Biological and Physical Development in Early Adulthood Maturity Allport’s Dimensions of Maturity • Extension of self is doing something for its own sake, – not because others want you to, or because it is expected of you. • Relating warmly to others is developing intimate relations and displaying compassion. trust, empathy • Emotional security is – accepting emotional responses without letting them take control; – an ability to handle high levels of stress; and – control over emotional expression. • Realistic perception is perceiving situations accurately. • Possession of skills and competencies is being aware of skills and displaying pride in personal abilities. • Knowledge of the self is – knowing what one can do; – knowing what one cannot do; and, – knowing what one ought to do. • Establishing a unifying philosophy of life is finding a guiding purpose, establishing ideals, identifying needs, developing goals, and adopting values. Aging at the DNA & Body Cell Level • Two theories: – Programmed effects of specific genes • “aging genes”- menopause, gray hair, deterioration of body cells • Human cell division: ~50 ± 10 divisions – Limit controlled by genes – Cumulative effects of random events • Cells damaged from mutation: spontaneous or externally caused • Free radicals • Genes defending against free radicals? – Vitamin C, E, Beta-Carotene • Longevity-Family trait Organs and Tissues • Cross-linkage theory – Protein fibers that make up the body’s connective tissue form bonds with one another • Tissue becomes less elastic • Regular exercise, vitamin rich, low-fat diet • Failure of the endocrine system – Immune system functioning Physical Changes Cardiovascular/respiratory • Hypertension in African-Americans and White Americans (12 %); Deaths from Heart Disease (47%) • Hearts ability to meet O2 requirement does not change with age unless “exercised” • Atherosclerosis of the arteries – Caused by? • Heart Disease Decrease from: diet, exercise, cig smoking, medical advances for high blood pressure • Lung functioning does not change with age unless “exercised”: respiratory volume decreases, breathing rate increases. Motor Performance • Difficult to separate from decrease in motivation and practice • Upper limit in beginning of early adulthood • Lower performance due to reduced capacities from adaptation to a less physically demanding lifestyle Immune System • Immune response: specialized cells that neutralize or destroy antigens – T cells-bone marrow attack antigens directly – B cells- bone marrow; antibodies into the bloodstream that multiply, capture antigens, blood system destroys them. • Immune systems capacity increases through adolescence but declines after 20 • Difficulty coping with phys. and psych. stress can contribute to declines in immune system Reproduction • First births to women over 30 have increased • Fertility problems increase from 15 to 50 years, sharp rise in mid 30s • Males after age 40. Your “Healthy” Lifestyle • Present your lifestyle profile. – Include descriptions of your eating habits, exercise, substance use (and/or abuse), and health risks. • • • • Assess your functioning in all areas. Where are you succeeding in living well? What areas do you need to work on? What is your worst health-threatening habit? • How might you improve these things to live a better and healthier life?