Plus® Site Assessment
10
■ Provides a tool to benchmark
and track the operation
■ Allows for a “fresh set of eyes”
to view the operation
■ Sites should be assessed at
least once every 3 years
86
Daily Observation
■ Routine observation
10
■ Helps ensure prompt reaction to any needs
■ Keep records of observations
■ Seriously ill, non-ambulatory,
or dead animals
■ Should not go undetected
■ Treatment pen
87
Animal Evaluation
■ Production Performance
■ Average Daily Gain
■ Farrowing Rate
■ Mortality
■ Physical Evaluation
■ Lameness
■ Skin lesions (abscesses, wounds)
■ Rectal prolapses
■ Swine Behavior
■ Indicator of care and suitability of
facilities
88
10
Body Condition Score (BCS)
10
■ Indicator of
management
and animal
well-being
1
2
3
5
Score
Condition
Detection of ribs, backbone, “H”
bones, and pin bones
1
Emaciated
Obvious
2
Thin
Easily detected with pressure
3
Ideal
Barely felt with firm pressure
4
Fat
None
5
Overly fat
None
Taken from “Assessing Sow Body Condition” by R. D.
Coffey, G. R. Parker, and K. M. Laurent (ASC-158; 1999).
89
4
Body Space
■ For pig space to be considered adequate
the pig must be able to:
■ Easily lie down fully on its side (full lateral recumbency)
without having to lie on another pig and easily stand back up
■ Lie down without the head having to rest on a raised feeder
■ Additionally, a pig housed in a stall must be able to lie down fully on
its side (full lateral recumbency) without the head having to rest on a
raised feeder and the rear quarters coming in contact with the back
of the stall at the same time.
90
10
Euthanasia
10
■ Written euthanasia plan which
considers:
■ Human safety
■ Pig well-being
■ Practicality and technical skills
■ Caretaker compliance
■ Aesthetics
■ Limitations
■ Timely euthanasia
■ Minimizes animal pain or distress
■ No improvement or prospect for improvement
after 2 days
■ Functional equipment available
91
10
Facilities
■ Pen maintenance
■ Pens and flooring in good repair, and
appropriate for the phase of production,
so as not to cause injury.
■ Feeders and waterers in good state of
repair to allow for unobstructed feed and
water delivery
■ Feeder space
■ Ample space for daily ration consumption
and prevention of unnecessary fighting
and competition
■ Water availability
■ Sufficient flow rate
92
Proper Handling
When pigs are improperly handled:
– Sows do not produce to peak levels
– Incidence of “non-ambulatory pigs" may
increase
– Loading and unloading pigs may take longer
and be more stressful
– Market pigs may lose weight
– Carcass shrink and/or trim loss may increase
– Meat quality will be affected
Proper swine handling will:
–
–
–
–
93
Reduce stress
Increase meat quality
Reduce weight loss
Reduce non-ambulatory pigs
Flight Zone
 Imaginary circle around an
animal
 Entering a pig’s flight zone
causes the pig to move away
 Size varies from pig to pig
 Work from edge of flight zone
Point of Balance
 Located at animal’s
shoulder
 Handler approaches from
rear = Animal moves
forward
 Handler approaches from
front = Animal moves
backward
Blind Spot
 Pigs’
– Eyes are on sides of head
– Approximately 310° field of
vision
– Will not move solely due to
visual cue if handler
approaches directly from rear
blind spot
Following/Herding
 Pigs like to
– Stay in visual/physical contact
– Follow each other
 An advantage when moving
pigs
– Up or down ramp/chute
– Through hallway/alleyway
– Into or out of a pen or room
People/Pig Interactions
 Pigs may not understand a
handler’s intentions
 Pigs experiencing positive
interactions are typically
– Less fearful of handlers
– Easier to handle
 Walk pens daily
Proper Handling
 Handlers should
–
–
–
–
Act calmly
Avoid sudden movement, loud noises, other distractions
Move pigs at their normal walking pace
Avoid aggressive handling
 Aggressive handling includes
–
–
–
–
–
–
Overuse, or improper use, of electric prods
Loud noises and yelling
Moving pigs too fast
Moving too many pigs per group
Overcrowding pigs in chutes, ramps and alleyways
Rough physical contact
 Willful acts of abuse are unacceptable
Pig Types and Sizes
 Breeding Stock
 Piglets
 Nursery and Finisher Pigs
Breeding Stock
 Large, powerful pigs
– Sows, gilts, boars
– Use appropriate handling tools, not
handler’s body
 Can be unpredictable, aggressive
– Example: Boars may use tusks as a
form of defense
– Example: Sows protecting a litter
being processed
 Utilize known pig behavior
– Example: Leave front door of stall
open when loading from rear
Piglets
 May be safety challenge
– Sharp teeth
– Active (squirm, wiggle)
 Pick up piglets
– Under rib cage
– By a rear leg above the hock
Nursery and Finisher Pigs
 Work in handler pairs
 Use appropriate handling
tools, not handler’s body
Group Sizes
 Balance safety and
efficiency
 Handler should
always be able to
control the lead pig
Pig type/size
Suggested group size
Weaned piglets
20
Nursery pigs
10
Finished/Market
pigs
3-5
Sows/Gilts
1-51
Boars
1-51
1Depending
upon temperament and safety conditions, may require
moving individually.
Non-ambulatory pigs
Are unable to walk because they are:
– Ill,
– Injured, or
– Fatigued.
Should be:
–Given medical treatment,
– Allowed to rest, or
– Humanely euthanized.
The position of the National Pork Board is that any pig that is
unable to walk or that is ill and will not recover should be humanely
euthanized on the farm and not transported to market channel.
105
Tools and Equipment
 Tools can be used as a/an
–
–
–
–
Physical barrier – Sort board
Visual barrier - Matador’s cape
Auditory stimulus – Rattle/Shaker paddle
Visual stimulus – Nylon flag
Tools and Equipment
 Electric prods are stressful to pigs
– Avoid or minimize use
– Never prod sensitive areas
 Eyes
 Nose
 Anus
 Testicles
 Etc.
– Evaluate handling procedures and facilities
if prod use is regular
– Should not be the primary handling tool
10
Ventilation
■ Temperature
■ Pig behavior is a good indicator of
thermal comfort
■ Heating/cooling provisions should
be in place
■ Air Quality
■ Ammonia (NH3) < 25 ppm
108
Willful Acts of Abuse
■ Abuse and neglect are unacceptable
■ Defined as acts outside of normally accepted
production practices that intentionally cause
pain and suffering including, but not limited to:
■ Applying prods to sensitive areas like: eyes, ears, nose,
rectum
■ Malicious hitting/beating
■ Purposeful failure to provide food, water or any minimal
care
■ Be familiar with local or state laws that address
animal cruelty
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10
GPP #10 - Summary
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Recordkeeping includes keeping records of a VeterinarianClient-Patient Relationship (VCPR), medication and treatment
of animals, and of a caretaker training program
It is also very important to have:
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A written emergency action plan and an emergency backup system
Daily observation of animals and facilities
Appropriate animal evaluation
Evaluation of body condition scores (BCS)
Adequate pig space
A written plan for euthanasia, and euthanasia performed in a timely manner
Proper facility maintenance and management
Correct use of animal handling tools and handling practices
Adequate ventilation
• Willful acts of neglect or abuse are unacceptable
Thank you!

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