CACAO FOOD OF THE GODS - Municipality of Matag-ob

Report
CACAO
FOOD OF THE GODS
Cacao seeds are borne in pods that hang from the
branches of the cacao tree. When the red pods
become deep red or hen yellow-orange and green
pods become yellow, they are ready for harvest. When
processed, the seeds or beans are used as flavoring
materials and as chocolate beverage. These are also
used in the manufacture of cosmetics and
pharmaceutical products. Local supply of cacao is
inadequate for our industrial needs so most local
processors of cacao and chocolate products have to
import cacao beans and cacao grindings.
The common varieties of cacao in the Philippines are
the following:
A. Criollo — this comes in three (3) types: Venezuela,
Nicaragua and Trinidad.
It is considered best for its flavor and aroma, but is susceptible
to pests and diseases, so it is avoided.
The pod is elongated, thin-husked and pointed, usually with
constriction near the base.
The ridges of the pods are pronounced and sharper than those
of Forastero.
The pods come in two (2) colors: white when ripe is generally
yellow, while those of the red criollo change from purple to
yellowish orange.
The Seeds are pale yellowish white or pinkish yellow.
B. Forastero — Amazonian and Amelonado are among the
Forastero.This is more resistant to insect pests and diseases,
and other adverse conditions than Criollo. Oftentimes, this is
more
productive.
The pod has smooth appearance, less rounded in tip and square
base.
It is larger in size than the Criollo.
The color is purple or dark, becoming yellowish between the
ridges as it matures.
The seeds are large, somewhat rounded, and the color is purple
or with purplish tinges.
C. Trinitario — is a cross between Criollo and Forastero with
features similar to Criollo (this exhibits the characteristics of a
hybrid and is perhaps the richest source of materials for the
improvement of cacao for breeding).
Famous for its well-balanced conditions of hardiness and quality
products.
The seeds are variable in character
.
D. Upper Amazonian Hybrid (Malaysian or Sabah Hybrid). Early
bearing, high yielding and more vigorous.
Soil Requirements
The better the soil structure, the deeper the root penetration
and therefore the greater the volume of soil is exploited by the
roots for moisture and nutrient uptake. Clay loam soil of good
structure is best for cacao since the aggregate of sand, silt and
clay provides large pore spaces for aeration and drainage, and
at the same time retain moisture.
Organic matter in the surface layer is important for cacao
growth. To preserve the organic layer, the soil must be well
shaded to slow down the rate of natural breakdown of waste
leaves. Cacao is not good for water-logged areas or places with
prolonged drought. Soil is favorable if ph is 6.0-7.1 A ph value 4
or less is not suitable for cacao. Where bananas and corn grow
luxuriously, it is a sign that cacao will grown successfully in that
place.
Climatic Requirements – Cacao is strictly a
tropical plant; it grows mostly within 10° of the Equator (lat
20°N and 20°S), within temperature of 20°C (between 22°C32°C) Cold limit is 21°C, not lower than 15°C at coldest month
and an absolute minimum of 10°C. For hot limits, temperature
ranges from 38°C-40°C: growth is abnormal at a constant
temperature above 31°C, although good growth can be had up
to 35°C, with a fluctuating temperature between day and night.
Elevation – Cacao thrives up to 1,000 meters above
sea level as long as temperature is not lower than 21°C. Ideal
elevation is 600 m above sea level.
Rainfall – if the monthly rainfall drops below 10 cm per
month, cacao will suffer water stress, leaves begins to fall. Areas
under Type IV climate are suited for cacao production provided
these are not within the typhoon belt areas.
Relative Humidity – cacao needs humid
temperature; a relative humidity of about 80% as in a tropical
forest or that provided by an artificial shade. Thus, cacao needs
shade for growing.
Propagation and Care – The most common
way of propagating cacao is by seeds. Other ways are by cutting,
.
budding or marcotting. Hybrid seeds are recommended
Seed Selection – If hybrid seeds are not available,
seeds for planting must be well selected, that is, they must
come from big pods obtained from trees that are highly
productive, bearing regularly and free from pests and diseases.
Size of pod is determined by using a pod index, i.e. number of
pods to make a kilo of dried beans. If 25 pods yield one kilo
dried beans, this is considered good-sized pods. Fresh seeds
must be large and weigh at least 2.5 grams including mucilage.
Criolle seeds or hybrids with high criolle character must be
avoided because of its susceptibility to pests and diseases.This
can be checked through the seed color after the seed coat is
removed. Non-Criolle variety is violet.Violet cacao seeds are
generally that of Trinitario or Forastero.
Seed Planting – Cacao seeds do not last long, so
they must be planted soon. They germinate as soon as the fruits
ripen. Some germinate even while in pods. Seeds are viable
normally until up to six (6) days after harvest; viability may be
extended up to 8-10 weeks if the pods are stored at 21°C-24°C.
1.To have uniform germination, the mucilage embedded on the
seed coat, which contains germination inhibitor, must be
removed. This is done by putting the seeds in a bamboo basket
for a day during which time the mucilage softens.
2.Rub the seed with dry sand or sawdust, then wash.
After removing the mucilage, spread the seeds in wet gunny
sacks under shade and keep moist.
3.When the radicle breaks through the seedcoat, the seeds are
ready for planting in polyethylene bags (earlier arranged in beds
of about 1 meter wide and any convenient length). A one-meter
wide space between beds should be provided to facilitate
watering, weeding, fertilization, pest and disease control, etc.
4.Bags must be perforated at the bottom for drainage. The
longer the time the seedlings will be kept in the nursery, the
bigger the bags must be.
For 3-4 months = size 6″x8″ bags
4-6 months = size 8″x12″ bags
.
Care of Seedlings
Light – initial shade intensity is about 80%.
Nurseries must be protected from direct
sunlight and strong wind. Coconut leaves may
be used for the purpose. After the first whorl
of leaves has hardened, reduce the shade
gradually. Reduce the light to 50% from 6
weeks-8 weeks from germination.
.
Water – watering must be early mornings and
afternoons. Take care not to saturate the rooting
medium. Discard poorly developed seedlings. When
leaves are pale, it means the plant has nutrient
deficiency. Apply weekly: 15 grams urea or 30 grams
ammonium sulfate dissolved in one gal of water for
200 seedlings. To protect the seedlings from pests
and disease, spray with fungicide or insecticide if
necessary. After 4-6 pairs of leaves have come out (68 months old) the seedlings are ready for
transplanting. Remove shade gradually one month
before transplanting to harden the seedlings and
prepare them for field conditions.
.
Land Preparation – If the soil is forest land with
a good amount of organic matter on the surface layer, no tillage
is necessary. However, if cash crops are to be planted along with
cacao, a thorough preparation is necessary. Plow and harrow
the land at least 2 times to pulverize the soil well and suppress
the growth of weeds.
Roads and Drainage – In rolling lands, base
contour lines are first established to serve as guide in the
establishment of roads, drains and rows of cacao and shade
trees. Lay out main roads and in-plantation roads adequately to
facilitate management and minimize operational costs. Main
roads may be established horizontal to in-plantation roads and
laid out a convenient distance of about 100 meters apart, and
in-plantation roads may be set at about 50-75 m apart.
.
Distance of Planting, Staking and Planting System –
Some studies recommend that cacao can be laid in rows 2
meters apart if in open areas, while under coconut trees 2.5 m
away from the base. Another study favors close planting followed
by thinning, as advantageous as higher yield per unit area is
obtained earlier, and farmers have a chance to eliminate or topwork less productive trees. Other studies even recommend 3×3 m
or 3×4 m apart.
Staking – Align cacao rows by using thin rope or string as
planting guide, wherein distances desired are properly identified
with a knot or other marks. As this guide is stretched across the
field, pegs are driven though where the markers are set, until the
whole area is laid out with pegs or stakes. In sloping land, hedge
planting can also be employed. For land less than 15° slope, 3row hedge with 4 m space between hedges; for land with 15°30° slope, 2-row hedge with 4 m space between hedges; and
one-row hedge for slopes up to 35°. {CONT}
Temporary shade trees are grown 6-12 months ahead
of cacao to provide shade to the seedling at planting
time. These may be banana, ipil-ipil, or madre de
cacao (kakawate). In spots or points previously staked
for shade trees, sticks of madre de cacao are about
1.5 m long, or 3 months old giant ipil-ipil are planted.
Where overhead shade is insufficient, 3-5 seeds of
rapidly growing temporarily.
Fertilization
Apply 20-30 gms ammonium sulfate in a shallow trench around each
plant 2-3 months after transplanting.
In the first year, apply 200-300 gms per tree the following:
ammonium sulfate – 5 parts (or urea: 2.5
parts)
single superphosphate – 5 parts
potassium sulfate – 2 parts
magnesium sulfate – 1 part
In the second, third and fourth year, increase the fertilizer to 450, 600
and 900 gms per tree, respectively. Divide the recommended quantity in
2 or more equal parts.
Apply the first part at the start of the rainy season and the rest at equal
intervals later in the season. If the above fertilizers are not available,
complete fertilizer 14-14-15-15 (N-P-K-Mg) will do just as well.
Apply one half of the quantity given above, that is,
225 gm per tree for year 2
300 gm per tree for year 3
450 gm per tree for year 4
Pruning – One year after transplanting, branches come out.
The first pruning is done to control the height at which the first branch
(sometimes called jorquette) is formed. This first branch must be at least
5 ft, or else, harvesting and maintenance will be greatly hindered, that is,
spraying and harvesting. When 5 or more branches have grown, prune
the weak ones leaving only 3 or 4 well-developed branches. Pruning is
done with a sharp saw, during dry months (or after harvest). This controls
the shape and height of the tree to facilitate work. Surfaces that have
cuts must be painted with coal tar or lead paint. Fan branches in a
jorquette must also be controlled.
Overcrowding results in ineffective utilization of the sunlight. Leaves of
Overcrowded branches become liabilities rather than assets with respect
to nutrition. New growths appear at the cut surface after some time. Cut
them early unless they are used to replace a dead or unhealthy branch.
All suckers (chupons) that may arise after pruning must be removed as
early as possible. Avoid heavy pruning. Reduce shade continually at the
beginning of the second year until only 1/4 (25%) of its original cover is
left at the beginning of the fourth year.
Harvesting – Harvest only mature pods. Pods are ready
170 days from pod setting when red pods turn deep red or
yellowish orange, and green pods turn yellow. A hollow sound is
produced when pods are tapped as the seeds are separated from
the inner walls of the pod. Use a sharp instrument (knife, bolo,
scythe or shear) for harvesting. A knife attached to a pole could
help in reaching the high branches.
Cut pods as close to the stem as possible, but take care not to
hurt the flower cushions, pods and the tree itself. Remove
infested pods and separate beans collected from infested pods
because these are inferior in quality. Fruits do not mature at the
same time. Harvest pods when they are at uniform ripeness, and
prevent an exercise number of over ripe pods before the next
harvest. Ten days to 3 weeks (10-21 days) intervals are
recommended. About four (4) harvest cycles may be made per
season.
Pod Breaking – After harvest, the pods are brought
to the field for breaking by a wooden mallet. Then the beans are
scooped out of the husk and the placenta removed. Collect the
beans in a container for fermenting.
Fermentation – The characteristic cocoa flavor and
aroma are developed during fermentation. During fermentation,
the pulp breaks down with drainage of sweating. With the rise in
temperature, pulp sugar is fermented into alcohol. The bean dies
and the seed color changes, developing into the nice chocolate
flavor.
There are two ways of fermenting cocoa beans:
A. Wooden Basket Fermentation. For small planters where
harvest is not so big for bigger containers.
Line the baskets with banana leaves, put beans inside it and
cover.
After 24 hours, transfer the beans to another (similarly lined)
basket so as to mix it thoroughly.
Continue same process until the 6th or 7th day when
fermentation will be complete.
B. Heap Fermentation
Spread banana leaves on the ground; heap the beans on the
leaves and cover with banana leaves again.
Keep the leaves in place by putting wood weights on top. Repeat
after 24 hours and so on until fermentation is complete when a
brown ring appears at the edge of the cotyledon when cut
crosswise. This takes 6-7 days.
C. Box Fermentation
For big plantations, wooden boxes have sides and bottom
perforated for aeration and drainage of sweating. These are
arranged side by side for convenience in transferring the beans
from one box to another every 24 hours, mixing them thoroughly
to have good fermentation.
Drying – After the beans are fermented, they are dried.
Washing is not necessary. Drying should be slow and even, by
occasional turning of the beans. Collect the beans in the evening
to avoid dew moisture. Spread them again next morning. Bamboo
mats or nylon net are recommended. Where sun drying is not
possible due to weather, use artificial drier.
Storage – When the beans are dried, store them in
loosely woven, jute bags; place them on wooden floor in clean,
well ventilated room free from storage pests. Do not store them
with copra, hide or tobacco, etc., as these will contaminate their
odor.
Quality Requirements of Cacao for Manufacturers
Size — plump and even, with less than one gram fermented dry
weight.
Shell — loose and intact.
Cotyledon — friable, open textured and chocolate brown with
characteristic choco flavor.
Nutritional Deficiency
Cherelle Wilt — young pods or cherelle may wilt or ripen
prematurely.
Cause: inadequate water supply and nutrient deficiency, especially
when a large number of cherelle is found on the tree and the
demand for nutrients and water is big.
To control:
periodic application of fertilizer, especially potassium and
phosphorus during fruit setting and leaf flush
irrigation
PESTS AND DISEASES
A. Pests
1. Cacao pod borer (most serious pest especially in Mindanao).
Description:
Female is very small, about 7 mm long;
Adult has greenish-brown forewings with yellow dots and white lines.
Female lays eggs on the furrows of pods. Eggs hatch in 6-9 days.
Larvae bore inside pods, feed on seeds. Become full grown 15-18 days, are
10-12 mm long.
They get out of the pod and pupate in small membranous cocoons on the
leaves, trunks and fruits. Pupal period is 5-8 days.
Damage:
Infected tissues harden and seeds do not develop properly.
Later, pods turn black and become susceptible to fungal attack.
Control:
Spray Sevin 85 WP 3-5 tbsp in 5 gal water;
Wrap pod in plastic bag; or
Endosulfan, chlorpyrifos or malathion are used at recommended dosages.
Field cleanliness
2. Cacao Shot-hole Borer (Davao). Description: Tiny white beetle
Damage: Larva attacks the base, usually 30 cm from the ground
level of th plant. Barks are stained down. Tree dies within a year.
Control: Spray Thiodan 3-5 tbsp per 5 gal water
3. Capsid (or mosquito bug). Description:
8mm long
nymphs are yellow
adults are brownish-yellow
eggs are laid singly or in pairs into the soft tissue of the young
growing plants.
Damage:
Causes toxicosis of cacao in the Philippines
Sucks the juice of pods, shoots and leaf stalks
Causes water soaked lesions that rapidly turn black
Lesions in pods are round while those on stems are usually oval
and larger.
Heavy attack on young pods prevent their maturation. Affected
parts dry prematurely.
Control:
Spray Thiodan, endosulfan chlorpyrifos or Malathion at
recommended dosages
Field sanitation
Collect and burn infected pods or stems.
4. Curculionid beetle. Description: Adult is about 10 mm long,
blackish blue with a t-shaped gray band at the back.
Damage:
Feeds on very young leaves and lays eggs at the base of the trunk,
especially on wounds.
Larvae are found at the lower part of the trunk where they bore
through.
DISEASES
1. Black Rot or Stem Canker. Description: Characterized by round brown
spots which enlarge concentrically and evenly Demarcation between
healthy & affected areas is abrupt.
Damage:
Damaged tissues are soft and infected pods become black, hard and dry.
A reddish brown liquid oozes on split bark of trunk or branches.
Spread may be thru direct contact, air current, rain or insects
Damage is more severe during humid weather.
An abundant downy growth of fungus is present at this time.
Control:
Remove infected stems and fruits, burn.
Spray Dithane Z-78 at 40 gms/20 1 water during flower time every 2
weeks.
Avoid heavy shading
Do regular pruning of shade trees and maintain good drainage to reduce
excessive humidity.
2. Vascular streak – dieback (suspected fungus). Description: Brown
streaks in the woody or vascular tissue.
Damage:
one or two leaves are yellowing on the 2nd or 3rd flush below the
growing tip. This develops into small sharply defined green spots
scattered over a yellow background. Diseased leaves fall, short
lateral shoots grow from the leaf axils.
Unhardened leaves in the young flush of a diseased shoot may
show an oak leaf pattern due to the death of tissue between the
lateral vein.
3. Mold.
Damage:
Most affected are beans which develop unpleasant flavor and are
therefore useless.
Affect germinated beans and improperly dried beans.
Control:
Keep beans in well ventilated place. Thoroughly dry beans and
place in clean jute sack or polyethylene bags.
For further information including plant and planting materials, contact:
CocoaPhil
1977 Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Q.C.
Telefax: (02) 952-6397
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.cocoaphil.org
The National Seed Industry Council has released a new variety of cacao, UF
18. It has big beans (approx. 80 dry beans/100 grams) and has good
yielding ability. There are other NSIC recommended varieties with good
potential. For more information, contact:
Alfredo “Fred” T. Corpuz:
Phones: (082) 286-2135; (082) 293- 1294, (082) 275-7525
Mobile: 0905- 2939551
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]
Bureau of Plant Industry – Davao National Crop Research and Development
Center
Bago Oshiro, Davao City.
TeleFax: (082) 293-0108

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