Biological and Physical Development in Early Adulthood

Biological and Physical
Development in Early Adulthood
Allport’s Dimensions of Maturity
Extension of self is doing something for its own sake,
– not because others want you to, or because it is expected of you.
Relating warmly to others is developing intimate relations and displaying
compassion. trust, empathy
Emotional security is
– accepting emotional responses without letting them take control;
– an ability to handle high levels of stress; and
– control over emotional expression.
Realistic perception is perceiving situations accurately.
Possession of skills and competencies is being aware of skills and displaying
pride in personal abilities.
Knowledge of the self is
– knowing what one can do;
– knowing what one cannot do; and,
– knowing what one ought to do.
Establishing a unifying philosophy of life is finding a guiding purpose,
establishing ideals, identifying needs, developing goals, and adopting values.
Aging at the DNA & Body Cell Level
• Two theories:
– Programmed effects of specific genes
• “aging genes”- menopause, gray hair, deterioration of body
• Human cell division: ~50 ± 10 divisions
– Limit controlled by genes
– Cumulative effects of random events
• Cells damaged from mutation: spontaneous or externally
• Free radicals
• Genes defending against free radicals?
– Vitamin C, E, Beta-Carotene
• Longevity-Family trait
Organs and Tissues
• Cross-linkage theory
– Protein fibers that make up the body’s
connective tissue form bonds with one
• Tissue becomes less elastic
• Regular exercise, vitamin rich, low-fat diet
• Failure of the endocrine system
– Immune system functioning
Physical Changes
• Hypertension in African-Americans and White
Americans (12 %); Deaths from Heart Disease
• Hearts ability to meet O2 requirement does not
change with age unless “exercised”
• Atherosclerosis of the arteries
– Caused by?
• Heart Disease Decrease from: diet, exercise, cig
smoking, medical advances for high blood
• Lung functioning does not change with age
unless “exercised”: respiratory volume
decreases, breathing rate increases.
Motor Performance
• Difficult to separate from decrease in
motivation and practice
• Upper limit in beginning of early adulthood
• Lower performance due to reduced
capacities from adaptation to a less
physically demanding lifestyle
Immune System
• Immune response: specialized cells that
neutralize or destroy antigens
– T cells-bone marrow attack antigens directly
– B cells- bone marrow; antibodies into the bloodstream
that multiply, capture antigens, blood system destroys
• Immune systems capacity increases through
adolescence but declines after 20
• Difficulty coping with phys. and psych. stress
can contribute to declines in immune system
• First births to women over 30 have
• Fertility problems increase from 15 to 50
years, sharp rise in mid 30s
• Males after age 40.
Your “Healthy” Lifestyle
• Present your lifestyle profile.
– Include descriptions of your eating habits,
exercise, substance use (and/or abuse), and
health risks.
Assess your functioning in all areas.
Where are you succeeding in living well?
What areas do you need to work on?
What is your worst health-threatening
• How might you improve these things to
live a better and healthier life?

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