Manufacturing processes 2 Sir Hassan Fareed sb Group No Iftikhar Ul Hassan Shah Faisal Saud Shehbaz Ayoub Bme01083048 Bme01083032 Bme01083120 Topic Motorcycle manufacturing industry in Pakistan INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION: Atlas Honda Limited is a joint venture between the Atlas Group and Honda Motor Co., Japan. Atlas Honda is market leader in motorcycle industry. It is emerging as a global competitive centre of production & exports. AHL can produce 600Kmotorcycles per annum. Being a dynamic, profitable and growth oriented company. It is sharing market leadership, maximizing exports & excellence in quality& service. AHL is producing 4 models with fulfilling its ISO 9002 & ESH (ISO 14001) requirements. AHL is also committed to provide green products /nonhazardous/environment friendly bikes to fulfill its corporate citizen responsibilities. Currently, there are 2 plants working day and night to meet the demand of motorbike in Pakistan. These plants are located in Sheikhupura and Karachi. The head office is located at Karachi. Sheikhupura plant manufactures all 4 models while Karachi plant only prepares 1 model. SKP Plant comprises of 500K plant (Frame &engine assy), HI TECH (Engine Plant), Casting Plant and manufacturing Plant. one of the leading automobile manufacturers of Pakistan. The turn over here is less than 3 percent which is very less as compared to other Industries who expect 10 percent turnover per year..The company has 250 dealers nationwide, who are responsible for the sales of motorbikes. Further, there are 6400 service dealers throughout the country, who are providing services of repairing to the customers. They are also responsible for the sale of spare parts. In this way, directly or indirectly, Atlas Honda is creating job opportunities for almost 25,000 people. Daily motorcycle production is 1325 units comprising 4 models. Presently, Atlas Honda has to compete with 51 companies in the market. Despite of such tough competition, Atlas Honda has 52 percent share in the total sales in Pakistan. This has only been achieved by maintaining tough standards in quality. Further, motorbikes are also exported in limited quantity to Bangladesh. With market share of worth more than 55 rupees, Atlas Honda is one of the leading automobile manufacturers of Pakistan. The turn over here is less than 3 percent which is very less as compared to other Industries who expect 10 percent turnover per year.The company has 250 dealers nationwide, who are responsible for the sales of motorbikes. Further, there are 6400 service dealers throughout the country, who are providing services of repairing to the customers. They are also responsible for the sale of spare parts. In this way, directly or indirectly, Atlas Honda is creating job opportunities for almost 25,000 people. Atlas group companies PRODUCTS: Atlas Honda presently offers 4 products to the customers. They are: CD 70: The new attractively designed CD 70 is right there at the top with aerodynamic shape, super power, a smoke-free 4-Stroke engine and the special Honda 12-voltCDI technology. The new eye-catching graphics, front and rear mud-flaps, comfortable seat and the new utility box have made Honda CD 70 an ideal combination of elegance and durability. Honda CD 70 has high resale value. Its excellent petrol average makes it greatly economical, and its easily available spare parts ensure troublefree companionship. CD 100: The new CD 100 has been designed to compete with Yamaha, the biggest suppliers of 100cc bikes in Pakistan. It incorporates many new features such as low fuel consumption with bigger outlook resembling CG 125. CG 125: New Honda CG 125 is the ideal combination of elegance and power. Its speed and performance symbolizes the true essence of modern life. The 125 cc 4-strokeengine generates 11-Horse Power with low fuel consumption. It is ideal for high-speed, long runs and rough pathways. Honda CG125 has a CDI Ignition System anda 12-volt battery (instead of 6-volt). The headlight and indicators are brighter, within easy starting-up of the engine. CG 125 DELUXE: This new model has been designed keeping in mind the demand for a bike with sporty outlook. The engine volume is same as CG 125. The outlook is different. Disk brakes have been incorporated to give a touch of heavy bikes. PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL: PPC deals with managing the details of what & how many products to produce and when, and obtaining the raw materials, parts, and resources to produce those items.PPC does this by managing information. For this purpose PPC has to keep strong interactions in terms of coordination, communication & cooperation with 4 major sections of Production and service departments like QA, Logistics, Maintenance, DCC/ Stores and PPC Karachi as well. Further, it communicates with sales, marketing to fulfill their day today requirements. PPC also interacts with Govt. offices like Excise and Taxation office Lahore to get permissions regarding Prefixes/ Engine/Chassis nos. Planning: Production planning is done to ensure the budgeted production targets of AHL. The planning is majorly done at AHL, the company sets its production targets. On the basis of these targets following type of planning is done. • Aggregate planning • Master production schedule Aggregate planning: On the basis of forecasting, a schedule from SAP, according to the production capacities & company’s strategies, is generated which includes the planning of whole year. It includes the production breakup of motorcycles for whole year into model wise, plant wise & month wise breakups. Master production schedule On the basis of aggregate planning, such a monthly schedule is made which includes day wise (2- shift wise), model & color wise breakups. Control: Planning is nothing without control. PPC ensures & arranges the necessary resources for implementation of production plan. For this purpose PPC has an eye on the in-house, vendor, import items &ensures that all the material for the next day production are available. if there is any shortage, then they collaborate with vendor procurement to ensure availability of part in time. The other function of PPC is that if there are deficiencies in the resources available for production due to any reason, they work to save the company from production loss. CASTING PLANT: This plant provides castings in raw form for the engine plant to do machining operations on it.PPC gives monthly plan to casting shop. The casting shop takes daily target from customer shop i-e cylinder head machining shop. Then according to their requirement they generate their own schedule. They determine that how many castings & how many shot blasts (finished according to C/H machining shop), the casting shop will manufacture. Raw Materials: Following RM’s are received by casting shop from general stores by I. R. Aluminum ingots, RCS sand. There are three types of castings done in this plant they are: LOW PRESSURE DIE CASTING: This type of casting is done in only Atlas Honda in Pakistan. There is no other industry using this type of casting process. Here, four parts are made: • Cylinder Head of CD 70 • Cylinder Head of CD 100 • Cylinder Head of CG 125 • Cylinder Head of CG 125 Deluxe Details of processes & machines used Melting of Al ingots: First of all, raw aluminum alloy in form of ingots is melted in MELTING FURNACE. The furnace is an automatic controlled furnace which melts Al ingots at 7300C GBF: A fork lifter takes the liquid aluminum out of the furnace and pours it into Gas bubbling filtration machine which degassing molten Al i-e removing air/hydrogen contents. LPDC: After GBF, the liquid aluminum is poured into the LPDC machine where dies are available. The liquid metal goes into the die to form the casting. The pressurizing time for the die is 120 seconds. After this, water is passed through the die to cool the aluminum for 15 seconds. There are sand pores placed inside the die for giving shape to the casting. Chipping: After this, the casting is removed from the die and sand pore is removed by a process called sand breaking on chipping machine. Gate cutting: Then gate cutting machine is utilized to cut the gate with the casting. The gate is the extra material attached with the casting which is formed when liquid aluminum entering the die is solidified. Thus, gate represents the pathway for the liquid aluminum and has to be removed. Tig Welding: Then welding is performed on Tig Welding Plant. This is done only when required. It is mostly not used. Workers then perform finishing of the casting by dry grinders. Heat Treatment process: Heat Treatment process is then performed to strengthen the material of the cylinder head casting. Quenching is done by heating the casting up to 500 degree centigrade and then immediately dipping it in water at temperature of 50 degree centigrade. Shot blasting: Next, shot blasting machine is used to coat the part with steel. In shot blasting machine, steel balls are fired on the casting with high momentum. They strike the part and leave their impact on the casting in form of steel coating. The part is now ready to deliver. Core preparation section: There is another section in LPDC where dies are coated with special material and their service is performed. The sand cores used in the dies are also prepared in a machine. This machine utilizes special sand called TSC to prepare sand cores. This sand is imported from Malaysia and Taiwan at cost of rupees 20 per kg through HONDA TRADING. Sand is first roasted at 300 degree centigrade and then compressed to a compact form to give it desired shape GRAVITY DIE CASTING: This section produces three parts: Case Bottom for CD 70 Case Bottom for CG 125 Case Bottom for CG 125 Deluxe The sequence of operations is as following • First of all, aluminum alloy is melted in melting furnace. The furnace used is same as that of LPDC section. • Then liquid aluminum alloy is poured into the dies by the help of Gravity Die Casting Machines. • Afterwards, gate cutting operation is performed on the casted part by the help of gate cutting machine. • Then glow pasting operation is performed. • Crack detection is made to check if any crack has been developed in the casting during its production. • Then finishing is done. If required, repairing can also be performed. • Final inspection of the castings is done to ensure there is no defected part produced. Now, part is ready to be delivered to CKD. HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING: In this section, following four parts are casted: R Crank Case of CD 70 L Crank Case of CD 70 R Cover for CD 70 Cylinder for CG 125 The sequence of operations is as follows: • Aluminum alloy of HD2BS1 grade is melted in the electric furnace. • Then liquid aluminum alloy is poured in the HPDC machines to form casting. There are three machines used in this section. Two machines have pressure of 650 tons each. One machine has pressure of 500 tons. There is water cooling system in the die for cooling the die. Cycle time is 49 seconds. The machines are automatic i.e. they themselves pick up the liquid aluminum from a tank and pour them at the inlet. Then a cylinder pushes the liquid aluminum into the die which consists of two parts. These 2 parts clamp each other with immense pressure as high as 650 tons. The life cycle of one die is 1,25,000 shots. • Then finishing of the casting is performed which includes removing burrs on the casting. There is die maintenance section in HPDC which checks the quality of die and decides whether it is to be repaired or not. • Die is sprayed from inside after each cycle with a separate material so that casting does not sticks with the die. STORES: Stores dept. at AHL performs following functions. • Manages the receiving, stacking & issuance of parts & materials to the shop. • Ensures the provision & dispatches of required parts to SKP & KHI plant, spares part division & vendors. • Handles the rejections & damages from all shops • Handles the scraps & wastes generated in the factory Division of stores: Stores dept. at AHL has been divided into a no of small stores according to the typeof material being stored and functions/services provided by the store. The division is shown as follows Handling Techniques: At AHL, following handling techniques are used. • For handling from shop to shop especially designed trolleys, and pallets are used. • Imported motorcycle components are received in steel & wooden cases &pallets. • Local vendor parts are received from receiving section in Movement of materials from stores: FROM STORES TO SHOP CKD, in-house, sub contractor parts & sub assemblies Paint shop, Engine & Frame Assy Press parts Welding, Paint shops RM, CKD, subcontractor parts Cushion, Casting, Engine, gear, camshaft shop, crankshaft & cylinder head shop MANUFACTURING PLANT: This plant has two shops: Fuel tank welding shop, Fuel tank paint shop FUEL TANK WELDING SHOP: In this shop, fuel tanks of all the 4 models are manufactured here. The following processes are done: • Emblem spot where Mechanical press is used to produce frame of the bike from sheet metal. • Fuel tanks of the bikes are not casted in a single piece. They are available in 2 pieces. They are joined together by welding. Then grinding operation is done to remove any material appearing at the point of weld. Then a leak check is performed to check the efficiency of fuel tank. FUEL TANK PAINT SHOP: Here, spray painting method is used to paint the parts produced in the fuel tank welding shop. The sequence of operations is as following: • First of all, the fuel tanks are cleaned by immersing them in hot water for some time. • Then they are dried in a drying chamber. • Then the workers start painting them in a special way using spray painting. The paint used is of silver color and is the base paint. This method is of low efficiency i.e. 15-20%. • Then parts are dried. • Monograms are placed on the fuel tank and side covers. • Parts are delivered to the store department ENGINE PLANT: All machining processes on the engine parts are performed here. So, this plant is of great importance. The accuracy and stability of engine is dependent on the quality of machining being performed here. The engine plant is divided into following portions: GEAR MANUFACTURING SHOP: This shop produces following products: Gear train for CD 70 Gear train for Cd 100 Gear train for CG 125 Gear train for CG 125 Deluxe Transmission shafts and main shafts of CD 70, CD 100 and CG 125. Total 33 parts are manufactured here. The gear trains of CD 70 and CD 100 consist of 9 gear pieces. The gear train of CG 125 consists of 8 parts while that of Deluxe 7 parts. All the parts are provided by the vendors. Following processes are performed on • Lathe processes like turning, boring and facing are performed on the gears initially in CNC machines. Two such machines are installed which perform these processes. • Two broaching machines are present to performing broaching operations on the gears to form holes at the center of the gears for main shaft. • Teeth are being cut on the gear profile in teeth cutting machines. This process is done on 2 types of machines i.e. GEAR SHAPING MACHINE and HOBBING MACHINE. • In finishing section, grinding, honing and final inspection is made of the parts. • Honing is done for grinding internal diameters of gears. It is done to lessen the wear between gear and shaft. Final inspection is made to check if there is any error in the gear profile. This is done on special testing machines which draw the graphs of the gear and represent the tooth profile of the gear. • Then Heat treatment is done on the gear to increase its surface hardness. CAMSHAFT MACHINING: This shop performs the operation of machining and finishing the camshaft for the bike engine. Camshafts for all four models are machined here. The camshaft castings are imported from Japan. Following sequence of operations are performed here: • First of all, facing operation is done on the casting to remove material on the shaft leaving the cams. • Then cylindrical profile grinding operation is performed to machine the cam profile in a special machine. • Then holes are made for lubricating oil passage. Drilling, turning and reaming operations are performed. The holes are checked for the oil passage by passing coolant through them. • After final Inspection, the camshaft is forwarded to be ued. CYLINDER HEAD MACHINING: The cylinder head is casted in the casting plant and supplied to this shop by the stores department. Here following sequence of operations are performed: Face milling and end milling of the upper and lower sides is performed Drilling operations along with reaming, boring and counter boring is done. After this, extra parts are attached to the cylinder head. They include valves, springs other small accessories. In the end, again the part is checked for the quality. CRANKSHAFT MACHINING: Crankshaft is an important part of bike engine. It is the responsibility of this part to transfer the force of the cylinder to the wheels. So, special attention is required while manufacturing this part. Following sequence of operations are performed on it: • Plain turning of the shaft. • Facing operation. • Gun drilling operation is used to drill holes in the shaft for mounting it. • Boring is done • Profile grinding is performed as a finishing process. • After completion, run-out is observed by hit and trail method. It is done to balance the crankshaft during its performance. CRANKCASE MACHINING SHOP: Following parts are machined here: L/R cases for CD 70 and CD 100. R cover for CD 70 and CD 100. L/R case for CG 125 and Deluxe. L.R cover for CG 125 and Deluxe. • First, dry facing is performed on the upper and lower portions of the castings. • Then operations like drilling, reaming, tapping etc. are performed on the parts. • Then part is washed in the washing machine. • Then inspection is performed e.g. leak tests and other observations. If any fault is found, part is rejected. 500K ASSEMBLY PLANT: All parts of the motor bike are supplied here by the stores department and are assembled to prepare a bike. This plant is very efficient one. The production rate is high with a motorbike manufactured in 35 seconds. There are four shops in this plant. Their detail is given below: FRAME WELDING SHOP: The frame body of the bike is welded here. Three types of welding are being used presently: MIG Welding TIG Welding. Spot Welding. ED PAINT SHOP: The welded frames from the frame welding shop are shifted to the ED( electrode deposition) paint shop for painting. The parts which are painted here are: • Frame body • Bracket muffler • Side & main stands ENGINE ASSEMBLY SHOP: This is the most critical shop of the assembly plant. It The assembly line consists of a conveyor belt. It also has sub assembly zones where engine parts are assembled and then subsequently shifted to the main engine assembly line. All four models CD 70, CD 100, CG 125 and CG 125 Deluxe engines are assembled here. Pneumatic guns are provided for the workers to mount nuts and bolts on the engine. Checks are made at many places for leakage of the engine. If found any fault, engine is sent to the re-work area where problem is removed. FRAME BODY ASSEMBLY: This shop has 100 meter long conveyor having capacity of 90 jigs. These jigs are used to clamp the frame of the bikes. This shop is also divided into sub assembling zones. Different parts are assembled and transferred to the main assembly line. This frame assembly has three QUALITY GATES. The purpose of each quality gate is to check and repair the faults in the assembled bike. This shop produces a bike after every 46 seconds. It has the capacity of producing a bike after every 27 seconds. FINAL INSPECTION AREA: It has the responsibility of checking the bike and finding faults related to any shop. For this purpose, inspectors are appointed, who check the whole bike in 1 minute. In this checking operation, they drive it, observe it and may even use tools for this Purpose. VENDOR PROCUREMENT: The main responsibility if this dept. is ensuring part availability in right quantity & in right time. This dept. is for local vendors in Pakistan. Purchase orders: The purpose is to inform developed vendors (in the start of the new year)that during this new year, AHL will buy the parts in such quantities and at such rate. This basically helps vendor to do his aggregate & capacity planning. QUALITY ASSURANCE: QA dept. administers Quality management & quality control functions. QA dept. identifies quality related problems in vendor & in-house parts & takes preventive action for their reoccurrence. WARRANTY & FINAL INSPECTION: Warranty Claim Data Collection: At AHL, warranty system is emphasized a lot. When a customer has any complaint, he contacts to antenna dealers (authorized with warranty). Antenna dealers generate a warranty claim report & then communicate with AHL warranty center for working on it. Final inspection: This section of QA is located in final assy section of 500K plant. This section is formed for the final analysis of the complete motorcycle that comes out of the frame assy. Stages of final inspection: Test bench, functional & visual tests are performed. The details of theses tests are as follows Test bench: It includes: Test for engine efficiency Test for accuracy of speedometer Test for working of brakes Visual check: At the second stage visual check is performed. In this test, inspectors check the bike visually according to the criteria & inspection points provided to them. Functional check: It includes the Co & HC emission test & head light testing. Final inspection dept. generates the straight pass of the motorcycles which shows the no of O.K parts as compared to total no of production.