ESC 531 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Thermal Processing of

Thermal Processing of Solid Wastes
Combustion Systems
Case Studies
“it can be defined as the conversion of wastes into gaseous,
liquid and solid production, with or without energy
Thermal processes with respect to air
 combustion
 gasification
 pyrolysis
Combustion is occurred by stoichiometric
amount of oxygen or excess air.
Gasification is the partial combustion of
materials, thus materials convert to
combustible gases (such as carbon monoxide,
hydrogen, and gaseous hydrocarbons).
Pyrolysis can be defined as destructive
distillation; materials are combusted with
absence of oxygen.
Combustion systems (Incinerators) are
involves the application of combustion
processes under controlled conditions to
convert waste materials to inert mineral ash
and gases. Types of incinerators;
Fixed-Hearth Incinerators
Rotary Kiln Incinerators
Refuse Derived Fuel Incinerators
Fluidized Bed Incinerator
Pyrolysis recycling is a non combustion heat
treatment that chemically decomposes waste
material by applying heat (directly or indirectly)
to the waste material in an oxygen free
It is an endothermic reaction and requires an
input of energy, which is typically applied
indirectly through the walls of the reactor in
which the waste material is placed for
the thermo-chemical conversion of a solid or
liquid carbon-based material (feedstock) into a
combustible gaseous product (combustible
 Direct gasification occurs when an oxidant
gasification agent is used to partially oxidize the
 Indirect gasification occurs without an oxidizing
agent and needs an external energy source.
Gasification of municipal solid waste in the
Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) process
from Israel.
Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite
from Western Macedonia.
Plasma Gasification Melting Process
The combination of plasma melting and hightemperature agent gasification.
Western Macedonia Plant -Co-gasification
Direct co-gasification (Integrated gasification
combined cycle) unit utilizing lignite and solid
wastes in the form of RDF. In direct gasification,
coal and solid wastes or biomass are mixed
and then fed to the gasification unit.
The designed capacity of the plant is 20 tons of
MSW per day.
MSW is fed through airtight feeding chambers.
The annual production of lignite is around 60
million tons, out of which 48 million tons derive
from the coalfields of WMP.
The annual amount of municipal solid waste in
WMP is 117,000 ton.
RDF was selected instead of MSW because of
its better quality characteristics.
RDF and lignite mixture in the form of pellets
with 75:25 mass proportions.
Syngas compositions
Power generation is accomplished by 67% in
the gas turbine and by 33% in the steam
The overall efficiency of the unit is 47%,
while internal power consumption is up to
Feeding high-temperature steam into the PGM reactor greatly
increased syngas yield, with even higher gas LHV.
The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean and
efficient power plants using a range of fuels, but there are
considerable economic, environmental and technical challenges.
Concerning the environmental benefits, the operation of an cogasification unit in the region of Western Macedonia will
contribute to the reduction of CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions,
compared to a conventional combustion unit utilizing lignite of
the same quality.
The main disadvantage of this plant is the need for a cleanup
system for the control of corrosive gas phase compounds such as
tar, acid gas and alkali metals.
Belgiorno, V., Feo, G. D., Rocca, C. D., Napoli, R.M.A. (2003), Energy from
gasification of solid wastes, Waste Management 23, pp.1–15
Hernandez-Atonal, F. D., Ryu, C., Sharifi, V. N., Swithenbank, J. (2007),
Combustion of refuse-derived fuel in a fluidised bed, Chemical Engineering
Science 62, pp.627 – 635
N. Koukouzas N., Katsiadakis, A., Karlopoulos, E., Kakaras, E. (2008), Cogasification of solid waste and lignite – A case study for Western Macedonia,
Waste Management 28, pp.1263–1275
Qinglin Zhang, Q., Dor, L., Fenigshtein, D., Yang, W., Blasiak, W. (2012),
Gasification of municipal solid waste in the Plasma Gasification Melting
process, Applied Energy 90, pp.106–112
Tae-Heon Kwak, T. H., Lee, S., Maken, S., Shin, H. C., Jin-Won Park, J. W., Yoo, Y.
D. (2005), A Study of Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste Using a Double
Inverse Diffusion Flame Burner, Energy & Fuels 19, pp.2268-2272
Tchobanoglous, G.; Theisen, H. & Vigil, S. A. (1993). Integrated Solid Waste
Management, McGraw-Hill International Editions, ISBN 0-07-063237-5,

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