Human Resource Management

“Crowd will follow a leader who marches
twenty steps in advance; but if he is a
thousand steps in front of them, they do not
see & do not follow him”
Ability to influence people toward the
attainment of organizational goals
 The creative and directive force of morale
 The process of influencing an organized group toward
accomplishing its goals
 The Process by which an agent induces a subordinate to
behave in a desired manner
 An interpersonal relationship in which others comply
because they want to, not because they have to
 Leadership is a complex phenomenon involving the leader,
the followers, and the situation.
This chapter explores……….
 Define Leadership
 Differences between Leader & Manager
 Sources of Leader power
 Leadership traits
 Autocratic Vs Democratic
 New Leadership styles
Transformational, charismatic, interactive
The ability to influence people toward the attainment of
Aspects of Leadership:
 People
 Influence
 Goals
“Remember the difference between a boss & a
leader a boss says GO!- a leader says “Lets Go”
 One of the four primary function tasks of
managers is LEADING
 Leadership is a key ingredient in effective
management / Managerial level at all levels
 When Leaders are effective
 Subordinates or followers are highly motivated, committed & high
Difference Between Leaders & Managers
 Administrates
 Maintains
 Short-range view
 Asks How & When
 Does things Right
 Focuses on System &
Planning, controlling, efficiency, procedure
regulation, control & consistency
Long-range view
Asks What & Why
Does the Right Thing
Focuses on People
Risk taking, dynamic, creativity,
change, vision
Leadership Vs Management
Leader VS Manager
 Create Vision
Mission for Org
 Implement vision
 Involves having a vision of
what the Org can become
 Management relies on
universal skills such as
planning, budgeting and
 Management powers
comes from organizational
 Leadership power comes
from personal sources
The main difference between them is of POWER
Power: The potential ability to influence the behavior of
Within Organization, there are typically five sources of power;
One can have power without even using ?
“Power does not need to be exercised in order to have its effects”
“You Don’t Lead By Hitting People Over The Head- That’s
Assault, Not Leadership”
Position Power
 Power that comes from the Organization
 Managers position gives him/her power to
REWARD or PUNISH subordinates in order
to influence their behavior
 These powers are used by managers to
change employee behavior
Personal Power
 Personal power comes from internal sources,
such as specialized knowledge or personality
 Personal power is the tool of the leader
 Subordinates follow a leaders because of the
feel for the individual & his/her ideas
Types of Power
Position Power
 Legitimate
 Reward
Personal Power
 Expert
 Referent
 Coercive
Strong leadership under weak management is no better
Legitimate Power
 Leader has authority because he has been
assigned a particular role in an Org
Boss assign projects
 Coach decides who plays
 Teacher assigns homework & awards
“ Legitimate authority & Leadership are not the same thing”
Example ?
Reward Power
 The power to give or withhold rewards ( pay raises,
bonuses, promotion recommendations, interesting
job assignments)
 Greater the number or rewards a manager controls
and the more important the rewards are to
subordinates, greater is the managers reward power
 Managers can use rewards to influence subordinates
Coercive Power
 Authority to punish or recommend punishment
 Ability to control others through fear of
 Managers having a right to demote, fire or criticize
Examples: Army court-martialing Soldiers
Employers firing lazy workers
Example : 24/7 Get rid of him
Expert Power
 Power of knowledge & potential to influence
others through their relative expertise in
particular field
 Surgeon influence in hospital
 Mechanic influence of peers
 Bill Gates has expertise in software design
Referent Power
 Potential influence due to strength of the relationship btw
the leader & the follower
 Leaders who are likeable & whom subordinates wish to use
as role model are especially likely to posses REFERENT
Examples: Students response to likely teacher would be diff
than less popular teacher:
Buddy ryan fired as head couch of Philadelphia football
team…… Players expressed fierce loyalty to him “ We’d do
things for Buddy that we wouldn’t do for another coach, I
‘d sell my body 4 Buddy”
That’s Referent Power
 Autocratic VS Democratic Leadership
Leadership Traits
 Traits are distinguishing qualities or
characteristics of a person, such as
intelligence, values & appearance
 Relationship between personal traits &
leaders success ?
 3 Football coaches have diff personality
traits, but all are successful leaders of their
football programs
Traits of a Good Leader
Honesty - Display sincerity, integrity in all your actions. Deceptive
behavior will not inspire trust.
Competent - Your actions should be based on reason and moral principles.
Forward-looking Set goals and have a vision of the future.
Inspiring –
Display confidence in all that you do. Take charge when necessary.
Intelligent - Read, study, and seek challenging assignments
Autocratic VS Democratic Leaders
 A leader who tends to
centralize authority and
rely on legitimate,
reward & coercive
power to manage
 Retain most of the
authority to themselves
 Task oriented
 A leader who delegates
authority to others,
participation & relies
on expert and referent
power to manage
Autocratic VS Democratic Leaders
 Groups with Autocratic
style of leadership
performs well as the leader
was present to supervise
 However group members
displeased– close
supervision & feelings of
hostility frequently arose
 Group performance almost
as good, even performed
well the leader was absent
and left the group on its
 Empowerment of lower
employees is popular trend
in companies today
 Boss centered or Subordinate centered
depends on Organizational circumstances
 Time pressure---takes too long for
subordinates to learn how to make decisionsAutocratic style –
 Skill difference —Greater the skill diff more
autocratic the leader approach
New Leadership Approaches
 Transactional Leader
 Charismatic Leader
 Transformational Leader
 Interactive Leaders
 Servant Leaders
Transactional Leadership
 A leader who clarifies subordinates role and
task requirements, initiates structure, provide
rewards and display consideration for
 Leadership that motivates subordinates high
performance & punish them for low
performance ----- not making any kind of
dramatic changes
Transactional Leadership
Where leaders & followers are in some
type of exchange relationship in order to
get needs met
“Example: superior give rewards to sales
person for increasing monthly sales”
Charismatic Leaders
 A leaders ability to motivate subordinates to do
more than normally expected
 An enthusiastic, self confident leader able to clearly
communicate his or her vision of how good things
could be
 Have an emotional impact on subordinates
 Have a vision, masterful communication skills,
inspire trust, make group members feel capable &
have high energy
 Tend to emerge during crises
Bill Gate:-Despite his wide appeal, many consider
Gates to be brash, out spoken too ail controlling &
obsessed with demolishing the competition
( Still his name surfaces frequently in discussions of charisma )
 Richard Branson:- Imaginative entrepreneur
To him risking life is part of doing business
Dresses like Maverick
“ Keeping up with Richard is almost impossible,
Ideas constantly pop out of his brain”
The dark side of charismatic
 Some believe that charismatic leadership can
be exercised for evil purposes
 Observed that some are unethical and lead
their Org toward illegal & immoral ends
Transformational Leadership
 A leader distinguish by a special ability to
bring about innovation and change
businesses today “overmanaged & underled”- “Org
complexity” , “productive change”
TL balance the demands of both
 Have their eyes on the bigger picture of how
much better things could be in their Org
 Transformational leadership is precisely what
developing countries need in order to change
their current situation & advance to the next
Interactive Leaders
 Women move into higher positions in organizations, they
often possess a diff leadership style
 A leader who is concerned with consensus building, is open
and inclusive and encourages participation
 Leadership that believes that the best performance results
when people are excited about their work and feel good
about themselves
 This style is not limited to women, male managers are
learning to adopt this style by developing their skills in
attention to non verbal behavior, empathy, cooperation,
collaboration & listening
Servant Leaders
 A leader who works to fulfill subordinates needs and
goals as well as to achieve the organizations larger
 Sam Walton of Wal-Mart’s corporate culture was to
lead from the top but run from the bottom ( provide
workers with whatever they need to serve the
customers- info, inspiration & then get out of the
 Great leaders are those who serve others
 Leadership is about serving the community not
about exercising power and enjoying privilege
Do women managers lead in
different ways than men?
Are male or female managers
more effective as leaders ?

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