The Inca Empire Background Empire extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile Inca originated in village of Paqaritampu, about 15mi south of Cuzco Official language: Quecha Earth creation myth Pachacamac, the sun, rose slowly from lake Titicaca He was so bright that nothing else could be seen (during the day), so he made some stars, the moon and some planets for the night. The Moon – Pachamama became his wife and they ruled the heavens and the earth They made the first humans from the stones a a huge rock Continued Stone people – stupid, couldn’t survive. Sun and Moon have two kids (son and daughter) send them to earth to help stupid stone people. Son – teaches men (stupid stone people) how to plow, plant fields and build houses. Daughter – taught women the art of weaving and how to prepare food Pachacama tells his children to….”teach the humans to be fair and kind, and I will provide light and warmth every day without fail, but make sure they never forget their creators.” Continued Pachacama’s son became the first Inca. He and his sister wife ruled the humans. They take a long journey to discover a place to settle. Along the way, they put a golden rod into the ground, this would be a symbol of where to build a city. They ventured into the valley of Huanacauri, the golden rod sank…. This is where the first temple of the sun should be, and capital city of CUZCO should be established. Manco goes North, and his wife go south in search of their people. People of surrounding villages were moved by their stories and followedthem to the valley of Huanacauri. Two cities are settled – followers of Manco in Northern city of HananCuzco. Southern followers of her, settle in Hurin-Cuzco From then on all cities are divided into southern female part, and northern male part Inti –The Sun God The Inca religion was polytheistic, which means that they worshiped many gods. The Incas created gods for everything. They had minor gods and major gods. One of the major gods worshiped by the Incas was the sun god. He was worshiped because farmers needed sun to grow their crops and keep the Incas booming economy going. TRADE The Incas even hade a booming economy. They mass-produced their products and shipped them out of the city using a series of intricate pathways and roads. Amazingly the Incas found a way to farm in the Andes Mountains. They built terraces or level pieces of earth in the mountain side and built irrigation systems in order to bring water to the growing plants. INCA EMPIRE The first Inca who unified all the warring tribes in the Andes started the empire around 1200 AD. From the first unified INCA to the Spanish (1532) seemed to be only 300 years, but… Viewing their superior architecture, stonework, metallurgy and their effort in domesticating local animals, the Incan civilization in the Andes has existed for more than a thousand years. Many tribes, groups, etc, existed in the area long before 1200, and many were unified under a single ruler, but none ruled over all the people until approx 1200 Conception to overthrow Creation Story – to 1200 AD – INCA Empire was a loosely grouped tribal based society spread out over many miles. (in fact, its not called an empire because of this, until 1200). Huayna Capac 1488-1528 At Huayna Capac's death (ca. 1528) in Quito Equador, this vast territory was divided between two of his sons: Huáscar, who won the imperial throne in the capital city of Cuzco to the south, and his halfbrother … Atahualpa, who gained the northern portion of the kingdom, with its center in the city of Quito. The INVASION When the Spanish arrive in 1532, INCA empire was involved in a civil war between the half-brothers, reaching a peak in 1532 with the defeat and imprisonment of Huáscar. At this point the Spaniards entered Peru. Francisco Pizarro and about 180 men reached Atahualpa's base at Cajamarca in November 1532. The confrontation between the Spanish conquistador and the Inca, who had thousands of troops camped nearby, took place in the main square of the town. How does 160 men beat thousands? Pizzaro was viewed as a God because he had horses, “great beasts twice the size of alpaca and more fierce” said to control “thunder and lightning”, (cannons and guns) had metal shields and swords etc. But they also wore “pots on their heads”…stupid Atahualpa falls Pizzaro meets the leader. Pizzaro’s prists present the Bible and tells him, this is the only God, “obey him and you will be spared” “This book doesn’t speak to me…throws on ground….= act of war. Pizarro then ordered his strategically placed troops to attack the soldiers with Atahualpa and the Inca was seized by the Spaniards. Atahualpa's Ransom Unable to conceive that these 160 men were the spearhead of a full-scale invasion and encouraged by Pizarro's words that "the fighting men were seeking nothing more than gold", Atahualpa offered his famous ransom: "Atahualpa said that he would give a room full of gold. The room measured 22 feet long by 17 feet wide (6.7m x 5.2m) and was to be filled to a white line half way up its height (about 2.5m)... he would fill the room with various objects of gold... he would also give the entire hut filled twice over with silver. And he would complete this within two months". Atahualpa's willing collaboration with the Spanish ensured their security and lent them an air of authority with the Indians. Pizarro accepted more than 11 tons of gold ($6 million at the time) dishes, icons, ornaments, jewelry, & vases, but never released Atahualpa. Keeps him prisoner for a year, to ensure their safety against the INCA civilization which greatly out numbered the Spanish. While in captivity Atahualpa orders Huáscar’s death. July 26, 1533: Atahualpa was charged with his brothers murder- he is killed (by strangulation) then beheaded in the main square, arms and legs off and scattered, demonstration of power. After capture of Atahualpa Pizzaro appoints Manco Inca new leader In Quito. He was Atahualpa nephew who opposed his uncle, and would support Pizzaro. Atahualpa Capital City (Quito) Atahualpa base camp ( CAJAMARCA) The Incan leader Pachucutec originally named the city Qusco, meaning “Navel of the World." Huascar kingdom located in the Capital City of CUZCO CUZCO Entry into Cuzco On November 15, 1533, Francisco Pizarro and Manco Inca – appointed leader of conquered city of Quito, led the victorious conquistadors into Cuzco. For Pizarro, this represented their ultimate goal - the occupation of the capital city. For Manco, this represented a homecoming after months of hiding from Atahualpa's forces. The alliance was mutually beneficial. Looting of CUZCO With the help of Manco Inca – looting begins. Pizarro sacked Cusco, eventually capturing the capital. The Spanish looted the city, melting down its gold in a matter of weeks. They also took advantage of the Quechua's superb masonry skills and built their cathedrals and churches on top of Inca-period structures. This architectural blend of native and colonial elements remain in place to this day, making Cusco a historical gem of the Americas. Appoints Manco Inca the new leader, then leaves to explore rest of Peru. Remaining Spaniards do not get along with Manco, and second battle of CUZCO erupts. INCA defeated, and empire finished. New Capital LIMA established.