Adult Education in University context 09.02.2007 Seija Hämäläinen • This paper considers: – The rapid and radical change occurring in the external environment for Higher Education (HE) – The preasure this created on HE to respond appropriately • Requires innovative and imaginative response – What type of organization might be successful in this new environment? • Collegial, managerial (corporate), entrepreneurial? – What kind of experts we are educating ? – Adult education model – What does service orientation means at university context? Changes caused by EU Policy • Ministers of education agrees on the major goals to be acheived by 2010 namely: – to improve the quality and effectiveness of EU education and training systems – to ensure that they are accessible to all – to open up education and training to the wider world Progress towards Lissabon objectives in education and training. Comission Staff Working Document. Brussels 16.5.06 SEC(2006) 639 Changes caused by EU Policy • Reaching the European benchmark in the field of education would imply in 2010: – 2 million fewer young people would have left school early – 2 million more would have graduated from upper secondary education – 200 000 less 15 years old would be low performers in reading literacy – 4 million more adults would participate in lifelong learning – all students leaving school would be able to communicate in two foreign languages Progress towards Lissabon objectives in education and training. Comission Staff Working Document. Brussels 16.5.06 SEC(2006) 639 Challenges caused by EU policy • • • • • • • • Third Mission European Qualification Framework EQF National Qualification Frameworks NQF The Key Competencies Framework The European Institute of Technology EIT (a proposal 18.10.06) Prior learning concept Validation of prior learning Lifelong learning ( technology-enhanced learning programme - a new education and training programme to build the Knowledge Society) • New teaching methods: experiential learning, active learning. . . Changes caused by society • Increased cost of HE to state (taxpayers) • Demands from industry changing in Global economy, particularly in high value economies, incluces CPD etc… • Increased use of ICT(information computer technology) • Demographics • Changing demands of students • Pressures for social equality & fairness As society changes, university system meets expectations, demands and obligations that it did not previously have: – – – – internationalization massification focus on market aspects financial utilization objectives set by society How well is the university system capable of creating structural prerequisites for flexible studies meeting quality requirements set on contents and up-datedness • • • • • University itself The formulation of mission Value base Internal organization Objectives changes as a result of diversification and massification taking place in universities • The role of the university in society is in a transition and – the internal dynamics of the entire university system are undergoing change, – university tasks are growing in number • University mission are going to be affected by – – – – – – – – structural ruptures in society increase in university tasks massification of universities focus on market aspects in university operations changing interpretation of the meaning of the research education and service functions the differentation taking place in internal ways of working the differentation of value base within the university • The traditional tasks to civilize has become more relative, and universities have opend to the rest of society • During past decade new elements have been integrated into university operations, emphasizing the financial and societal utilization potential of reserch and education. (The Third Mission) • The ability of universities to manage societal tasks is accumulated in how well their basic mission is managed. • While securing independence of operations universities are required to demonstrate the ability to accept new tasks and to meet the changing needs of the surrounding environment. • The change has an effect on – – – – – – – – – student volumes differentation of disciplines entry criteria educational tasks operational volume educative contents and teaching nature and duration of studies the objectives of achademic education univeristy values and norms, steering mechanisms and internal administration New requirements for engineering competences • Until the 1940 engineering curriculum was mostly practical with emphasis on understanding, use of formulas and engineering design. The education was poly-technique. • In the 40s, 50s and 60s there was a dramatic change towards engineering science, which required more physics and mathematical knowledge. The education was still poly-technique. • In the 70s, 80s and 90s information technology and computers were introduced and more weight was put on mathematical modelling of dynamic and complex systems analysis. The engineer become a specialist. • Today the challenges are in the fast changing world around us that makes it very difficult to set up curriculum that is able to meet most of the competencies that society seems to put on an Engineer. • Design of high quality curricula requires rethinking of what engineers really need to learn and when. It also requires tools that measure and assure that the goals are reached. What does different orientation means for education? • Universities seems to consentrate on strong engineering curriculum and sticks to what they think is necessary for life-long learning(professional orientation, how to be a good engineer) • Enterprises becomes more global, open and service-oriented. They ask for different and diversified competences than straight engineering(searching for a good personality) • Covernments talks Bologna, Lisbon and accreditation • Different language, orientation, aim, ? New requirements for engineering competencies What does enterprises ask for (PHILIPS): • High scoresnon a solid curriculum • Proved capability to in-depth research • Communicative • Affinity to other disciplines and capability in combining them • Original and creative thinker • Entrepreneurial spirit or mind-set (understanding ”value”) • Team player (without compromising individual integrity) • Social skill and experiencies ( a net-worker) • . . . the overall impression of personality • Can the university influence and what extent? New requirements for engineering competencies What do enterprises ask for: (Nestle) • Curiosity • Courage • Insight • Result focus • Initiative • Innovative • Proactive cooperation • Develop people • Lead people • Can the univeristy influence and what extent? New requirements for engineering competencies What does enterprises ask for: (Siemens) An exelent engineer has/shows evidence of: • Providing leadership and vision • Commitment to ethical and social responsibilities • Commitment to principles of sustainability • Management/motivation of people • Management of projects/events • Team-work; multidisiplinary/cultural • Management of self-time • Communicating, verbal and written • Learning, developing and improving New requirements for engineering competencies • • • • • • • • • Management of knowledge/IT Flexibility in adapting to change Focus on business/clients Focus on international opportunities Focus on required roles/results Sytematic and logical approach Technical knowledge/expertise Commercial/financial knowledge/expertise Application of relevant knowledge/expertise Frameworks of engineering education • Engineering Criteria (EC2000)(1996) • The European initiative EUR-ACE (2006) • Output Standards of the Engineering Professors Council (UK) • Dublin Descriptors • Dutch Criteria • CDIO ( Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate) • What do governments: • Bologna process after the Bergen meeting – Europeam Qualification Framework (EQF) with level description of all kinds of education. – EQF describes outcome from a learning process as an achieved competence. • The ENQA document proposals shall be implemented – all programmes shall be given a competence description and the tool recommended is something similar to the ”Dublin Descriptors” • • • • All programmes should then be described in: Amount (ECTS credits) Length (number of years) Competence But only with some minimum requirements and not in dept! The overal quality of a univeristy and its programmes has still to be based on rumors Academic leadership • Academics are being asked to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students, to teach more flexibly using information technology, to redesign curricula to take account of the more rounded skills demanded by industry, to subject their teaching to evaluation, develop and implement improvements, and use more formative assessment aligned to learning outcomes. There are preassures on academics to deliver more to the community, not only by widening access and increasing social capital but also through developing and delivering new innovations like service learning modules and supporting disadvantaded students. Academic Management • Ramsden (1998) identified the following as the main challenges univeristy leaders face: – Maintaining quality with fewer resources (doing more with less); – Managing and leading at a time of rapid change; – Turbulence and alteration in HE; – Demographics and responding to new types of students Academic Management • Ramsden (1998) in the UK, observes that too much academic management has been reactive, leisurely and amateur with too much focus on shor term goals • How is univerities and institutions to be managed in th future? – Collegial / Managerial • decision making structure • autonomy • changing paradigms in policy Collegial • Lack of flexibility towards external change and slow adaptation to the demands of stakeholders • No clear responsibility for decision making Management • An executive management system with hierarchical structure and influenced by private sector practice. • Less academic freedom • Goals are set by external sources • Academics have freedom only to decide how to fulfill them. • A Corporate type of HE organisation? • It is impossible or costly for LLL unit to produce by themselves the total supply reguired by the customers. • It is more efficient to search a partner. • The partner can be either TKK department or other service provider. • LLL units implement and develop the TKK adult education model based on lifelong learning. • The mission of LLL units is to support the professional, lifelong development of, in particlar, those with a degree in technology by offering them education that is based on research and steams from TKK core competence. • By means of this model LLL unit can – strive to intensify the R&D cycle – – – – to enhance the quality of education products to improve the quality of learning and teaching to improve transparency of ways of working to improve re-usability of work Target of the Model • • • • to diversify offering to increase transparency of quality to increase flexibility to offer different paths for studies Line D Adult Education Model Challanges • Provide lifelong learning opportunities • Design tarketed professional development courses • Open up of TKK through the recognition, validation and accreditation of non-formal and informal learning • TKK is deploying an adult education model implemented according to the priciple of lifelong learning to integrate elements of adult education and degree education in a way meaningful for the student, university, working life and society. • A student studying besides work may schedule his/her studies periodically e.g. in a way agreed on with the employer as appropriate for the professional career as well as the overal life situation. • In its broadest sense it would mean that from among the study programme would be selected entities that could serve both as regularly occuring complementary education modules of professional development and as regular elements of creditbearing studies. • In its narrowest sense this is a matter of having predefined periods of complimentary education or onthe-job training validated in the departments beforehand so that they could be compensated for as study modul elements. Learning for Life Learning Throughout the Professional Career Complementary Studies Complementary Studies DIA LfL1 LfL2 Complementary Studies Complementary Studies TkT 5 5 Complementary Studies 10 LfL2 15 LfL3 Career in years A module of Professional Development (degree-awarding or validated for HUT CV. Complementary Complementary studies (credit-bearing) studies 20 LfL4 30 25 LfL5 LfLN DIA M.Sc. (Tech) (Architecture) TkT D.Sc. (Tech) (Architecture) Complementary studies Other Continuing Education modules • The Learning for Life studies are coordinated by LLL units. • The integrated education model defines curriculum contents that are applicable as complementary education and that meet the criteria of adult education that can be compensated as creditbearing education. • The system would primarily involve long-term, modular programmes focusing on professional development. • An effective quality assurance system is to be attached to the model. Learning for Life Outlines of Learning Paths LfL5 Work-based learning periods TkK Continuing Education Courses Work-based learning periods TkT LfL4 DI TkL LfL1 LfL2 LfLN LfL3 ’Normal’ credit-bearing studies Optional, conditionally credit-bearing complementary studies TkT D.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.) LfL2 A module of long-term professional development TkL Lic.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.) Continuing Education Courses Other learning modules, including accredited adult education courses DI M.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.) Work-based learning periods Credit-bearing work-based modules TkK B.Sc. (Tech.) (Archit.) • All the moduls and courses are registred in the TKK-CV.