Information Society and eGovernment in Estonia

Report
Vinnytsia 07.2012
eGovernment in Estonia –
organization, policies, frameworks
Arvo Ott, PhD,
[email protected]
e-Governance Academy
www.ega.ee
eEstonia
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76 % of population are Internet users
63 % of the households have a computer
at home, 82 % of home computers
connected to Internet.
over 700 Public Internet Access Points in
Estonia, 51 per 100 000 people.
More than 1 100 000 smart-card type IDcards issued
94% (citizens) of tax declarations were edeclarations (2011), 97% businesses
94% of banking transaction on-line. 1
place in Internet Banking – (next are
Norway, Nederlands, New Zealand….
Finland in the 6th place)
24th (all 134, Ukraine 75) place in Network
Readiness index 2012.
eEstonia
• In August 2000, the Government of Estonia changed its
Cabinet meetings to paperless sessions using a web-based
document system.
Balanced e-Governance
Combination of electronic services and participatory services
e- GOVERNMENT
Transaction
of
user-oriented
services offered by government
that are based on information and
communication technologies.
e-DEMOCRACY
Digitally
conveyed
information
(transparency) and the political
influence (participation) exerted by
citizens and business on the opinionforming processes of public – state
and non-state –institutions
eGovernment example:
Parental benefit – best eGov service in 2004
(interoperability of 5 information systems from 5
goverment institutions)
Tax declarations on-line
89 91 93
86
82
74
59
36
21
9
20
00
20
01
20
02
20
03
20
04
20
05
20
06
20
07
20
08
20
09
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
% e-declarations
eParticipation example:
E-Voting in Estonia (140
846 e-voters in 2011!)
Organization
Legal
framework
Fiscal
framework
eGovernment Policy / Strategy
Technical
architecture
Questions:
• IT policy as the driving force for change?
• Centralized vers. decentralized? Coordination
vers. direct management?
• Implementation of strategies
• Organization
– Coordination tools:
•
•
•
•
Regulations
Budget planning
Human resource planning
“soft methods” – training, discussion, awareness building
etc.
Driving forces of eGov
• Stable and functioning organizational setup for
coordination.
• Leadership and political will.
• Fixed info-political principles.
• PPP, good telecom infrastructure and high level
of eBanking
• Supporting legal and fiscal frameworks.
• Interoperable ICT architecture.
Framework
I
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M
A
T
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N
P
O
L
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C
Y
C
O
A
L
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T
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N
A
G
R
E
E
M
E
N
T
A
C
T
I
O
N
P
L
A
N
Parliament
Government
Ministries
Informatics Council
Example: Fixed info-political principles in Estonia
• Citizen (customer) orientation
• Leading role for the private sector
• Efficient and transparent public sector.
eDemocracy and participation.
• Functioning model for protection of personal
data
• Measures against digital divide (ID-cards
example…)
• Neutrality concerning technological platforms
• etc.
Government
County
Local
governments governments
IT managers Representative
Ministries
Management
representatives &
IT managers of
ministries
Subordinate
agencies
IT managers
IT councils of
ministries
Councils
directors
ICT work groups
of ministries
IT councils
of counties
Local government
associations
Council
representative
Informatics
Council
Representative
IC secretariat
IT manager
Department of
State Information
Systems (RISO)
ICT work groups
of counties
MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC
AFFAIRS AND
COMMUNICATIONS
Informatics
Centre
State Chancellery /
Ministry
eGov Center
(CIO office)
ICT work group
of ministries
ICT work group
of regional
development
•Regulation initiatives
•eGov budget planning
•monitoring of implementation
•Interoperability Framework agreements
Ministries
Reform initiatives
ICT Budget
CIO-s
eGov implementing institution
IT Businesses
IT Businesses
IT Businesses
IT Businesses
project procurement,
supervision,
implementation
systems
maintenance
end user training
• Government Committee “Estonian Informatics
Council” - advice to the Government on Information
Policy matters
• All ministries (11 ministries) have CIOs. Ministries are
relatively independent. Boards and inspectorates are
subordinated to the ministries. There are IT councils of
ministries who are coordinating the work in their fields of
responsibility.
• All County Governments (15) have also CIOs, who
manage the work of IT-councils of counties. County
Governments are state bodies. There are several
municipalities (local governments with independent
budgets) in the counties (altogether ca. 220). County IT
councils have members from municipalities.
Nature of document
Name of Document
Nature of regulation
Policy and strategy
documents
eGov Strategy,
Interoperability
Framework
Infopolitical agreement,
strong recommendation
Laws and sub-acts
Databases acts,
Personal Data
Protection Act, Digital
Signature Act etc.
Compulsory
Framework descriptions Architecture
descriptions
Strong recommendation
Interoperability Related
Standards
Advise and
recommendation
Documents, digital
signature, security,
message transfer etc.
Budgeting
• Separate article of state budget: expenses for ITsubdivided into HW, SW and project work ordered
from outside of government structures. For the last 8
years this budget has formed about 1% of the state
budget.
• All ministries, county governments and boards have
independent IT budgets which are planned in
cooperation of all CIOs.
• For joint actions of several ministries the IT budget is
often included in the budget of the ministry that is
coordinating the work.
National chip-based Identity Card
Issuing authority:
Estonian Citizenship and
Migration Board
Service contractor:
TRÜB Switzerland
Start of issue:January 1, 2002
Conformance with:
ICAO Doc. 9303 part 3
Inside 16 Kb RSA crypto chip are :
2 private keys; authentication certificate;
digital signature certificate;
personal data file
Banks
Databases / information systems
Population Register
Health Insurance
Register
National Pension
Insurance Register
Vehicle Register
Eesti Energia IS
Tallinna Vesi IS
5
• Ühispank
• Hansapank
• Krediidipank
• Sampo Pank
• Nordea Pank
Security
server
Security
server
Security
server
Security
server
Security
server
Security
server
Internet
Security
server
-
X-road
Popul. ~1,3 mil.
::
…
::
Central server I
:: E-institution – institution view ::
Central
monitoring
KIT
Citizen view
HelpDesk
Thematic view of the state
www.eesti.ee
EIT
Enterpriser view
AIT
Public servant view
Tools centrally developed by the State,
i.e. the State Portal
X-road certification center
X-road center
National Databases
Register
Institutional view of the state
www.riik.ee
Central server II
Security
server
http://www.riik.ee/arr/
:: E-county – county view ::
:: Governmental Portal – Your Estonia ::
Security
server
ID – card
1000000
Certification
Center
Lessons learned - 1
• Cooperation and coordination is the key, technology
is the simplest part. Important role of Centre in
coordination of the actions.
• Training of CIO-s (IT managers) and partners from
private sector
• Medium push from legal framework
• Figuring out what might be the motivation
• Procurement procedures and rules can destroy
initial project plans
• Step-by-step approach, no need to enter to
“business” of the “back-office”
Lessons learned - 2
• Process from operational technical system to wide
implementation takes 2-3 years – “honeymoon period”
of the project
• Money, spent once for development of basic
components of the architecture will give high profit in
the phase of development of single e-services… but it
will be clear only after several years… and this might
not be the motivation for public institutions
• Driving force is often not from the top management of
public institution but somewhere else – find this
person …
Thank you for your
attention!
Arvo Ott, PhD
Director
eGovernance Academy
[email protected]
www.ega.ee

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