EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers

Report
Mood Disorders
Module 38
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Psychological Disorders
Mood Disorders
 Major Depressive Disorder
 Bipolar Disorder
 Explaining Mood Disorders
Link 58:53
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Major Depressive Disorder
Depression is the
“common cold”
of psychological
disorders.
In a year, 5.8% of
men and 9.5% of
women report
depression
worldwide
(WHO, 2002).
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Major Depressive Disorder
Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of
depression last two weeks or more and are not
caused by drugs or medical conditions.
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Signs include:
Lethargy and fatigue
Feelings of worthlessness
Loss of interest in family & friends
Loss of interest in activities
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Bipolar Disorder
Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An
alternation between depression and mania
signals bipolar disorder.
Depressive Symptoms
Manic Symptoms
Gloomy
Elation
Withdrawn
Euphoria
Inability to make decisions
Tired
Slowness of thought
Desire for action
Hyperactive
Multiple ideas
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Mood (or Affective) Disorders
• Depressive Disorders
– Major Depressive Disorder (weeks or months)
– Dysthymic Disorder (mild but 2 or more years)
• Bipolar Disorders
– Depression mixed with Mania
• Mania = Elated, excited, active emotional state.
– Bipolar I Disorder or Manic Depression
– Bipolar II Disorder or Hypomania (hypo=under)
– Cyclothymic Disorder
• Not as extreme as Bipolar, but over a long period of time.
• More detail than you need here…
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Bipolar Disorder
Many great writers, poets, and composers
suffered from bipolar disorder. During their
manic phase creativity surged, but not during
their depressed phase.
Earl Theissen/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library
The Granger Collection
Wolfe
George C. Beresford/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library
Bettmann/ Corbis
Whitman
Clemens
Hemingway
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Explaining Mood Disorders
Since depression is so prevalent worldwide,
investigators want to develop a theory of
depression that will suggest ways to treat it.
Lewinsohn et al., (1985, 1998) note that a theory
of depression should explain the following:
1. Behavioral and cognitive changes
2. Common causes of depression
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Theory of Depression
3. Gender differences
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Theory of Depression
Desiree Navarro/ Getty Images
4. Depressive episodes
self-terminate.
5. Stressful events often
precede depression.
6. Depression is increasing,
especially in the teens.
Post-partum depression
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Pharmacology
• Bipolar disorders most effectively treated with
tricyclic antidepressants and Lithium
Carbonate
• Lithium serves as a mood stabilizer
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Suicide
The most severe form of behavioral response to
depression is suicide. Each year some 1 million
people commit suicide worldwide.
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Suicide Statistics
National differences
Racial differences
Gender differences
Age differences
Other differences
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Suicide Rates in Various Ethnic
Groups
Young Latinas
have the
highest rate of
attempted
suicide in the
US compared
to any other
demographic.
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• Ever wonder why you did not read about
your friend’s suicide in the paper or see
news about it on tv…?
• Are the reporters just jerks who were
IGNORING your friend…no,…they were
actually doing the rest of us a favor!
Those jerks,…she was my
best friend! How dare they
disrespect my friend!
@$$^*(#$
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Suicide
• Publicizing suicide especially dangerous
because of social proof.
• Auto and plane deaths increase after well
publicized suicides…1000%
• The more publicity the more suicide
• Within 2 months of every front page
suicide 58 more people than usual killed
themselves from 1947-1968
• Cialdini, Influence
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Those wrists won’t
cut themselves…
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Biological Perspective
Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in
families. The rate of depression is higher in
identical (50%) than fraternal twins (20%).
Jerry Irwin Photography
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Genetics & Risk of Mood Disorders
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James D. Laird and Nicholas S. Thompson, Psychology. Copyright © 1992 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Reprinted by permission.
The Depressed Brain
PET scans show that brain energy consumption
rises and falls with manic and depressive
episodes.
Courtesy of Lewis Baxter an Michael E.
Phelps, UCLA School of Medicine
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Social-Cognitive Perspective
The social-cognitive perspective suggests that
depression arises partly from self-defeating
beliefs and negative explanatory styles.
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Negative Thoughts and Moods
Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming depressed.
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Depression Cycle
1. Negative stressful events.
2. Pessimistic explanatory
style.
3. Hopeless depressed state.
4. These hamper the way the
individual thinks and acts,
fueling personal rejection.
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EXPLORING
PSYCHOLOGY
(7th Edition in Modules)
David Myers
PowerPoint Slides
Aneeq Ahmad
Henderson State University
Worth Publishers, © 2008
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The Diathesis-Stress Model
Diathesis = predisposition
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DSM-IV Classification System
APA (American Psychological Association)
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual #4
• Axis I: Diagnosed Mental Disorder
• Axis II: Personality Disorders (disruptive
behavior patterns) /Mental Retardation
• Axis III: Relevant Medical Conditions
• Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental
Problems
• Axis V: Level of Psychological, Social, and
Occupational Functioning (Global Assessment of
Functioning GAF)
http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/_misc/complete_tables.htm#Code%20#
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DSM-IV Classification System
• Axis I: Diagnosed Mental Disorder
– Anxiety Disorders
• Phobias, Generalized Anxiety Disorderm OCD
– Somatoform Disorders
• Conversion Disorder, Hypochondraisis
– Dissociative Disorders
• Fugue, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
– Mood Disorders
• Depression, Bipolar
– Schizophrenia
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DSM-IV Classification System
• Axis 2: Personality Disorders & Retardation
– Personality Disorders
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Avoidant – avoids newness
Dependent – indecisive, overreliant on others
Obsessive Compulsive – rigid, perfectionistic
Passive-Aggressive – procrastinates, “forgets”
Paranoid – guarded, overcautious
Scizoid – isolated, inexpressive
Antisocial – detatched, strange
Borderline – unstable, fearful of being alone
Histrionic – seductive, shallow, moody
Narcissistic – entitled, self-absorbed…
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