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People differ from
each other in
meaningful ways


People seem to
show some
consistency in
behavior
Personality is defined as distinctive
and relatively enduring ways of
thinking, feeling, and acting
 Personality
refers to a person’s unique and
relatively stable pattern of thoughts,
feelings, and actions
 Personality is an interaction between
biology and environment


Genetic studies suggest heritability of
personality
Other studies suggest learned components of
personality
1. Trait
2. Psychoanalytic
3. Humanistic
4. Socio-Cognitive
Moody
Anxious
Rigid
Sober
Pessimistic
Reserved
Unsociable
Quiet
UNSTABLE
Touchy

Restless
Aggressive
Excitable
Changeable
Impulsive
Optimistic
Active
melancholic choleric
INTROVERTED
EXTRAVERTED
phlegmatic sanguine
Passive
Sociable
Careful
Outgoing
Thoughtful
Talkative
Peaceful
Responsive
Controlled
Easygoing
Reliable
Lively
Carefree
Even-tempered
Leadership
Calm
STABLE
Two Factor
Trait Theory
of Personality
 Traits
are relatively stable and consistent
personal characteristics
 Trait personality theories suggest that a
person can be described on the basis of
some number of personality traits
Allport identified some 4,500 traits
 Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35
basic traits
 Eysenck argued there are 3 distinct traits in
personality




Extraversion/introversion
Neuroticism
Psychotocism
Allport
 SWITCH
TO PROJECTOR
 Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI)


the most widely researched and clinically
used of all personality tests
developed to identify emotional disorders
“Nothing
in the newspaper
interests me except the comics.”
“I
get angry sometimes.”
 Trait
theory, especially the Big 5 model, is able
to describe personality
Cross-cultural human studies find good agreement for
the Big 5 model in many cultures
 Appear to be highly correlated not only in adulthood,
but also in childhood and even late preschoolers
 Three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism and
agreeableness) have cross-species generality

 Problems
with trait theory include:
Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop
 Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting traits

 Psychoanalytic
theory, as devised by Freud,
attempts to explain personality on the basis of
unconscious mental forces



Levels of consciousness: We are unaware of some
aspects of our mental states
Freud argued that personality is made up of multiple
structures, some of which are unconscious
Freud argued that as we have impulses that cause us
anxiety; our personality develops defense
mechanisms to protect against anxiety

Levels of
consciousness

Conscious


Structures of
Personality

What we’re aware
of
Id

Preconscious



Memories etc. that
can be recalled

Unconscious

Wishes, feelings,
impulses that lies
beyond awareness
Ego


Operates
according to the
“pleasure
principle”
Operates
according to the
“reality”
principle
Superego

Contains values
and ideals
•
•
Children pass thru a series of age-dependent
stages
Each stage requires resolution of a particular
conflict/task
•
Failure to successfully navigate a stage’s
particular conflict/ task is known as Fixation
•
•
Leaving some energy in a stage
Specific problems result from Fixation,
depending on which stage is involved
•
•
Freud's stages are based on clinical
observations of his patients
The Stages are:
•
•
•
•
•
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
•
Birth to 18 months
•
•
•
Focus on the mouth and nursing
Fixation results in difficulties with trust,
attachment, commitment
Fixation may also manifest as eating disorders,
smoking, drinking problems
•
18months- 2yrs
•
•
Focus on the anus and potty training
Failure to defecate on schedule may make
parents sad/mad
•
18months- 2yrs
•
Parental disappointment, in turn, makes baby
angry and resentful towards caregivers, emotions
which are defended against
•
Fixation may result in either:
•
•
Anal retentiveness: perfectionism, obsessivecompulsive tendencies
Anal expulsive: sloppy, messy, disorganized
•
Ages 3-6
•
•
Focus on the genitals
Must successfully navigate the Oedipal Conflict
•
•
Boys want to marry mom and kill father, aka
Oedipal Complex, but fear retaliation from
father (castration anxiety); ultimately
resolved through identification with father
Electra?
•
•
Girls have penis envy, want to marry dad,
aka “Electra Complex”; identify with mom to
try to win dad’s love
Penis envy-resolved thru relationship w/ dadidentity
•
Ages 3-6
•
•
Resolution of the Oedipal Conflict results in
formation of the Superego aka the conscienceFixation results in attraction to unattainable
partners
•
Ages 6-11
•
•
Sex drive is rerouted into socialization and skills
development-a form of sublimation
“Cooties” stage
•
Ages 6-11
•
•
•
Don’t like opposite sex (has “cooties”)
Fixation results in lack of initiative, low self
esteem
Energy is transferred to “nonsexual” activities
•
Ages 13- young adulthood
•
•
Focus on adult sexual relationships
Pleasure through “whole body” not just genitals.
 Projective


Tests
used to assess personality (e.g., Rorschach or TAT
tests)
How? provides ambiguous stimuli and subject
projects his or her motives into the ambiguous
stimuli
 Rorschach


Inkblot Test
the most widely used projective
test
a set of 10 inkblots designed by
Hermann Rorschach
Rorschach
used to identify
people’s inner
feelings by
analyzing their
interpretations of
the blots
Thematic
Apperception
Test (TAT)
• people express
their inner
motives through
the stories they
make up about
ambiguous
scenes

Alfred Adler


Humans are motivated by social interest
Takes social context into account
 potential…

driving force >>> inferiority
inferiority
complex-
key---
birth order
 adulthood >>> lack confidence or too much
compensation
BIRTH ORDER AND
PERSONALITY
caution: generalizations ahead.
1st born-no fun, but responsible
middle-potential criminals
only-mini adults
youngest-the greatest people u will
ever meet.
Compliant Traits

People Pleasers
 Crave Approval
 Nurturers
 Caregivers
 Reliable
 Conscientious
 Cooperative
 Team Players
 "Grin and bear it" mentality

 Aggressive
Traits
 Movers and shakers
 Natural leaders
 Perfectionists
 Driven
 Conventional
 Always have things under control
 Assertive
 Want things their way
 Common
Traits
 Energetic
 Logical
 Ambitious
 Enterprising
 Scholarly
 More
than 1/2 of the U.S. Presidents were
first born children
 21 of the 23 first astronauts were first born
children
 2/3 of entrepreneurs are first born children











Middle Born type#1
Loner
Quiet Shy
Impatient
Uptight
Middle Born type #2
Outgoing
Friendly
Loud
Laid back
Patient
Usually the
opposite of the
oldest child.
 Common
Traits
 Flexible
 Diplomatic
 Rebellious
 Attention
seeking
 Competitive
 Peacemakers
Love to stand out
 Want to feel “special”
 Want to "do their own thing“
 Imaginative
 They get “dethroned” by baby. –Age this happens is
important-stage of development?

Only one “type” of last born.
 Last Born Traits
 Risk takers
 Idealists
 Good sense of humor
 Hard working
 Immature
 Attention seeking
 Secretive
 Sensitive

 Fun
Facts
 Famous last born children: Howard Stern, Jay
Leno, Bill Gates, Danny DeVito, and
Cameron Diaz
 Tend to go against the norm
 Make the biggest stirs in life Want to be noticed
 Know no boundaries











extreme versions of first born children.
Only Traits
Mature faster
Get along well with older people
Responsible
Self-Centered
Perfectionists
Attention seekers
Use adult language
Prefer adult company
Have difficulty sharing
 Gender-only
female or the only male is seen as
“special”-doesn’t get “dethorned”
 Divorce
 Step Brothers/Sisters
 Huge age gaps-resets order
 Adoption
 Family tragedy-severe illness/death.

Carl Jung
A
collective unconscious is
represented by universal
archetypes
 Two forms of unconscious mind
Personal unconscious: unique for each
person
 Collective unconscious: consists of
primitive images and ideas that are
universal for humans

 Humanistic
personality theories reject
psychoanalytic notions
Humanistic theories view each person as
basically good and that people are striving
for self-fulfillment
 Humanistic theory argues that people carry
a perception of themselves and of the world
 The goal for a humanist is to
develop/promote a positive self-concept


Carl Rogers

We have needs for:


Self-consistency (absence of conflict between selfperceptions
Congruence (consistency between self-perceptions and
experience)
Inconsistency evokes anxiety and threat
 People with low self-esteem generally have
poor congruence between their self-concepts
and life experiences.

▲ Abraham
Maslow emphasized
the basic goodness of human
nature and a natural
tendency toward selfactualization.
 Proposed
that each person has a unique
personality because of our personal
histories and interpretations shape our
personalities
▲ Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive
approach focuses on self-efficacy and
reciprocal determinism.
▲ Julian Rotter’s locus of control theory
emphasizes a person’s internal or external
focus as a major determinant of
personality.

Internal locus of control




Life outcomes are under personal control
Positively correlated with self-esteem
Internals use more problem-focused coping
External locus of control

Luck, chance, and powerful others control
behavior

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