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MN201
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
CHAPTER 9
POWER AND INFLUENCE IN
THE WORKPLACE
GROUP
Lecturer:
Mr. LONG BUNTENG
Prepared By: Mr. Hou Heng
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
 Define the meaning of power and counter power.
 Describe the five bases of power in organizations.
 Explain how information relates to power in
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organization.
Discuss the four contingencies of power.
Summarize the eight types of influence tactics.
Discuss three contingencies to consider when deciding
which influence tactic to use.
Distinguish influence from organizational politics.
Describe the organization conditions and personal
characteristics that support organization politics.
Identify ways to minimize organizational politics.
THE MEANING OF POWER
 Power is the capacity of a person, team, or
organization to influence others.
 Counter power is the capacity of a person, team, or
organization to keep a more powerful person or
group in the exchange relationship.
Person A
Counter Power
Power
Person B
Person B`s goal
SOURCES OF POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS
 Legitimate Power
Agreement among organizational
members.
 Reward Power
The person`s ability to control
allocation of rewards valued by others.
 Coercive Power
The ability to apply punishment.
SOURCES OF POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS
 Expert Power
Individual`s or work unit`s capacity to
influence others by possessing knowledge.
 Referent Power
When others identify with them, like them,
or otherwise respect them.
 Information and Power
Employees gain power by controlling the
flow of information that others need.
CONTINGENCIES OF POWER
 Substitutability
Refers to the availability of alternatives.
Power is strongest when someone has a monopoly
over a valued resource.
 Centrality
The degree and nature of interdependence
between powrholder and others.
 Discretion
The freedom to exercise judgment.
To make decisions without referring to a specific rule or
receiving permission from someone else.
CONTINGENCIES OF POWER
 Visibility
Refers to the idea that power increases to the extent
that a person`s or work unit`s competencies are
known to others.
INFLUENCING OTHERS
 Influence is any behavior that attempts to
alter another person`s attitudes or behavior.
 Types of Influence Tactics
• Silent Authority: someone complies with a request.
• Assertiveness: legitimate and coercive power to
influence others.
• Information Control: involves explicitly
manipulating others` access to information for the
purpose of changing their attitudes or behavior, or
both.
INFLUENCING OTHERS
• Coalition Formation: a group that attempts to influence
people outside the group by pooling the resources and
power of its members.
• Upward Appeal: a type of coalition in which
one of the members is someone with higher
authority or expertise.
• Ingratiation: any attempt to increase
the extent to which a target person likes
us or perceives that he or she is similar to us.
• Persuasion: using logical arguments, facts, and emotional
appeals to encourage people to accept a request or message.
INFLUENCING OTHERS
• Exchange: the promise of benefits or resources in
exchange for the target person`s compliance with
your request.
 The three ways that people react when others to
influence them:
• Resistance
• Compliance
• Commitment
INFLUENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS
Organizational Politics is the behavior that others
perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the
expense of other people and possibly the organization.
 Organizational politics flourishes under the right
conditions.
 Employees apply political strategies to protect their
valued resources, position, and self- image.
 Machiavellian values is the belief that deceit is a
natural and acceptable way to influence others and
to achieve goal.
INFLUENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS
 Organizational politics can be minimized by
• Providing clear rules for resource allocation.
• Engaging in effective organizational change.
• Supporting team norms and a corporate culture
that discourage dysfunctional politics.
• Having leaders who role model organizational
citizenship rather than political savvy.
THANK YOU !!!
2011-2012

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