Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PED 1

Report
St Johns PE Revision Course
AQA AS PHED 1
Session 1b
Opportunities for participation
Provision and Barriers
Providing for active leisure – who does what?
• Characteristics and goals of the public, private
and voluntary sectors
• Advantages and disadvantages of each
• Concept of ‘best value’ in the public sector
• The role of schools
Recreation – Who Provides?
Compulsory Tendering
Private
Sector
Best Value, PFI
Who
Provides?
Q3
Local
Authority
Taxes
Policies
Sport Eng
Voluntary
Sector
National
Government
Public Sector
Public Good
Multi-Sport – Leisure Centres
Paid from taxation
Pools
Lottery
Outdoor sport facilities
Social provision disadvantaged
Parks
Subsidised Use
Adventure playgrounds
Skateboard parks
Dual use sports halls
Local Authority Leisure Plans
Development/Refurbishment of facilities
Targeting under represented groups
Community Health
Private Sector
Small – medium size facilities
Specialist areas – squash, health & fitness
Profit driven – high value services
High quality – high cost
Cherry pick – leave large high cost to
public sector
No public service committment
Voluntary Sector
Not for profit
Players pay to pay
Provision for members + social
responsibility remit
Annual subscription
Volunteer organisers 5 million
people, 1 billion hours
Clubs – some very exclusive
Funded by bar/social club,
fund raising
Lottery/Local Authority
grant aided
Facilities – owned, leased, rented
Sport Clubs – all sports!
Ramblers, Environmental groups
Cycling clubs, jogging clubs
Best Value
Designed to drive up the quality of provision in the public
sector and use money more efficiently
• 1980 - Compulsory Competitive Tendering
Tendering against private sector
• 2000 – Best Value
Challenge, Consult, Compare, Compete
Both strategies have resulted in
improvement in public services
Q4
Advantages - Disadvantages
• React quickly to meet a
demand
• Can meet individual needs
• Can restrict membership
• Costs of joining are relatively
high
• Restriction on numbers will
mean that some people are
unable to join
• Social exclusivity or actual
discrimination against certain
groups
• A sport may suffer from
exclusivity image
Advantages - Disadvantages
• Huge range of activities at
all levels
• People with enthusiasm
and drive can provide the
opportunity
• Costs are very low so
rarely an economic
disincentive
• Financial support from
local and national
government, and local
business sponsorship
• Unplanned and relatively
uncontrolled
• No equal opportunities remit
• Continuity cannot be guaranteed
• Financial support from national
and local bodies cannot be
guaranteed
• It can still be socially exclusive
Advantages - Disadvantages
• This sector must act in the
public good for the local
community - must provide
physical recreation
facilities
• Resources allocated from
local and national taxation
• No need to make a
commercial profit –can
make loss if in the public
or community interest
• Funds limited by national and
local tax policies
• L. Authorities in
disadvantaged areas have
less money to spend
• L. Authorities cannot borrow
money so easily to invest in
facilities for the future
Participation - the role of schools
• Characteristics of each Nat Curric Key Stage
• Objectives of each NC Key Stage
• What schools provide and the impact on pupils’
experiences
• Development of school club links – PESSCLS, Whole
Sport plans
• School Sports Co-ordinator, Sports Colleges
• Active Sports
• Sports Leaders UK
• TOPS programme
• Benefits to individuals, community and government
PE – National Curriculum Aims
Physical confidence,
skilfullness and competence
Perform in a range of
activities
Opportunities for all
Plan, Perform and
Evaluate actions –
‘critical performer’
Jan07Q2
Ans
Opportunities to be
creative, competitive
and challenged
Positive attitudes
towards active, healthy
lifestyles..knowledge of
the body in action
Discover aptitudes, abilities
and preferences, choices about
lifelong physical activity.
NC Structure
• Key Stages 1-4 (Y0-2, Y3-6, Y7-9, Y10-11)
• Content areas – Games, athletic activities,
swim, gymnastics, dance, outdoor & adventure
• Theoretical and Practical elements
• Progression from general > specialised
• Areas of Assessment
• End of KS Levels – statements – Levels 1-8 +
Exceptional achievement
PE NC- Structure - March 2009
• KS1 – dance, games, gym
• KS2 – dance, games, gym + 2 from swim,
athletic, outdoor/adventure
• KS3 – 4 from games, gym, dance, athletic,
adventure/outdoor or life saving/swimming,
fitness and health
• KS4 – 2 from the above
Role of the Government
• Department of Culture, Media and Sport
“from the playground to the podium”
• National Sports Councils/Sport England –
advise, invest in and promote community sport
• Exchequer or Lottery funding
• Sport pathways – community sport, sport clubs,
coaching/officiating, volunteers, facilities
Effects on School Provision
• 2001 “The Government’s Plan for Sport” lead to
“Game Plan”
• Major increase in participation – health benefits,
reduction in crime, increased social inclsuion
• Improved international success – ‘feel good’
• Grass roots focus on under-represented groups
• NGB - PESSCL, Whole Sport Plans, Active Sports
• Schools - TOPS programme, Sports Leaders UK,
Sports Colleges, School Sport Coordinators
Using the power of
sport to improve the
lives of young people.
Aim - deliver high quality PE and sport to
all young people, regardless of ability.
Top Tots (18m – 3y), Top Start (3-5)
Top Play (4-9), Top Sports (7-11), Top
Link (14-16), Top Sportsability
(Disabled)
YST Schools
PESSCL enhance the take-up of sport
opportunities by 5-16 year olds.
“By 2008 - 85% of school children to
spend a min of 2hrs/week PE and
school sport within and beyond the
curriculum” 5 hour offer
Specialist Sports Colleges - PE and sport at the
centre of the curriculum. 480 2008. Raise attainment
in the school and local hub
School Sport Partnerships (SSPs) are groups of
schools working together – primary & secondary.
Partnership Dev Manager > School Sports Coordinators
Leadership
Academies (1419) provide the
opportunity to
refine and
develop
volunteering
skills and
experiences.
STEP ON (11-14) In PE introduced to sports leadership
and volunteering, learn how to plan and manage their own
sports season.
STEP IN (14 -16) Through volunteering learn to manage
and support school-based sporting events.
STEP OUT (16-19 ) Move from school to communitybased volunteering.
School Sport College - Objectives
Develop an enhanced, inclusive
curriculum & e-c programme that
maximises participation in PE and Sport
Raise school standards of
attainment in PE and Sport through
high quality teaching and learning
Community (wider inc business
/employer partners ) to develop sport
opportunities , promoting participation
and achievement in Physical Activity and
Community Sport.
Whole school improvement overall personal development &
wellbeing of all learners to raise
standards and achievement
Community (Secondary ) work with
partner secondary schools to provide
high quality learning opportunities
and standards in PE and Sport
Community (Primary) develop
high quality teaching and
learning in partner primary
schools, maximising resources
& sharing of good practice.
Active Sports now superseded by
Whole Sport Plans (2009)
School Aged Children
16+ Community Sport
Elite Performers
Active Schools
Active Communities
World Class Programme
Youth Sports Trust
Sport England
UK Sport/ NIS
English NGBs - Whole Sport Plans
British NGB – One Stop Plans
Planning for grass roots to elite level
NGBs able to direct own funding
Measured against Key Performance Indicators
The sporting relay race
Sport England
Youth Sport Trust
•Raising standards in
PE and School Sport
•Increasing the quality
and quantity of PE and
school sport
•Opportunities for young
leaders and volunteers
•Supporting talent and
competition
Increasing participation:
Community sport
Children and Young People:
School/Club Links
School/Community links FE
/community links
Sustaining Participation: Player
pathways
Competitive club
sport Volunteering
Coaching/ officiating
UK Sport
•World Class
Performance
•Olympic and
Paralympic Success
•Drug Free Sport
•World Class events
•International sporting
relations
Key Partners NGBs, Local Clubs, Schools, Further Education,
Higher Education and Local Authorities
Sports
Leaders UK
To create an army
of volunteers for
sport (and other
activities) from
young people
aged 9-19
Level 1 - Level 3
Barriers to participation & solutions
• Equal opportunity, discrimination, stereotyping,
inclusiveness, prejudice - examples from sport
• Target groups:
Disability
Socio-economic class
Ethnic group
Gender
• Solutions to overcome discrimination in sport to
raise participation.
Barriers to Participation - Exam Focus
What
Easy
marks
Barrier to
Participation
Action
Hard
marks
June05Q2
Why
Ans
Harder marks
Stereotype
Opportunity
Barriers to
Particpation
Esteem
Provision
Glossary – you need to know these
Opportunities
Sports Equity Alliance made up of:Sporting Equals
Women’s Sports Foundation
English Federation of Disability Sport
Sport Equity Targets – NGBs. Local Authorities
National Database of where to
participate
Barriers to Participation - Disability
PE
Separate?
Integrated?
Sport
Social
expectations
Role model
Legal right
Public provision
Private restriction?
Work
Professional, Coach,
Administrator Opps?
Opportunity
Stereotype
Participation
Range of choice
Barriers
Stereotype, Opportunity,
Esteem, Provision
Elite-Performer
Respected for
performance or
for overcoming
disability
Media
Coverage?
Esteem
Provision
Acceptance < > Respect
Finance
Facilities
Training
Coaching
Disability Sport - Types
Integrated – with ablebodied
Separate – own activities
Adapted or Designed
Ans
Adapted – version of
standard type
Wheelchair basketball,
rugby, volleyball
Wheelchair marathons
Blind football, bowls
Q7Jan03
Inclusion spectrum
• Inclusive – everyone included
• Modified – changes to rules/ equipment to
include disabled people
• Parallel – same activity, but approach differs
according to disability
• Included – specially adapted activities
• Separate – disabled people practice/ prepare
in isolation
28-52
31
Disability Sport England – Disability Sport
Events
Creates opportunities for participation in sport for
people with all disabilities, at all levels (mostly grass
roots)
Develops profile classification system
Charity responsible for selecting,
preparing, entering, funding and managing
Britain' s teams at the Paralympic Games
and Paralympic Winter Games
Parasport - Disability Sport Institute
British Paralympic Association
• BPA is umbrella body
• Co-ordinates arrangements for British disabled
athletes to compete internationally
• Organises special Olympic Games for disabled
(Paralympics)
• Members include: DSE, National Disability Sports
Organisations, Scottish Association for the
Disabled, GB Wheelchair BBA
28-52
33
National body responsible for developing
sport for disabled people in England.
Work closely with the five National
Disability Sports Organisations
British Amputees and Les Autres Sports Association
British Blind Sport
WheelPower-British Wheelchair Sport
Mencap Sport
UK Deaf Sport
Advisory body on sports disability to LA
recreation departments, education
departments, schools and NGBs
Overcoming the barriers - Disability
Sport England
Terminology
Differently-abled?
Those with a disability
NGB
Disability Knowledge
Equity targets
NC – equal
opportunities
The law
Media & broadcasting guidelines
Sport provision
Integrated
Separate
Adapted
Disability politics,
activists
Access &
employment law
Type (physical
mental), degree
Technological
research
Disabled Sports
Associations - BDSA
Local Authorities
Local Govt access policies
Ethnicity and Ethnic differences
• Proportion of ethnic minorities in sport does not
reflect proportions within society
• On average fewer ethnic minorities participate in
most sports
• However in certain sports participation is at a
greater level than should be expected
• Lack of black coaches/ selectors/ managers/
administrators
• Presumptions made about intellectual ability
• ‘Privileged white culture’ holding onto
advantages
• Opposition to black involvement/lack necessary
experience
26-50
36
Barriers to Participation - Racism
PE
Teacher
expectations -
Genetics
Performance due to
genetic superiority?
Legal right
Public provision
Private restriction?
Work
Performer but Coach,
Administrator Opps?
Opportunity
Sport
Social
expectations
Role model
Stereotype
Participation
Range of choice
Stacking,
Centrality
Barriers
Stereotype, Opportunity,
Esteem, Provision
Elite-Performer
Respected for
performance
But genetic?
Media
Type of Coverage
Q2Jan04
Esteem
Acceptance < > Respect
Provision
Equal reward
Prize, Pay,
Appearance
money
Recognition-Status
Role models – push
pull scenario
Finance
Facilities
Training
Coaching
Ans
Sporting Equals
Works to develop policy and practice to
promote racial equality in sport
Sport for Communities Project, providing grants
to increase participation in sport by ethnic
minorities, migrants and refugees
Developing a Standard for Local Authority
Sport and Leisure Services; “Promoting Racial
Equality Through Sport”
Overcoming the barrier of racism
Individual sport
initiatives e.g.
“Kick racism out
of Football”
Sport Equity
(targets)
Sport England
NC – equal
opportunities
NGB
Research &
education
Ethnic sport
organisations
The law
Media & broadcasting guidelines
Local Authorities
Antidiscrimination
legislation
Local Govt antidiscrimination policies
Barriers for women
• History - traditional attitudes of sport’s ‘manliness’, male
preserve
• More sports for males/some ban women/unfriendly
• More role models - predominantly male coaches
• Discrimination against women - adverse publicity
• Some NGBs slow to mix
• Lack of transport/financial support/child care/time/partner
support
• Lack of promotional materials
• Poor timing of activities
• Racism - ethnic minorities may face cultural barriers
• Disabled women may face further barriers
27-51
40
Women’s own attitudes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lack of self-confidence
Lack of motivation
‘Myth’ of developing masculinity
Alleged unsuitability to competitive sport
Lack of positive self-image
Many women prefer group activities, many
female activities are individual
27-51
41
Media coverage and stereotyping
• Less coverage than males, sport promotion maledominated
• Sexist comments common
• Women presented as physically inferior, weaker
than men
• Women’s sport presented as less interesting
• Women porttrayed as passive and noncompetitive; men expected to compete and
achieve
• Sports derived from competitive and violent
activities - considered masculine
• Girls PE based on posture and grace - socially
acceptable
27-51
42
WSF
Improve, increase and promote opportunities for
women and girls in sport and physical activity
Campaign for change through raising awareness
and influencing policy
The Foundation’s achievements include:
Women into Coaching - free training for women in
sports coaching and leadership
Women in Sport Magazine, resource packs and
guides for schools and clubs
Providing women with information about funding
Barriers to Participation - Sexism
PE
Girl’s games,
Different PE
activities
Sport
Male dominion
Non-feminine
Elite-Performer
Sexuality
Respected for
performance/
appearance?
Media
Amount coverage
Type of Coverage
Mothers
Social expectation
Time Childcare
Work
Performer,
Coach,
Administrator
Legal right
Public provision
Private restriction
Stereotype
Opportunity
Barriers
Stereotype, Opportunity,
Esteem, Provision
Participation
Range of choice
Custom – female
appropriate
Esteem
Acceptance < >
Respect
Equal
reward
Prize, Pay,
Appearance
money
Provision
Finance
RecognitionStatus
Media, society,
role models
Facilities
Training
Coaching
Traditional class discrimination in
sport
• Sport was used by upper classes as a form of social
control
• Sports divided on a class basis, excluding working
classes from aristocratic sports
• Upper classes with the necessary time and money
for sporting pursuits
• Control of physical resources by upper classes who
also limited level of involvement of working
classes
25-49
45
Barriers to Participation - Class
Working Class
Upper Class
Wealth differential
Family poverty
Earn the right
to leisure
Excluded
Leisure as right
Gifted amateur
Had time &
money
Exclusive
Opportunities to
participate restricted by:
Cost of equipment,
travel, membership
Social
Darwinism
Born to rule
Fixed place
within society
Middle Class
Salaried
Control over
time
Had money
Control of
leisure/sport
Exclusive rules
Historical
Socio-Economic
Ideological
Social Exclusivity
Restrictive membership
policies
Private clubs;
Reluctance to cross social
barriers
Egalitarian
Equal work – equal pay
Equality of opportunity
Meritocracy
Overcoming the socio-economic barrier
Whole Sport Plans
Sport Equity
Targets
Sport England
Discrimination
issues
NGB
Local Authorities
Resource issues
Public
provision
Sport Aid
Government – urban & social
regeneration
CCT
Best Value
Barriers to Participation - Exam Focus
What
Easy
marks
Barrier to
Participation
Action
Hard
marks
June05Q2
Why
Ans
Harder marks

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