Private Pilot Syllabus

Report
The Private Pilot
• Class 8
Weather &
Weather Services, Beginning
the Flight Plan
Objective: To cover
the flight planning
process from weather
through charts and
pilot calculations
necessary for safe
flight Introduction to
the E6B.
Weather Reports and
Published Forecasts
(DUATS)
http://www.duats.com/
• AIRMET: Wx Conditions hazardous to small,
single engine aircraft.
• SIGMET: Wx Conditions hazardous to ALL
aircraft. (Like Severe Icing, or
Turbulence)
• CONVECTIVE SIGMET: Tornados, embedded
thunderstorms, hail 3/4 inch or greater
diameter.
• AREA FORECASTS (FA) The aviation area
forecast (FA) gives a picture of clouds,
general weather conditions, and visual
meteorological conditions (VMC) expected
over a large area encompassing several
states.
• There are only six areas for which area
forecasts are published in the contiguous
48 states.
• Area forecasts are issued three times a day
and are valid for 18 hours. This type of
forecast gives information vital to en
route operations as well as forecast
information for smaller airports that do
not have terminal forecasts.
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Weather Briefings by
Phone (800-WX BRIEF)
• Good Morning, I’d like to get a
STANDARD VFR briefing for AIRCRAFT
n15FA, A Grumman Trainer, AA-1B,
taking off out of KUNV (University
Park) at 9AM EDT, to KJST, DIRECT, at
6500.
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When telephoning a weather
briefing facility for
preflight weather
information, pilots should
state
A) the aircraft identification
or the pilot's name.
B) true airspeed.
C) fuel on board.
When requesting weather
information for the
following morning, a pilot
should request
A) an outlook briefing.
B) a standard briefing.
C) an abbreviated briefing.
To get a complete weather
briefing for the planned
flight, the pilot should
request
A) a general briefing.
B) an abbreviated briefing.
C) a standard briefing.
Which type weather briefing
should a pilot request, when
departing within the hour,
if no preliminary weather
information has been
received?
A) Outlook briefing.
B) Abbreviated briefing.
C) Standard briefing.
Which type of weather
briefing should a pilot
request to supplement mass
disseminated data?
A) An outlook briefing.
B) A supplemental briefing.
C) An abbreviated briefing.
Other Charts and
Sources of Wx Info
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METAR
Winds reference TRUE North
Peak Gusts are denoted by “G”
Cloud Heights or visibility into an obscuration
are reported with three digits in hundreds of
feet. Visibility in Statute Miles (SM)
CIG is the lowest broken or overcast
obscuration in feet AGL
VFR is 3 Miles vis, CIG 1000 or greater.
RMK is Remarks considered significant to
aviation operations.
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(Refer to figure 12.) Which
of the reporting stations
have VFR weather?
A) All.
B) KINK, KBOI, and KJFK.
C) KINK, KBOI, and KLAX.
For aviation purposes, ceiling
is defined as the height above
the Earth's surface of the
A) lowest reported obscuration and
the highest layer of clouds
reported as overcast.
B) lowest broken or overcast layer
or vertical visibility into an
obscuration.
C) lowest layer of clouds reported
as scattered, broken, or thin.
(Refer to figure 12.) The
wind direction and velocity
at KJFK is from
A) 180° true at 4 knots.
B) 180° magnetic at 4 knots.
C) 040° true at 18 knots.
(Refer to figure 12.) The
remarks section for KMDW has
RAB35 listed. This entry
means
A) blowing mist has reduced the
visibility to 1-1/2 SM.
B) rain began at 1835Z.
C) the barometer has risen .35
inches Hg.
(Refer to figure 12.) What are
the current conditions depicted
for Chicago Midway Airport
(KMDW)?
A) Sky 700 feet overcast,
visibility 1-1/2SM, rain.
B) Sky 7000 feet overcast,
visibility 1-1/2SM, heavy rain.
C) Sky 700 feet overcast,
visibility 11, occasionally 2SM,
with rain.
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PIREP - Pilot Reports:
UA
Sky = SK with the base and top.
Wind Direction and Velocity are shown as “WV”
and the direction, then speed. The last digit
of the wind direction is dropped.
• Turbulence is “TB” followed by “SVR”, “MDT”,
or “LGT”. With the altitude of the layer
• Icing is reported as “IC” followed by its
intensity.
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• TAF’s
• Valid for 24 hours, usually, but scheduled for
4 times a day. (00z, 06z, 12z and 18z)
• SHRA (rain showers) BECMG (becoming gradually)
and the Zulu time. Or if sudden, (FM Zulu
time)
• NSW = No Significant Weather.
• TAF utilizes the same descriptors
and abbreviations as used in the
METAR report.
(Refer to figure 14.) The
intensity of the turbulence
reported at a specific
altitude is
A) moderate at 5,500 feet and
at 7,200 feet.
B) moderate from 5,500 feet to
7,200 feet.
C) light from 5,500 feet to
7,200 feet.
(Refer to figure 14.) The
base and tops of the
overcast layer reported by a
pilot are
A) 1,800 feet MSL and 5,500
feet MSL.
B) 5,500 feet AGL and 7,200
feet MSL.
C) 7,200 feet MSL and 8,900
feet MSL.
(Refer to figure 14.) If the
terrain elevation is 1,295
feet MSL, what is the height
above ground level of the
base of the ceiling?
A) 505 feet AGL.
B) 1,295 feet AGL.
C) 6,586 feet AGL.
(Refer to figure 14.) The
intensity and type of icing
reported by a pilot is
A) light to moderate.
B) light to moderate clear.
C) light to moderate rime.
(Refer to figure 14.) The
wind and temperature at
12,000 feet MSL as reported
by a pilot are
A) 090° at 21 MPH and -9 °F.
B) 080° at 21 knots and -7 °C.
C) 090° at 21 knots and -9 °C.
(Refer to figure 15.) What
is the valid period for the
TAF for KMEM?
A) 1200Z to 1200Z.
B) 1200Z to 1800Z.
C) 1800Z to 1800Z.
(Refer to figure 15.) In the TAF
from KOKC, the clear sky becomes
A) overcast at 2,000 feet during the
forecast period between 2200Z and
2400Z.
B) overcast at 200 feet with a 40
percent probability of becoming
overcast at 600 feet during the
forecast period between 2200Z and
2400Z.
C) overcast at 200 feet with the
probability of becoming overcast
at 400 feet during the forecast
period between 2200Z and 2400Z.
(Refer to figure 15.) During
the time period from 0600Z to
0800Z, what visibility is
forecast for KOKC?
A) Greater than 6 statute miles.
B) Possibly 6 statute miles.
C) Not forecasted.
(Refer to figure 15.) The
only cloud type forecast in
TAF reports is
A) Nimbostratus.
B) Cumulonimbus.
C) Scattered cumulus.
(Refer to figure 15.) Between
1000Z and 1200Z the
visibility at KMEM is
forecast to be?
A) 1/2 statute mile.
B) 3 statute miles.
C) 6 statute miles.
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• First two digits represent the wind
direction to true north. 2nd two are speed.
• Temps above 24,000 feet are assumed
negative
• Winds of 100 to 199 knots have a 50 added
to the direction. (If wind direction is
ABOVE 360, then subtract 50 to get the
direction, and add 100 to the speed.)
• “Light and Variable” winds are coded as
9900 and less than 5 knots.
(Refer to figure 17.) What
wind is forecast for STL at
9,000 feet?
A) 230° true at 32 knots.
B) 230° true at 25 knots.
C) 230° magnetic at 25 knots.
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WEATHER DEPICTION CHART
details surface conditions as
derived from METAR and other
surface observations.
Displays major fronts or
areas of high and low
pressure. Provides a graphic
display of IFR, VFR, and MVFR
(marginal VFR) weather.
Areas of IFR conditions(ceilings less
than 1,000 feet and visibility less
than 3 miles) are shown by a hatched
area outlined by a smooth line. MVFR
regions (ceilings 1,000 to 3,000 feet,
visibility 3 to 5 miles) are shown by a
non-hatched area outlined by a smooth
line. Areas of VFR (no ceiling or
ceiling greater than 3,000 feet and
visibility greater than 5 miles) are
not outlined.
(Refer to figure 18.) What
weather phenomenon is
causing IFR conditions in
central Oklahoma?
A) Low visibility only.
B) Low ceilings and visibility.
C) Heavy rain showers.
(Refer to figure 18.) The
marginal weather in central
Kentucky is due to low
A) ceiling.
B) visibility.
C) ceiling and visibility.
(Refer to figure 18.) Of what
value is the Weather Depiction
Chart to the pilot?
A) For determining general weather
conditions on which to base
flight planning.
B) For a forecast of cloud
coverage, visibilities, and
frontal activity.
C) For determining frontal trends
and air mass characteristics.
(Refer to figure 18.) The
IFR weather in northern
Texas is due to
A) intermittent rain.
B) low ceilings.
C) dust devils.
(Refer to figure 18.) What
is the status of the front
that extends from Nebraska
through the upper peninsula
of Michigan?
A) Stationary.
B) Warm
C) Cold.
(Refer to figure 18.) According
to the Weather Depiction Chart,
the weather for a flight from
southern Michigan to north
Indiana is ceilings
A) less than 1,000 feet and/or
visibility less than 3 miles.
B) greater than 3, 000 feet and
visibility greater than 5 miles.
C) 1,000 to 3,000 feet and/or
visibility 3 to 5 miles.
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RADAR SUMMARY CHART is a
graphically depicted
collection of radar weather
reports (SDs).
• Published hourly at 35
minutes past the hour.
• Displays areas of
precipitation as well as
information regarding the
characteristics of the
precipitation.
• Precipitation Intensity
• Height of Tops
• Movement of Cells
• Type of Precipitation
(No Cloud Info!)
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(Refer to figure 19, area
D.) What is the direction
and speed of movement of the
cell?
A) North at 17 knots.
B) North at 17 MPH.
C) South at 17 knots.
(Refer to figure 19, area
B.) What is the top for
precipitation of the radar
return?
A) 24,000 feet AGL.
B) 24,000 feet MSL.
C) 2,400 feet MSL.
(Refer to figure 19, area
E.) The top of the
precipitation of the cell is
A) 16,000 feet AGL.
B) 16,000 feet MSL.
C) 25,000 feet MSL.
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SIGNIFICANT WEATHER
PROGNOSTIC CHARTS Significant
Weather Prognostic Charts are
available for low-level
significant weather from the
surface to FL240 (24,000
feet), also referred to as
the 400 millibar level, and
high-level significant
weather from FL250 to FL600
(25,000 to 60,000 feet).
• Ceilings and Heights
• VFR/IFR/MVFR
• Turbulence
• Freezing
(Prognostic = Prediction)
http://www.snapflight.com/
(Refer to figure 20.) Interpret
the weather symbol depicted in
Utah on the 12-hour Significant
Weather Prognostic Chart.
A) Moderate turbulence, surface to
18,000 feet.
B) Thunderstorm tops at 18,000
feet.
C) Base of clear air turbulence,
18,000 feet.
(Refer to figure 20.) How are
Significant Weather Prognostic
Charts best used by a pilot?
A) For overall planning at all
altitudes.
B) For determining areas to avoid
(freezing levels and
turbulence).
C) For analyzing current frontal
activity and cloud coverage.
(Refer to figure 20.) At
what altitude is the
freezing level over the
middle of Florida on the12hour Significant Weather
Prognostic Chart?
A) 4,000 feet.
B) 8,000 feet.
C) 12,000 feet.
(Refer to figure 20.) What
weather is forecast for the
Florida area just ahead of the
stationary front during the
first 12 hours?
A) Ceiling 1,000 to 3,000 feet
and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles
with continuous precipitation.
B) Ceiling 1,000 to 3,000 feet
and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles
with intermittent percipitation.
C) Ceiling less than 1,000 feet
and/or visibility less than 3
miles with continuous
precipitation.
TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST (TWEB) A
transcribed weather broadcast is a
weather report transmitted
continuously over selected navaids. On
a sectional chart, a “T” in the upper
right-hand corner of the navaid box
indicates TWEB availability. TWEB
weather usually consists of routeorientated data.
Aeronautical Charts &
the Flight Computer E6B
(Refer to figure 22.) What is the
estimated time en route from
Mercer County Regional Airport
(area 3) to Minot International
(area 1)? The wind is from 330°
at 25 knots and the true airspeed
is 100 knots. Add 3-1/2 minutes
for departure and climb-out.
A) 44 minutes.
B) 48 minutes.
C) 52 minutes.
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(Refer to figure 26.) What is
the estimated time en route for
a flight from Denton Muni (area
1) to Addison (area 2)? The
wind is from 200° at 20 knots,
the true airspeed is 110 knots,
and the magnetic variation is
7° east.
A) 13 minutes.
B) 16 minutes.
C) 19 minutes.
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(Refer to figure 22.) An airship
crosses over Minot VORTAC (area
1) at 1056 and over the creek 8
nautical miles south-southeast on
Victor 15 at 1108. What should be
the approximate position on
Victor 15 at 1211?
A) Over Lake Nettie National
Wildlife Refuge.
B) Crossing the road east of
Underwood.
C) Over the powerlines east of
Washburn Airport.
(Refer to figure 22.) Determine
the magnetic heading for a flight
from Mercer County Regional
Airport (area 3) to Minot
International (area 1). The wind
is from 330° at 25 knots, the
true airspeed is 100 knots, and
the magnetic variation is 10°
east.
A) 002°.
B) 012°.
C) 352°.
TAKE A TEST

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