Biological and Physical Development in Early Adulthood

Report
Biological and Physical
Development in Early Adulthood
Maturity
Allport’s Dimensions of Maturity
•
Extension of self is doing something for its own sake,
– not because others want you to, or because it is expected of you.
•
Relating warmly to others is developing intimate relations and displaying
compassion. trust, empathy
•
Emotional security is
– accepting emotional responses without letting them take control;
– an ability to handle high levels of stress; and
– control over emotional expression.
•
Realistic perception is perceiving situations accurately.
•
Possession of skills and competencies is being aware of skills and displaying
pride in personal abilities.
•
Knowledge of the self is
– knowing what one can do;
– knowing what one cannot do; and,
– knowing what one ought to do.
•
Establishing a unifying philosophy of life is finding a guiding purpose,
establishing ideals, identifying needs, developing goals, and adopting values.
Aging at the DNA & Body Cell Level
• Two theories:
– Programmed effects of specific genes
• “aging genes”- menopause, gray hair, deterioration of body
cells
• Human cell division: ~50 ± 10 divisions
– Limit controlled by genes
– Cumulative effects of random events
• Cells damaged from mutation: spontaneous or externally
caused
• Free radicals
• Genes defending against free radicals?
– Vitamin C, E, Beta-Carotene
• Longevity-Family trait
Organs and Tissues
• Cross-linkage theory
– Protein fibers that make up the body’s
connective tissue form bonds with one
another
• Tissue becomes less elastic
• Regular exercise, vitamin rich, low-fat diet
• Failure of the endocrine system
– Immune system functioning
Physical Changes
Cardiovascular/respiratory
• Hypertension in African-Americans and White
Americans (12 %); Deaths from Heart Disease
(47%)
• Hearts ability to meet O2 requirement does not
change with age unless “exercised”
• Atherosclerosis of the arteries
– Caused by?
• Heart Disease Decrease from: diet, exercise, cig
smoking, medical advances for high blood
pressure
• Lung functioning does not change with age
unless “exercised”: respiratory volume
decreases, breathing rate increases.
Motor Performance
• Difficult to separate from decrease in
motivation and practice
• Upper limit in beginning of early adulthood
• Lower performance due to reduced
capacities from adaptation to a less
physically demanding lifestyle
Immune System
• Immune response: specialized cells that
neutralize or destroy antigens
– T cells-bone marrow attack antigens directly
– B cells- bone marrow; antibodies into the bloodstream
that multiply, capture antigens, blood system destroys
them.
• Immune systems capacity increases through
adolescence but declines after 20
• Difficulty coping with phys. and psych. stress
can contribute to declines in immune system
Reproduction
• First births to women over 30 have
increased
• Fertility problems increase from 15 to 50
years, sharp rise in mid 30s
• Males after age 40.
Your “Healthy” Lifestyle
• Present your lifestyle profile.
– Include descriptions of your eating habits,
exercise, substance use (and/or abuse), and
health risks.
•
•
•
•
Assess your functioning in all areas.
Where are you succeeding in living well?
What areas do you need to work on?
What is your worst health-threatening
habit?
• How might you improve these things to
live a better and healthier life?

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