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Chapter 20
Metals
Dr. S. M. Condren
Metallurgy
• the extraction of metals from ores
• the preparation of metals for use
• the study of the relationship between
structures and properties of metals
Dr. S. M. Condren
Metallurgy
• Pretreatment of Ore
• Concentration
• Roasting
Dr. S. M. Condren
Pretreatment of Ore
• crude ore is crushed
Dr. S. M. Condren
Concentration
• floatation
Dr. S. M. Condren
Roasting
• converting sulfide ore to oxide
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) -----> 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g)
2CuS(s) + 3O2(g) -----> 2CuO(s) + 2SO2(g)
3FeS2(s) + 8O2(g) -----> Fe3O4(s) + 6SO2(g)
Dr. S. M. Condren
Manufacture of Iron and Steel
• Chemistry of blast furnace
• Chemistry of basic oxygen furnace
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
iron reduction
raw materials
Dr. S. M. Condren
Several Blast Furnaces
Dr. S. M. Condren
Liquid Iron Pour
Dr. S. M. Condren
Fe(l) & Slag(l) Pours
Dr. S. M. Condren
Dr. S. M. Condren
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
raw materials:
iron ore
limestone or lime
coke
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
iron ore => source of iron
Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO, SiO2
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
limestone or lime => flux to remove
impurities
CaCO3 or CaO
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
coke => reducing agent
C
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
C(s) + O2(g) -----> CO2(g)
coke air
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
CO2 + C ---> 2 CO
coke
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
3 Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) -----> 2Fe3O4(s) + CO2(g)
iron ore
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) -----> 3FeO(s) + CO2(g)
iron ore
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
FeO(s) + CO(g) -----> Fe(l) + CO2(g)
iron ore
pig iron
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
CaCO3(s) + heat -----> CaO(s) + CO2(g)
limestone
lime
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of blast furnace
CaO(s) + SiO2(s) -----> CaSiO3(l)
lime
sand
slag
Dr. S. M. Condren
Purification of Metals
• Distillation
• Electrolysis
• Chemical Reactions
Dr. S. M. Condren
Production of Copper
Cu2S(l) + O2(g) -----> 2 Cu(l) + SO2(g)
Cu(s)
impure
----->
Cu(s)
electrolysis pure
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of Basic Oxygen Furnace
iron purification
steel making
raw materials
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of Basic Oxygen Furnace
raw materials
pig iron from blast furnace
fluxing agent to remove impuritites
alloying agents
Dr. S. M. Condren
Dr. S. M. Condren
Chemistry of Basic Oxygen Furnace
Removal of excess of carbon
C(s) + O2(g) -----> CO2(g)
impurity air
in pig iron
Dr. S. M. Condren
Dr. S. M. Condren
Magnetism
• 2 main types
– diamagnetism => all electons are paired
– paramagnetism => one or more unpaired
electron, parallel spins on electrons
Dr. S. M. Condren

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