TREE Scientific Meeting Como 16

Adult Education in University context
Seija Hämäläinen
• This paper considers:
– The rapid and radical change occurring in the external
environment for Higher Education (HE)
– The preasure this created on HE to respond
• Requires innovative and imaginative response
– What type of organization might be successful in this
new environment?
• Collegial, managerial (corporate), entrepreneurial?
– What kind of experts we are educating ?
– Adult education model
– What does service orientation means at university
Changes caused by EU Policy
• Ministers of education agrees on the major goals to
be acheived by 2010 namely:
– to improve the quality and effectiveness of EU education
and training systems
– to ensure that they are accessible to all
– to open up education and training to the wider world
Progress towards Lissabon objectives in education and training. Comission Staff Working Document. Brussels 16.5.06 SEC(2006) 639
Changes caused by EU Policy
• Reaching the European benchmark in the field of
education would imply in 2010:
– 2 million fewer young people would have left school early
– 2 million more would have graduated from upper secondary education
– 200 000 less 15 years old would be low performers in reading literacy
– 4 million more adults would participate in lifelong
– all students leaving school would be able to communicate in two foreign
Progress towards Lissabon objectives in education and training. Comission Staff Working Document. Brussels 16.5.06 SEC(2006) 639
Challenges caused by EU policy
Third Mission
European Qualification Framework EQF
National Qualification Frameworks NQF
The Key Competencies Framework
The European Institute of Technology EIT (a proposal 18.10.06)
Prior learning concept
Validation of prior learning
Lifelong learning ( technology-enhanced learning programme - a new education
and training programme to build the Knowledge Society)
• New teaching methods: experiential learning, active learning. . .
Changes caused by society
• Increased cost of HE to state (taxpayers)
• Demands from industry changing in Global
economy, particularly in high value
economies, incluces CPD etc…
• Increased use of ICT(information computer technology)
• Demographics
• Changing demands of students
• Pressures for social equality & fairness
As society changes, university system meets
expectations, demands and obligations that it did not
previously have:
focus on market aspects
financial utilization objectives set by society
How well is the university system capable of creating
structural prerequisites for flexible studies meeting quality
requirements set on contents and up-datedness
University itself
The formulation of mission
Value base
Internal organization
changes as a result of diversification and
massification taking place in universities
• The role of the university in society is in a transition
– the internal dynamics of the entire university system are
undergoing change,
– university tasks are growing in number
• University mission are going to be affected by
structural ruptures in society
increase in university tasks
massification of universities
focus on market aspects in university operations
changing interpretation of the meaning of the research
education and service functions
the differentation taking place in internal ways of working
the differentation of value base within the university
• The traditional tasks to civilize has become more
relative, and universities have opend to the rest of
• During past decade new elements have been
integrated into university operations, emphasizing
the financial and societal utilization potential of
reserch and education. (The Third Mission)
• The ability of universities to manage societal tasks
is accumulated in how well their basic mission is
• While securing independence of operations
universities are required to demonstrate the ability
to accept new tasks and to meet the changing
needs of the surrounding environment.
• The change has an effect on
student volumes
differentation of disciplines
entry criteria
educational tasks
operational volume
educative contents and teaching
nature and duration of studies
the objectives of achademic education
univeristy values and norms, steering mechanisms and internal
New requirements for
engineering competences
• Until the 1940 engineering curriculum was mostly practical with
emphasis on understanding, use of formulas and engineering
design. The education was poly-technique.
• In the 40s, 50s and 60s there was a dramatic change towards
engineering science, which required more physics and mathematical
knowledge. The education was still poly-technique.
• In the 70s, 80s and 90s information technology
and computers were introduced and more
weight was put on mathematical modelling of
dynamic and complex systems analysis. The
engineer become a specialist.
• Today the challenges are in the fast changing
world around us that makes it very difficult to set
up curriculum that is able to meet most of the
competencies that society seems to put on an
• Design of high quality curricula requires
rethinking of what engineers really need to learn
and when. It also requires tools that measure
and assure that the goals are reached.
What does different orientation means
for education?
• Universities seems to consentrate on strong
engineering curriculum and sticks to what they
think is necessary for life-long learning(professional
orientation, how to be a good engineer)
• Enterprises becomes more global, open and
service-oriented. They ask for different and
diversified competences than straight
engineering(searching for a good personality)
• Covernments talks Bologna, Lisbon and
• Different language, orientation, aim, ?
New requirements for engineering
What does enterprises ask for (PHILIPS):
• High scoresnon a solid curriculum
• Proved capability to in-depth research
• Communicative
• Affinity to other disciplines and capability in combining them
• Original and creative thinker
• Entrepreneurial spirit or mind-set (understanding ”value”)
• Team player (without compromising individual integrity)
• Social skill and experiencies ( a net-worker)
• . . . the overall impression of personality
• Can the university influence and what extent?
New requirements for engineering
What do enterprises ask for: (Nestle)
• Curiosity
• Courage
• Insight
• Result focus
• Initiative
• Innovative
• Proactive cooperation
• Develop people
• Lead people
• Can the univeristy influence and what extent?
New requirements for engineering
What does enterprises ask for: (Siemens)
An exelent engineer has/shows evidence of:
• Providing leadership and vision
• Commitment to ethical and social responsibilities
• Commitment to principles of sustainability
• Management/motivation of people
• Management of projects/events
• Team-work; multidisiplinary/cultural
• Management of self-time
• Communicating, verbal and written
• Learning, developing and improving
New requirements for engineering
Management of knowledge/IT
Flexibility in adapting to change
Focus on business/clients
Focus on international opportunities
Focus on required roles/results
Sytematic and logical approach
Technical knowledge/expertise
Commercial/financial knowledge/expertise
Application of relevant knowledge/expertise
Frameworks of
engineering education
• Engineering Criteria (EC2000)(1996)
• The European initiative EUR-ACE (2006)
• Output Standards of the Engineering
Professors Council (UK)
• Dublin Descriptors
• Dutch Criteria
• CDIO ( Conceive, Design, Implement,
• What do governments:
• Bologna process after the Bergen meeting
– Europeam Qualification Framework (EQF)
with level description of all kinds of education.
– EQF describes outcome from a learning
process as an achieved competence.
• The ENQA document proposals shall be
– all programmes shall be given a competence description
and the tool recommended is something similar to the
”Dublin Descriptors”
All programmes should then be described in:
Amount (ECTS credits)
Length (number of years)
But only with some minimum requirements and not
in dept!
The overal quality of a univeristy and its
programmes has still to be based on rumors
Academic leadership
• Academics are being asked to meet the needs of a more
diverse group of students, to teach more flexibly using
information technology, to redesign curricula to take
account of the more rounded skills demanded by
industry, to subject their teaching to evaluation, develop
and implement improvements, and use more formative
assessment aligned to learning outcomes. There are
preassures on academics to deliver more to the
community, not only by widening access and increasing
social capital but also through developing and delivering
new innovations like service learning modules and
supporting disadvantaded students.
Academic Management
• Ramsden (1998) identified the following as
the main challenges univeristy leaders
– Maintaining quality with fewer resources
(doing more with less);
– Managing and leading at a time of rapid
– Turbulence and alteration in HE;
– Demographics and responding to new types
of students
Academic Management
• Ramsden (1998) in the UK, observes that
too much academic management has
been reactive, leisurely and amateur with
too much focus on shor term goals
• How is univerities and institutions to be
managed in th future?
– Collegial / Managerial
• decision making structure
• autonomy
• changing paradigms in policy
• Lack of flexibility towards external change
and slow adaptation to the demands of
• No clear responsibility for decision making
• An executive management system with
hierarchical structure and influenced by
private sector practice.
• Less academic freedom
• Goals are set by external sources
• Academics have freedom only to decide
how to fulfill them.
• A Corporate type of HE organisation?
• It is impossible or costly for LLL unit to produce by
themselves the total supply reguired by the
• It is more efficient to search a partner.
• The partner can be either TKK department or other
service provider.
• LLL units implement and develop the TKK adult education
model based on lifelong learning.
• The mission of LLL units is to support the professional,
lifelong development of, in particlar, those with a degree in
technology by offering them education that is based on
research and steams from TKK core competence.
• By means of this model LLL unit can
– strive to intensify the R&D cycle
to enhance the quality of education products
to improve the quality of learning and teaching
to improve transparency of ways of working
to improve re-usability of work
Target of the Model
to diversify offering
to increase transparency of quality
to increase flexibility
to offer different paths for studies
Line D
Adult Education Model Challanges
• Provide lifelong learning opportunities
• Design tarketed professional development courses
• Open up of TKK through the recognition, validation and
accreditation of non-formal and informal learning
• TKK is deploying an adult education model
implemented according to the priciple of lifelong
learning to integrate elements of adult education
and degree education in a way meaningful for the
student, university, working life and society.
• A student studying besides work may schedule
his/her studies periodically e.g. in a way agreed on
with the employer as appropriate for the
professional career as well as the overal life
• In its broadest sense it would mean that from
among the study programme would be selected
entities that could serve both as regularly occuring
complementary education modules of professional
development and as regular elements of creditbearing studies.
• In its narrowest sense this is a matter of having predefined periods of complimentary education or onthe-job training validated in the departments
beforehand so that they could be compensated for
as study modul elements.
Learning for Life Learning Throughout the Professional Career
Career in years
A module of Professional Development
(degree-awarding or validated for HUT CV.
Complementary Complementary studies
M.Sc. (Tech)
D.Sc. (Tech) (Architecture)
Other Continuing
Education modules
• The Learning for Life studies are coordinated by
LLL units.
• The integrated education model defines curriculum
contents that are applicable as complementary
education and that meet the criteria of adult
education that can be compensated as creditbearing education.
• The system would primarily involve long-term,
modular programmes focusing on professional
• An effective quality assurance system is to be
attached to the model.
Learning for Life Outlines of Learning Paths
Work-based learning
Work-based learning
’Normal’ credit-bearing studies
Optional, conditionally credit-bearing
complementary studies
D.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.)
A module of long-term professional development
Lic.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.)
Education Courses
Other learning modules, including accredited
adult education courses
M.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.)
Work-based learning
Credit-bearing work-based modules
B.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.)
• All the moduls and courses are registred in the

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