Organizational Behavior _ Chapter 5

Report
5 Learning and Creativity
Understanding and
Managing
Organizational
Behavior
Fifth Edition
Image from opening case
Jennifer M. George
Gareth R. Jones
©2007 Prentice Hall
Learning Objectives
 Describe what learning is and why it is so
important for all kinds of jobs and
organizations
 Understand how to effectively use
reinforcement, extinction, and punishment to
promote the learning of desired behaviors
and curtail ineffective behaviors
 Describe the conditions necessary to
determine if vicarious learning has taken
place
5-2
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Learning Objectives
 Appreciate the importance of self-control
and self-efficacy for learning on your own
 Describe how learning takes place
continuously through creativity, the nature of
the creative process, and the determinants
of creativity
 Understand what it means to be a learning
organization
5-3
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Continuous Learning
 Why is continuous learning a necessity in
today’s business environment?
 Jeffrey Immelt, CEO General Electric
– ‘Imaginative leaders are the ones who
have the courage to fund new ideas, lead
teams to discover better ideas, and lead
people to take more educated risks.’
5-4
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Learning in Organizations
Learning is a relatively permanent change
in knowledge or behavior that results from
practice or experience
– With learning comes change
– Change must be relatively permanent
– Learning takes place as a result of
practice or through experience
5-5
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Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning describes how
learning takes place when the learner
recognizes the connection between a
behavior and its consequences
5-6
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Exhibit 5.1 Operant Conditioning
5-7
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Reinforcement in
Operant Conditioning
 The process by which the probability that a
desired behavior will occur is increased by
applying consequences that depend on the
behavior in question
– Step 1: identify desired behaviors to be
encouraged
– Step 2: decide how to reinforce the
behavior
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Learning Desired Behaviors
5-9
Negative
Reinforcement
Positive
Reinforcement
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Positive Reinforcement
 Increases the probability that a behavior will occur
by administering positive consequences to
employees who perform the behavior
– Pay
– Bonuses
– Promotions
– Job titles
– Verbal praise
– Awards
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Reinforcement Schedules
 Continuous
 Partial
– Fixed-interval
– Variable-interval
– Fixed-ratio
– Variable-ratio
5-11
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Shaping
Shaping is the reinforcement of successive
and closer approximations to a desired
behavior
– Powerful for complicated sequences
– Gradual acquisition of skills
5-12
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Discouraging Undesired
Behaviors
Extinction
5-13
Punishment
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Negative Reinforcement vs.
Punishment
 Punishment reduces the probability of an undesired
behavior
 Negative reinforcement increases the probability of
a desired behavior
 Punishment involves administering a negative
consequence when an undesired behavior occurs
 Negative reinforcement entails removing a negative
consequence when a desired behavior occurs
5-14
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Organizational Behavior
Modification
Organizational behavior modification
(OB MOD) is the systematic application of
the principles of operant conditioning for
teaching and managing organizational
behavior
5-15
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The Basic Steps of OB Mod
 Identify the behavior to be learned
 Measure the frequency of the behavior
 Analyze antecedents and consequences
 Intervene
 Evaluate the performance improvement
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Exhibit 5.2 Steps in OB Mod
Identify important organizational behavior
Measure the frequency of the behavior
Analyze antecedents and consequences
Intervene
Evaluate for performance improvement
Problem solved?
No
5-17
Yes
Maintain
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Measure Frequency of Behavior
Before this day
care center
could correct the
problem with
employee
tardiness, it had
to gauge how
frequently
tardiness
occurred.
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Social Cognitive Theory
 A learning theory that takes into account the
fact that thoughts and feelings influence
learning
 Necessary components include
– Vicarious learning
– Self-control
– Self-efficacy
5-19
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Exhibit 5.4 Social Cognitive Theory
Information
Learner
Vicarious
Learning
Control
Behavior
Self-Efficacy
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Vicarious Learning
 Learning that occurs when one person (the
learner) learns a behavior by watching
another person (the model) perform the
behavior
 Examples
– Role playing
– Demonstrations
– Training films
– Shadowing
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Vicarious Learning
Physicians learn
vicariously by
watching skilled
physicians treat
patients.
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Conditions Required for
Vicarious Learning
 Learner observes the model when the
model is performing the behavior
 Learner accurately perceives model’s
behavior
 Learner must remember the behavior
 Learner must have the skills and abilities to
perform the behavior
 Learner must see that the model receives
reinforcement for the behavior in question
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Use of Self-Control
 Low-probability behavior
 Available self-reinforcers
 Goals determine self-reinforcement
schedule
 Reinforcement occurs upon goal
achievement
5-24
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Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is a person’s belief about
his or her ability to perform a particular
behavior successfully
5-25
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Sources of Self-Efficacy
 Past performance
 Vicarious experience
 Verbal persuasion
 Individuals’ readings of their internal
physiological states
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Learning by Doing
 Experiential learning
 Direct involvement in subject matter
– Hands-on training
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Exhibit 5.5 The Creative Process
Recognition
Production
of a
Information
of
problem
gathering
creative
or
ideas
opportunity
5-28
Selection
of
creative
ideas
Implementation
of
creative
ideas
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Exhibit 5.6
Determinants of Creativity
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The Learning Organization
Organizational
Learning
Knowledge
Management
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Central Activities in a
Learning Organization
 Encouragement of personal mastery or high
self-efficacy
 Development of complex schemas to
understand work activities
 Encouragement of learning in groups and
teams
 Communication of a shared vision for the
organization as a whole
 Encouragement of systematic thinking
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©2007 Prentice Hall

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