The “Certificate of Origin/Source/Legal Provenance” in the

Report
The “Certificate of Origin/Source/Legal Provenance”
in the African ABS Discussion
A workshop hosted by the
Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (IBC)
28th to 30th March 2007, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The Case of Prunus africana
Cameroon
Augustine B Njamnshi
Bioresources Development and Conservation
Programme-Cameroon (BDCPC)
• Pygeum (Prunus africana) a Rosaceae is an
afromontane canopy tree of about 10 to 40 meters
in height, and a diameter of between 40 to 120 cm
at maturity
BACKGROUND
• Traditionally (called wotango) it has been used
for the treatment of malaria, general fever,
chest pain and stomach ache.
• In modern medicine it is used for treatment
of prostrate disorders
• Studies show that international demand for
Pygeum for medicinal purposes is
currently 6500kg of extract annually
BACKGROUND (SUITE)
• Although the species is found in about 21
African countries, in 1972 to 2000 Cameroon
alone supplied about half of the world’s total
raw material (bark).
• In the Mount Cameroon the first permit (valid
for 1 year, renewable) for commercial
exploitation of pygeum was granted in 1976
(No 536/MINAGRI/DEFC of 8/10/76) to the
company PLANTECAM
Actors Before 1994
PLANTECAM
CONTRACTOR
HARVESTER
CONTRACTOR
HARVESTER
CONTRACTOR
HARVESTER
Actors Before 1994
• Unsustainable, Illegal &
competitive harvesting
PLANTECAM
CONTRACTOR
HA
RV
ES
TE
R
CONTRACTOR
HA
RV
ES
TE
R
CONTRACTOR
HA
RV
ES
TE
R
• Harvesters received
unstable and
insignificant per kilo
price to ranging from
40cfa (1972) to 70cfa
and finally 80cfa
Effects of 1994 Laws
• PLANTECAM commissioned a feasibility study,
executed by the forestry service to look into
ways of legally involving the villagers in their
licensed area
• Out of 38 Villages 12 villages were pre-selected
and Trained on sustainable harvesting
• Because of their activeness and demonstrated
interest, Prunus Harvesters Unions were formed
in Mapanja (in 1996) and Bokwango (in 1997)
and these were to become pilot communities
Prunus Harvesters Union
PLANTECAM
HARVESTER
UNION
Mapanja
1996
HARVESTER
UNION
Bokwango
1997
HARVESTER
UNION
Prunus Harvesters Union (suite)
• PLANTECAM decided to offer them 100
tons from her total permitted quota for
that period
PLANTECAM
H
A
R
V
E
S
T
E
R
H
A
R
V
E
S
T
E
R
H
A
R
V
E
S
T
E
R
U
N
I
O
N
U
N
I
O
N
U
N
I
O
N
• Harvesting performance was monitored
by joint teams of Unions, MCP & MINEF
• PLANTECAM directly paid to the
unions rose to between 210cfa and
215cfa and from that amount the union
paid the individual harvesters 150cfa
per kg.
Prunus Harvesters Union (suite)
• Services in the Unions’ management
boards
• Democratic Decision Making Procedures,
Transparent by-Laws and Effective
Sanctions Mechanism
• Joint Monitoring, Exchange Visits and
Reciprocal Mentoring
Closure of PLANTECAM
• In 1999-2000 a second inventory revealed
that the sustainable yearly quota in Mt
Cameroon is 300tonnes
• PLANTECAM found this unproductive for
the company and closed
• The leaders say even at closure, the
relationship between was still cordial
Birth Of MOCAP
11/08/2000 Mount Cameroon Prunus Management Common Initiative
Group abbreviated (MOCAP-CIG) made up of 14 villages
the support of MCP
• Sustainable exploitation and regeneration of
prunus
• Improve the socio economic life of each and
every member of the group and the community
as a whole through the support of income
generating activities (eco-tourism, bee farming
etc)
• To promote savings and loans schemes
• To re-enforce the control of illegal exploitation
• To monitor exploitation of forest resources in the
region in collaboration with MINEF.
MOCAP
• MOCAP applied for a forestry professional
licence better known in French as “Agreement “
and was refused for they paid no taxes.
• 2000-2003 were difficult years and in
August 2003 MOCAP was given a special
exploitation permit of 100 tonnes
• CEXPRO Sarl finally agreed to buy their
produce for 260 cfa/kg.
Benefit Sharing
MOCAP had the break down of the 260frs as
follows:
•
•
•
•
•
-Re-generation
-Monitoring
-MOCAP management
-Village development fund
- Individual Harvesters
-10frs per kilogram
-10frs per kilogram
-20 frs per kilogram
40 FRS per kilogram
-180 FRS per k’gram
Total 260 FRS
MOCAP Village Development Fund
Project Identification Procedure
The procedure for project selection included:
•
•
•
•
Rallying of the entire village
Open up the topic of MOCAP-CIG funded project
Listen to suggestions
If many projects are short listed allow the villagers to
priorities them.
• Communities should identify the priorities project.
• Carry it to the Traditional Council for endorsement.
• Channel it to MOCAP-CIG management.
MOCAP Village Development Fund Project
(suite)
MOCAP’s Exploitation License (Agreement)
and Challenges
In October 2004, MOCAP’s exploitation license was signed but they
faced the following challenges
- Price of prunus dropped to 240 per kg, high taxes and social
insurance.
- Unfair Competition And Unsustainable Exploitation Practices by
Other Exploiters
-
Limited Exploitation Quotas Given to MOCAP (eg between 20052006, MOCAP requested 200tonnes only had 70 while another
company had 500 tonnes)
-
Frustration with the Weak Control of MINEF on Illegal and/or
Unsustainable Exploitation Activities in the Mount Cameroon.
- Lack of Transformation Equipment And lack of Access to the
Market
THE WAY FORWARD (National Level)
1. Legislative Reforms
2. Institutional Reforms
3 Capacity Building
–
–
–
–
–
Infrastructural and human capacity
Bioprospecting contracts Negotiations
Marketing
Financial management and
Conflict resolution.
THE WAY FORWARD (Int. National Level)
The certificate of ????? in particular and the
International Regime should consider
• Sustainable use
• Fair treatment of local communities and
Traditional Knowledge
• Technology Transfer
• Mandatory Disclosure of source of origin
THANK YOU

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