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What is Organizational Behavior?
Organizational Behavior is the
study of human behavior in the
workplace, the interaction
between people and the
organization with the intent to
understand and predict human
behavior.
• Organizational Behavior - systematic
study of the actions
and attitudes
that people
exhibit within
organizations
Is organizational behavior really just
common sense ?
– When employees are happy workers are more
productive . (T/F)
– Friendly, trusting, and approachable bosses can
motivate their workers. (T/F)
– Leaders who exhibit a stable behavior, regardless
of the situations faced, make the best leaders.
(T/F)
– Experiences have shown us that interviews where
the interviewer leads with “tell me about yourself”
are very effective selection methods. (T/F)
Organizational Behavior
– A challenging job appeals to everyone. (T/F)
– When people feel a little intimidated, they will work
harder and do their best. T/F
– Nonspecific goals allowing individuals to work at their
own pace will motivate individuals to work harder. T/F
– Money is a motivator for all employees. T/F
– Most people are much more concerned about their own
salaries than they are about the salaries of others. T/F
– Conflict has a negative effect on work group
effectiveness. T/F
The field of OB seeks to replace
intuitive explanations with
systematic study
Systematic study - The use of
scientific evidence gathered under
controlled conditions and measured
and interpreted in a reasonably
rigorous manner to attribute cause
and effect
Basic concepts in OB
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Nature of People
Individual Difference
Perception
Whole person
Motivated behavior
Desire for involvement
human Dignity
Basic concepts (contd….)
Nature of Organisation
• social systems
Formal / Informal
• Organisational structure
•
Culture
Model of Individual Behavior
Role
Perceptions
Motivation
Individual
Behaviour and
Performance
Ability
Situational
Contingencies
Organizational Behavior
• Human behavior depends on
contingencies.
• Behavior can be predicted, but you have
to understand the circumstances.
• Understanding circumstances and
predicting behavior require a systematic
study.
Basic OB Model
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
Organizational Level
PRODUCTIVITY
Group Level
Individual Level
ABSENTEESIM
TURNOVER
JOB SATISFACTION
Basic OB Model
Human resource
policies and
practices
Organizational
culture
Organization
structure
and design
Work design
and
technology
Organization
Systems Level
Change and
stress
Group
decision making
Communication
Leadership
Group
structure
Work
teams
Productivity
Absence
Other
groups
Conflict
Turnover
Power and
politics
Group Level
Human
output
Satisfaction
Organizational
commitment
Biographical
characteristics
Personality
Values and
attitudes
Human
input
Ability
Workplace
interaction
Perception
Motivation
Individual
decision making
Individual
Differences
Individual Level
OB Discipline
Behavioural
science
Psychology
Sociology
Contribution
Learning
Motivation
Perception
Training
Leadership effectiveness
Job satisfaction
Individual decision making
Performance appraisal
Attitude measurement
Employee selection
Work design
Work stress
Individual
Group
Behavioural change
Attitude change
Communication
Group processes
Group decision making
Comparative values
Comparative attitudes
Cross-cultural analysis
Anthropology
Organizational culture
Organizational environment
Political science
Output
Group dynamics
Work teams
Communication
Power
Conflict
Intergroup behaviour
Formal organization theory
Organizational technology
Organizational change
Organizational culture
Social psychology
Unit of
analysis
Conflict
Intraorganizational politics
Power
Organization
system
Study of
Organizational
Behaviour
Psychology
Sociology
The Study of
Organizational
Social Psychology
Behavior
Anthropology
Political Science
Chapter 1
14
Contributing Disciplines
Psychology seeks to
measure,explain,
and change
behavior
Sociology studies
people in relation to their
fellow human beings
Social psychology
focuses on the
influence of people
on one another
Anthropology is the
study of societies
to learn about human
beings and their activities
Political science is the
study of the
behavior of individuals
and groups within
a political environment
Goals of Organizational
Behavior
• Explain, predict,
and control
human behavior
Different Models of OB
• Autocratic : Formal Authority
Might is right , Punishment
• Custodial : Economic Rewards
good Working/Living condition
• Supportive: Leadership
Supporting in job Performance
• Collegial : Each employee contributes
Team
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History of Organizational
Research
Scientific management
Classical bureaucracy
Principles of organization
Industrial psychology
Human relations movement
Neo-human relations
Systems approach
Contingency approach
Quality management
Two Overarching Perspectives About
Management
Historical: includes
three viewpoints—
classical, behavioral, &
quantitative
Contemporary: also
includes three viewpoints—
systems, contingency &
quality-management
The Historical Perspective
Behavioral Viewpoint
Classical Viewpoint
Emphasis on ways to manage
work more efficiently
Scientific Management
Emphasized scientific study of work
methods to improve productivity of
individual workers
Proponents: Frederick W. Taylor
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
Administrative
Management
Concerned with managing the
entire organization
Proponents: Henry Taylor
Max Weber
Emphasis on importance of
understanding human behavior &
motivating & encouraging
employees toward achievement
Quantitative Viewpoint
Applies quantitative
techniques to management
Early Behaviorists
Management Science
Proponents: Hugo Munsterberg,
Mary Parker Follet, Elton Mayo
Focuses on using
mathematics to aid in
problem solving and
decision making
Human Relations Movement
Proposed better human relations
could increase worker productivity
Proponents: Abraham Maslow
Douglas McGregor
Behavioral science approach
Relies on scientific research for
developments theory to provide
practical manager tools
Operations Management
Focuses on managing the
production and delivery of an
organization’s products or
services more effectively
Evolution of OB
1800:Recognition of Human Element in Org
Robert Oven
1835: Sick-medical facilities –Andrews
1911: Scientific Management –F.W. Taylor
1920: Hawthorne studies –Elton Mayo
1930: Great Depression
1945:Post-war-great momentum
1950: Fad
1960:Human Side of Enterprise-XY Theory
Welfare Era
1980: HR Era
Hawthorne Studies
Elton Mayo & the Supposed Hawthorne
Effect
1. In later experiments, variables such
Elton Mayo and his
colleagues conducted
studies at Western Electric’s
Hawthorne Plant and began
with an investigation to see
if different lighting affected
workers’ productivity
as wage levels, rest periods and
length of the work day were varied
2. Worker performance seemed to
increase over time leading Mayo
and his colleagues to hypothesize
the Hawthorne Effect
3. That employees worked harder if
they received added attention, if
they thought managers cared about
their welfare and that supervisors
paid attention to them
4. They succeeded in drawing attention
to the “social man” and how
managers using good human
relations could improve worker
productivity
Human Relations School
Hawthorne Studies
• Illumination Study - Hawthorne effect:
workers felt important because they were
observed
• Bank Wiring Room Study - individual
behavior motivated by influence of groups
• Conclusions: - economic rewards didn’t
totally explain behavior; - workers
respond to groups norms, social
pressures
• observation
Human Relations School
Conclusions:
– People are essentially social beings
– Non economic rewards play a central
role
– Informal organization is important
– High job specialization does not
increase efficiency
– Communication, participation and
democratic leadership are important
Challenges and Opportunities for
OB: A Managerial Perspective
Chapter 1
25
Improving Quality
and Productivity
Customer
Focus
Continuous
Improvement
Organizational
Improvement
Accurate
Measurement
Employee
Empowerment
Chapter 1
26
Motivation
Improving
People Skills
Communication
Teamwork
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Chapter 1
27
Workforce Diversity
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Chapter 1
28
Managing Diversity
Workforce diversity organizations are
becoming a more
heterogeneous mix of
people in terms of
gender, age, race,
ethnicity, and sexual
orientation
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Diversity Implications
Managers have to shift their
philosophy from treating everyone
alike to recognizing differences and
responding to those differences in
ways that ensure employee retention
and greater productivity.
©Prentice Hall, 2000
The Challenge
of Globalization
Working in
Foreign
Countries
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Working with
Multicultural
Diversity
Chapter 1
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Empowering
the Workforce
Managers
Are Giving
Up Controls
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Workers Are
Accepting
Responsibility
Chapter 1
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Coping with
“Temporariness”
The Nature
of Work Is
Changing
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Organizations
Are Also
Changing
Chapter 1
33
Declining
Employee Loyalty
Workforce
Global
Motivation Competition
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Chapter 1
34
Improving
Ethical Behavior
Provide in-house advisers
Create protection mechanisms
Write and distribute codes of ethics
Offer seminars, workshops, and training
©Prentice Hall, 2000
Chapter 1
35
Limitations
1.Descriptive not Prescriptive
2.Fad
3.Not Improved Industrial Relations
4.Selfish & Exploitative
©Prentice Hall, 2000

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