Big idea # 5 * Earth in space in time

Report
BIG IDEA # 5 – EARTH
IN SPACE IN TIME
Galaxy, stars, planets, solar system, distance and size,
and exploration
The origin and eventual fate of the Universe still remains one
of the greatest questions in science. Gravity and energy
influence the formation of galaxies, including our own Milky
Way galaxy, stars, the planetary systems, and Earth.
Humankind’s need to explore continues to lead to the
development of knowledge and understanding of the nature of
the Universe.
BENCHMARK NUMBER & DESCRIPTOR
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SC.8.E.5.1 Recognize that there are enormous distances between objects in space and apply our knowledge
of light and space travel to understand this distance.
SC.8.E.5.2 Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and that each galaxy contains
many billions of stars.
SC.8.E.5.3 Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies
relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, including distance, size, and composition.
SC.8.E.5.4 Explore the Law of Universal Gravitation by explaining the role that gravity plays in the
formation of planets, stars, and solar systems and in determining their motions.
SC.8.E.5.5 Describe and classify specific physical properties of stars: apparent magnitude (brightness),
temperature (color), size, and luminosity (absolute brightness).
SC.8.E.5.6 Create models of solar properties including: rotation, structure of the Sun, convection, sunspots,
solar flares, and prominences.
SC.8.E.5.7 Compare and contrast the properties of objects in the Solar System including the Sun, planets,
and moons to those of Earth, such as gravitational force, distance from the Sun, speed, movement,
temperature, and atmospheric conditions.
SC.8.E.5.8 Compare various historical models of the Solar System, including geocentric and heliocentric.
SC.8.E.5.9 Explain the impact of objects in space on each other including:
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1. the Sun on the Earth including seasons and gravitational attraction
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2. the Moon on the Earth, including phases, tides, and eclipses, and the relative position of each body.
SC.8.E.5.10 Assess how technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and
other remote locations, sample collection, measurement, data collection and storage, computation, and
communication of information.
SC.8.E.5.11 Identify and compare characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum such as wavelength,
frequency, use, and hazards and recognize its application to an understanding of planetary images and
satellite photographs.
SC.8.E.5.12 Summarize the effects of space exploration on the economy and culture of Florida.
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Halley - Recognized Halley’s Comet as a periodic
comet in the 18th century
Herschel – Discovered what would be know as
Uranus, the first new planet in modern times
Hertzsprung – Graphs relating temperature and
brightness of stars
Hubble- Discovered that the farther away a galaxy
is, the faster it is moving away from us
Kepler – Showed that orbits are elliptical shaped
not circular
Newton – Invented reflection telescope. Identified
two factors that keep planets in orbit:
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Jupiter’s four moons revolve around the planet
Venus goes through phases similar to that of Earth’s moon
Inertia
Gravity
Russell – Graphs relating temperature and
brightness of stars; together they formed the
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
WHO’S WHO IN
ASTRONOMY
Copernicus – Heliocentric view of the solar
system
Ptolemy – Geocentric view of the solar system
Galileo – First to use telescopes to observe the
solar system and moon. Discovered evidence for the
following:
HOW DID IT
ALL START?
Origins of the Universe
ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
Steady-State Theory
Least
Accepted
The Universe is
continuously
being renewed.
Galaxies are
moving outward.
Galaxies are
continually replaced
by newly formed
ones.
Big Bang Theory
Widely
Accepted
Universe was
originally small,
hot and dense.
A magnificent
explosion spread
mass, matter,
energy.
It cooled and
formed galaxies.
It occurred 10-15
billion years ago.
THE FUTURE…
 Oscillating
Universe Hypothesis –
 This hypothesis has to do with the
future of the universe.
 Universe will continue expanding until
it runs out of fuel, and everything
becomes cold and dark.
 Universe will contract causing the
opposite of the Big Bang Theory.
All matter will be pulled back together
by gravity resulting in an enormous
black hole.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. Which is the most widely accepted theory of
how the Universe came about?
2. During the Steady State Theory, what is
happening to the galaxies?
3. When did the Universe form?
4. What is one theory explaining the future of
our Universe?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. Which is the most widely accepted theory of how
the Universe came about?
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2. During the Steady State Theory, what is happening
to the galaxies?
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Every galaxy is being replaced by new ones.
3. When did the Universe form?
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The Big Bang Theory
According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe was formed
10-15 billion years ago.
4. What is one theory explaining the future of our
Universe?
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The galaxies will continue to expand. Once they run out of
fuel, gravity will pull them back together, eventually
creating a massive black hole.
WHAT’S OUT
THERE?
STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE
GALAXIES
spirals
elliptical
irregular
STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
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GALAXIES –
Galaxies are large scale
groups of stars that are
bounded together by
gravity.
Size of a typical galaxy
is 100,000 light years in
diameter.
Roughly 100 billion
stars are contained
within a galaxy.
** Galaxies are moving
away from each other as
space expands
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IRREGULAR SHAPE GALAXY
STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
No real structure
 Irregular galaxies are unevenly
distributed throughout the universe.
 Least common
 Two of the closest to the Milky Way
 Large Magellanic Clouds
 Small Magellanic Clouds
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ELLIPTICAL SHAPE GALAXY
STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
Smooth ellipse shape
 Flattened or deflated football
 Contains trillions of stars
 Little rotation if any
 Little dust/gas so new stars cannot form
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SPIRAL SHAPE GALAXY
STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
Disc shaped
 Bulge in the middle with arms that spiral
out and rotate around the center of the
galaxy
 Pinwheel shaped
 Center has massive cloud of stars, gas,
and dust.
 Milky Way Galaxy – where our solar
system is located
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Way Galaxy
The Milky Way has a diameter of about
100,000 light years.
The nucleus is 2000 light years thick.
Our sun is located 30,000 light years from
the nucleus.
It takes the Sun 200 million years to make
one rotation around the center.
STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
Milky
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Very bright but distant galaxies with a
black hole in the center
Will photograph like a star
 Gas around black hole heats up and shines
brightly
 Contains a large red shift
 Has a variable energy output
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Quasar 3C273
STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
QUASARS - is short for Quasistellar radio source.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. What galaxy do we live in?
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2. How many classifications of galaxies are there?
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3. Identify 2 characteristics of Elliptical galaxies.
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What do all types of galaxies have in common?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. What galaxy do we live in?
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2. How many classifications of galaxies are there?
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The Milky Way galaxy
4 – spiral, elliptical, irregular, and QUASARS
3. Identify 2 characteristics of Elliptical galaxies.
Smooth ellipse shape
 Little dust/gas so new stars cannot form
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What do all types of galaxies have in common?
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They all contain large groups of stars, gas, and dust which
are held together by gravity
STARS
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CLASSIFICATION of STARS
Size (largest – smallest)
Supergiant
 Fills space from Sun to Jupiter
 Giant
 Medium
 Example – Sun
 White Dwarf
 Neutron Star
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Temperature
Red - coolest
 3,500 C
 Example – Betelgeuse
 Yellow-White - medium
 6,000 C
 Example – Sun
 Blue-White - Hottest
 50,000 C
 Example – Rigel
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STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
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CLASSIFICATION of STARS
Magnitude (Brightness)
Apparent
 The amount of light received on Earth
from a star.
 Absolute
 Actual Brightness: How large and hot a
star is in relation to other stars.
 Identified from the Hertzsprung-Russell
Diagram
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Systems
Binary
 2 stars
 Triple-Star
 3 stars
 Example – Proxima Centauri
 Eclipsing Binary
 One star blocks the other from view.
 Detected by gravitational pull on other
star
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STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
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HERTSPRUNG-RUSSELL
DIAGRAM
STAR LIFE
LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR
A closer look
NEBULA
Stars are made (born)
in giant clouds of dust
and gas.
 Gravity pulls together
the gas and dust.
 Once the particles are
close enough, nuclear
reaction can start.
 A Star is created –
Protostar “baby star”
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LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR
A closer look
PROTOSTAR
As the gravitational
energy increases, the
temperature rises.
 A protostar takes
about 100,000 years to
reach the main
sequence.
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LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR
A closer look
STAR
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Nuclear fusion begins.
Releases massive amounts
of energy
The star then stays almost
exactly the same for a long
time (about 10 billion years
for a star like the Sun).
The star begins to run out of
fuel.
Large mass = short life span
No more energy is released
from the core.
 Core shrinks while outer part
expands.
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LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR
A closer look
RED GIANT or SUPER
GIANT
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Eventually, the hydrogen
(the fuel for the nuclear
fusion) in the center of the
star will run out.
Gravity will pull in the
center of the star while the
outside floats away
This is what will happen to
our sun but not for billions
of years.
If the star is a massive
star, it will become a
Supergiant.
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Antares – a Red Giant
LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR
A closer look
NORMAL SIZE STAR
WHITE DWARF
Formed from a Red
Giant
 Size of Earth, mass of
sun
 No fuel
 Glow from left over
energy – can glow for
millions of years.
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BLACK DWARF
White Dwarf stops
glowing.
 The star is dead.
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LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR
A closer look
GIANT SIZE STAR
SUPERNOVA
An explosion of a
giant or supergiant
star
 Massive star explodes
and throws its outer
layers into space.
The Crab Supernova
Remnant
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NEUTRON STAR/
PULSAR
The center of a
collapsed star after a
supernova
 All the stars particles
are neutrons.
 Smaller and denser
than a white dwarf
 If the Neutron star is
spinning, it is called a
Pulsar.
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LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR
A closer look
GIANT SIZE STAR
BLACKHOLE
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Forms from the most
massive stars
If the center of a collapsed
star is 3x more massive
then the sun, the star will
contract due to massive
gravitational pull.
Light cannot escape due to
gravity.
X-rays are given off by
stars and dust sucked into
a black hole (allows black
holes to be found).
BIRTH AND DEATH OF STARS - SUMMARY
White Dwarf and
Planetary Nebula
Collapsing
cloud
A new star
Sun-like
stars
Supernova
Remnant and
Neutron Star
Red
Giant
Massive
stars
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Groups of stars which form pictures in
the sky
There are 88 constellations recognized
by astronomers today.
Different constellations are seen at
different times of the year due to the
earths rotation.
Southern/Northern hemisphere will
see different constellations.
Example: Ursa Minor (Little Dipper)
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Polaris – north star
 Last star in the handle
 Early travelers tracked their position by
using Polaris.
STRUCTURES IN THE
UNIVERSE
CONSTELLATIONS
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. Explain how color indicates the temperature of
a star?
2. Compare absolute and apparent magnitudes.
Arrange the following stages in the order in
which they occur: red giant, white dwarf, nebula,
main sequence.
What type of star is the sun?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. Explain how color indicates the temperature of a star?
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Red, yellow = Cool
Blue, White = Hot
2. Compare absolute and apparent magnitudes.
Apparent magnitude = The amount of light which we receive
from a star
 Absolute magnitude = The actual amount a light a star gives
off
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Arrange the following stages in the order in which they
occur: red giant, white dwarf, nebula, main sequence.
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Nebula, Main sequence, red giant, white dwarf
What type of star is the sun?
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Main sequence
OUR SUN
STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE
THE SUN
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Parts of the Sun
Core
 Atmosphere
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Photosphere
 Chromosphere
 Corona
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PARTS OF THE SUN
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Core
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Center of the Sun
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15 million degrees Celsius
Atmosphere
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3 layers
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Photosphere
 “Light”
 5000-8000 °C
 Inner Layer
 Makes light that reaches
Earth
 Part we see and look at
Chromosphere
 “Color”
 5000-10000 °C
 Middle layer of Sun’s
atmosphere
 Reddish glow
 Visible during a total solar
eclipse
Atmosphere
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Corona
 “ Crown”
 One million °C
 Outer layer of the Sun’s
atmosphere
 Special telescope needed to
view
 Sends out electrically
charged particles = Solar
winds
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When solar winds hit gas
molecules in the Earth’s
atmosphere at the poles, it
causes the molecules to
glow = Auroras.
FEATURES OF THE SUN
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Solar Flares
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Explosions
Burst of energy from the
Corona
Causes magnetic storms
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Prominences
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Disrupts radio, TV, telephone
signals
Huge arch of erupting gas
Comes from the chromosphere
Links sunspots
Sunspots
Areas of cooler gas in the sun’s
photosphere
 Look dark because they are
cooler
 Amount of them is not constant
 Affect Earth’s temperature
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Solar flare
Prominence
Sun Spot
Life cycle of our sun
We are now here.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. How many sections of the Sun’s atmosphere is
there?
2. What is the difference between a prominence
and a solar flare?
How long does it take light from the sun to reach
the Earth?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. How many sections of the Sun’s atmosphere is
there?
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3
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2. What is the difference between a prominence and a
solar flare?
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Photosphere “light”
Chromosphere “Color”
Corona “Crown”
Prominence is an arc of gas (both ends are on the sun).
Solar Flare is energy/gas shot out into space (leaves the
sun).
How long does it take light from the sun to reach the
Earth?
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It only takes about 8 minutes.
OUR SOLAR SYSTEM
SYSTEM
Tidal Theory
Least
Accepted
Near collisions of
Sun and large
star
Large star’s
gravity extracted
gases.
This mass orbited
sun, cooled,
condensed into nine
planets.
Condensation Theory
Greatly
Accepted
Began with a nebula
that shrunk to form
a spinning disk
Gravity pulled gas
into the center.
Gas became hot and
dense resulting in
nuclear fusion forming
the sun.
Remaining gas and dust
particles formed solid
spheres (planets).
Asteroids formed
between inner and outer
planets.
Huge clouds of ice, etc.
beyond the gas planets are
the main source of comets.
LOCATION
Heliocentric
Sun is at the center of
our solar system.
 Copernicus theorized.
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Geocentric
Earth is at the center
of the revolving
planets.
 Ptolemy theorized.
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PLANETS
INNER
PLANETS
OUTER
PLANETS
*Terrestrial/Rocky
Surfaces
* Gas giants
* Relatively small
Revolve
* Relatively close
together
Rotate
* Inside of Asteroid
belt
* Small portion of
solar system
* Relatively large
* Relatively far apart
* Relatively far from the
sun
* Outside of asteroid belt
* Partly solid core of rocks,
ice, frozen CO²
* Slushy surface formed by
the gaseous atmosphere
ALL ABOUT THE
PLANETS
INNER PLANETS
Planet
Type
Composition
Size
Rings
Special
Features
Moons
Mercury
Terrestri
al/Inner
Iron, nickel
core; rocky
surface
Small
No
No atmosphere
Extremely hot and
cold
None
Venus
Terrestri
al/Inner
Iron, nickel
core; rocky
surface
Small
No
Its day is longer
than its year.
Retrograde rotation
Cloudy days
“Earth’s twin”
None
Earth
Terrestri
al/Inner
Iron, nickel
core; rocky
surface
Small
No
Home
One
Mars
Terrestri
al/Inner
Iron, nickel
core; rocky
surface
Small
No
“Red Planet”
1% Earth’s pressure
Polar ice
Has seasons
Two
OUTER PLANETS
Planet
Type
Composition
Size
Ring
s
Special Features
Moons
Jupiter
Gas Giant/
Outer
Atmosphere similar
to sun
Solid core made of
iron, nickel, ice,
frozen CO2
Large
Yes
Great Red spot (storm)
Strong gravitational pull
Largest planet
Most massive (2x mass of all
the planets)
17
Lo, Europa,
Ganymede,
Callisto
Saturn
Gas Giant/
Outer
Evidence of solid
core made partly of
iron
Slushy surface
Large
Yes
2nd largest
Least dense (would float in
water)
Thick atmosphere made of H
and He
At least
19
Uranus
Gas Giant/
Outer
Evidence of solid
core made partly of
iron
Slushy surface
Large
Yes
Rotates top to bottom
Featureless blue atmosphere
caused by Methane gas
17
Neptune
Gas Giant/
Outer
Evidence of solid
core made partly of
iron
Slushy surface
Large
Yes
Atmosphere contains visible
clouds.
“Great dark spot” seems to
have clouds and storms that
come and go.
8
Pluto
Neither
Surface is gasses
frozen into ice
Rocky
Very
small
(may be
too
small to
be a
planet)
No
Possible escaped moon of
Pluto
1 revolution around moon
takes 249 years.
Orbit crosses inside.
Neptune’s
May be double planet rather
then a planet and its moon
1
named
Charon
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PLANETS around other stars
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Glare from other stars block our views
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/s
cience/fomalhaut.html
ARE THERE MORE
PLANETS OUT THERE?
Can be detected by the effect of the
planet’s gravity on the motion of the
star it revolves around
 The smaller the planet, the harder it
is to detect due to a lower force of
gravitational pull.
 Astronomers are currently researching
better ways to see these planets
directly.
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KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. Compare the Heliocentric and Geocentric
theories of the solar system.
2. What is the difference between a terrestrial
and gas planet?
3. List the planets according to their distance
from the sun.
4. How do astronomers locate other planets
outside our solar system?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. Compare the Heliocentric and Geocentric theories of the
solar system.
Heliocentric – planets orbit the Sun
 Geocentric – planets orbit the Earth
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2. What is the difference between a terrestrial and gas
planet?
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Terrestrial planet – small, rocky, inner solar system
Gas planet – large, gaseous, outer solar system
3. List the planets according to their distance from the Sun.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
Neptune, Pluto (though just taken off the list)
 My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas
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4. How do astronomers locate other planets outside our
solar system?
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Can be detected by the effect of the planet’s gravity on the
motion of the star it revolves around
WHAT ELSE IS IN OUR
SOLAR SYSTEM?
COMETS
ASTEROIDS, COMETS
AND METEORS
Asteroids
* “Minor planets”
* Irregular shapes
* Large pieces of planets
that never formed
* Located in Asteroid Belt
between Mars & Jupiter
Comets
* Relatively small
* “Dirty snowball”
* Small core yet large
mass
* Have distinct parts
(tail, coma)
* Mixture of frozen
gases, water, dust
particles
Meteors
May orbit * Small
the sun
* “Shooting star”
May be
visible
* Contain metal
*Meteorite = strikes
earth
* Meteor showers = 60
meteors per hour
ASTEROIDS
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Large rocky fragments that
orbit the sun
May be bits of planets that
never formed
Found in all parts of our solar
system
Most predominant area =
asteroid belt between Mars and
Jupiter
Irregular shape = not round
like a planet
Theory that an asteroid struck
the earth causing a large cloud
of dust which blocker the
sunlight and caused the
extinction of animals
(dinosaurs) and plants
Asteroid Ida and the tiny moon Dactyl
COMETS
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Nickname “Dirty
snowball”
Orbit around the sun
Some return; others have a
single revolution.
 Halley’s Comet – returns
every 76 years
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Contains 3 parts
Core – center only a few
km
 Coma – cloud of gas and
dust surrounding core
 Tail – gases and dust
given off; always points
away from sun
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Halley’s
Comet…next seen in
2062
METEORS
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Known as a “shooting
star”
3 terms to know
Meteoroids – made of
rock and metal in space
 Meteor – meteoroid that
burns up in the Earth’s
atmosphere creating a
streak of light
 Meteorite – a meteoroid
that does not burn up in
the Earth’s atmosphere
and strikes earth
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can leave a crater on
Earth’s surface
BARRINGER METEOR CRATER,
ARIZONA
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. What are comets made of?
2. Where is the asteroid belt located in our solar
system?
3. What is the difference among a meteor,
meteorite, and meteoroid?
4. Which can be seen from Earth: Comet,
Meteorite, Asteroid?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
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1. What are comets made of?
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2. Where is the asteroid belt located in our solar system?
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Ice, rock and cosmic dust
Between Mars and Jupiter
3. What is the difference among a meteor, meteorite, and
meteoroid?
Meteoroids – made of rock and metal in space
Meteor – meteoroid that burns up in the earth’s atmosphere
creating a streak of light
 Meteorite – a meteoroid that does not burn up in the earth’s
atmosphere and strikes earth
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4. Which can be seen from Earth: Comet, Meteorite,
Asteroid?
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Comet and Meteorite/meteor
SOME IMPORTANT FACTS……
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Third Planet from the Sun

Diameter at the Equator
7,926 miles
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Equatorial circumference
24, 902.4 miles
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Distance from Sun
93 million miles
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Length of Day
24 hrs

Revolution Period about the Sun
365 days 5 hrs
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Surface Temperature
-128° F to 136° F
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Moons
1 (the Moon)
REVOLUTION AND
ROTATION
REVOLUTION
 A circle path around
the sun
 One revolution around
the sun equals 365
days.
 This revolution causes
the changing of the
seasons.

http://kids.msfc.nasa.gov/earth
/seasons/EarthSeasons.asp
REVOLUTION AND
ROTATION
ROTATION
Complete spin on the axis
of the planet
One rotation takes 24
hours for completion.
The Earth spins at a speed
of 67,000 miles an hour.
When spinning, only one
side of the Earth faces the
sun.
Daytime = Our part of the
world faces the Sun
Night time = Our side of
the Earth is away from the
sun







The direction of rotation of the
Earth can be thought of as (a)
counterclockwise at the north pole,
or (b) from left to right (eastward) at
the Equator.
THE MOON
Natural satellite of
the Earth
 Revolution = 27.3
days
 Same side always
faces the Earth.
 The moon does not
make its own light.
 8 phases of the moon
due to reflecting
sunlight

This complete cycle of the
moon’s phases takes 29.5 days.
TIDES AND THE MOON




A change in the level of
ocean water
Occurs at regular intervals
Caused by the pull of
gravity between the moon
and the Earth
High Tide


Low Tide


Water pulled onto the shore
when the Earth faces directly
toward or away from the moon
Simultaneously water is pulled
away from the shore at points
not pulled by the moon at that
moment
There are 4 tides per day.

about every 6 hours
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE
SUN, MOON, & EARTH
SOLAR ECLIPSE
Moon casts a shadow
on the Earth.
 Only happens during
the new moon phase
 Order = Sun, Moon,
Earth

LUNAR ECLIPSE
Earth casts a shadow
on the moon.
 Only happens when
the moon is full
 Order = Sun, Earth,
Moon

KNOWLEDGE CHECK




1. What is the difference between a rotation and
revolution? What do each determine?
2. During the moon phases, which terms are used
to tell if you are seeing more or less of the moon?
3. How does the moon affect the Earth’s tides?
4. What is the sequence of both a lunar and solar
eclipse? (Sun, Moon, Earth)
KNOWLEDGE CHECK

1. What is the difference between a rotation and revolution?
What do each determine?



2. During the moon phases, which terms are used to tell if you
are seeing more or less of the moon?



Waxing – see more of the moon (gets bigger – new moon to full moon)
Waning – see less of the moon (gets smaller – full moon to new moon)
3. How does the moon affect the Earth’s tides?


Rotation – spin on its axis (causes day and night)
Revolution – orbit around the sun (causes the seasons)
Pull of gravity between the moon and the Earth
4. What is the sequence of both a lunar and solar eclipse?
(Sun, Moon, Earth)


Solar Eclipse = Sun, Moon, Earth
Lunar Eclipse = Sun, Earth, Moon
IF SPACE IS SO BIG, HOW DO WE
KNOW ABOUT ALL OF THIS?
SPACE MEASURMENTS



Using a ruler in space to
measure things is out of the
question.
Special “space” units needed to
be invented when measuring
distances in space
AU = Astronomical Unit

1 AU = 93 million miles


LY = Light Year

Distance light travels in one
year


Mean distance to the sun
9.5 trillion km
Parsec

Used to measure interstellar
distance

3.26 LY = 19.2 trillion miles

Something to think about...
The universe is about 13.7
billion years old.
 Therefore, light reaching
us from the earliest
known galaxies has been
travelling for more than
13 billion years.
 So one might assume that
the radius of the universe
is 13.7 billion light-years
and that the whole
shebang is double that, or
27.4 billion light-years
wide.

http://www.space.com/scienc
eastronomy/mystery_mon
day_040524.html
DEVICES USED TO COLLECT DATA
OPTICAL TELESCOPES
REFRACTING



Galileo Galilei was the first to
put them to scientific use.
REFLECTING

Sir Isaac Newton developed this.

Focuses light using mirrors.
Uses lenses
Works just like a magnifying
glass
Vienna
MMT – Mt. Hopkins, AZ
DEVICES USED TO COLLECT
DATA
RADIO TELESCOPE



Collect invisible radio waves
created by stars
Uses a curved reflector or dish
Advantages
 Use them 24/7
 Use in all weather
 Dust, etc. does not interfere
 Can see great distances
OTHER TELESCOPES
Detect infrared
radiation
 Detect ultraviolet
radiation
 Detect X-Rays
 Detect Gamma Rays

DEVICES USED TO COLLECT DATA
Spectroscope
Separates white light
into different colors
due to wavelengths
 Can infer which
elements are present
by the colors of the
spectrums they absorb

Satellites
Used to hold
telescopes above the
Earth’s atmosphere
 Atmosphere blocks
most UV radiation, Xrays, and gamma
rays.
 Hubble Space
Telescope

KNOWLEDGE CHECK




1. List three units of measurement used in space?
2. What is the difference between a reflective and
refractive telescope?
3. What is an advantage in using radio
telescopes?
4. How does a spectroscope determine elements
found in space?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK

1. List three units of measurement used in space?




2. What is the difference between a reflective and refractive
telescope?




AU - Astronomical Unit
LY = Light Year
Parsec
Reflective - Uses lenses
Refractive - Focuses light using mirrors
3. What is an advantage in using radio telescopes?
 Use them 24/7
 Use in all weather
 Dust, etc. does not interfere
 Can see great distances
4. How does a spectroscope determine elements found in space?

Identifies the colors given off by specific elements found in objects
LET’S GO EXPLORE
SPACE EXPLORATION TIMELINE
AD 140
Ptolemy –
Geocentric system
1967
Jocelyn Bell –
Discovered “little
green men” known as
pulsars.
1969
Apollo 11USA puts first
man on the moon.
Early 1500s
Copernicus –
Heliocentric
System
1961
USSR puts first
man in space.
1970s
USA launches a
series of probes
including Venera 7,
Viking, Voyagers and
Skylab.
Early 1600s
Galileo –
Observed solar
system with telescope
1957
USSR launches
Sputnik – 1st
artificial satellite.
1980s
Data received
from probes.
Late 1600s
Newton –
Invented
reflection
telescope
1930
Pluto
1990s
Joint cooperation
between US and
Russia – ISS
(international space
station)
SPACE EXPLORATION TIMELINE
(SPACE EXPLORATION BEGAN WHEN THE SOVIET UNION SENT
SPUTNIK 1 INTO SPACE)
1950s – 1960s






1957 – Sputnik 1 Soviet
Union; 1st artificial satellite
1961 – 1st man in space, Yuri
Gagarin, Soviet Union
1961 – 1st US citizen in space,
Alan Shepard
1962 – 1st US citizen to orbit
Earth, John Glenn
1962- Mariner 2, first
successful planetary probe
1969 – Apollo 11 landed on
the moon; Neil Armstrong 1st
man to walk on moon, Edwin
Aldrin 2nd man
1970s

1970 – Venera 7 probe to Venus

1972 – Apollo program ended.






1972 – First probe to encounter
Jupiter; sent back photos and
data
1973 – Skylab was launched.
1975 – Viking 1; orbiter mapped
Martian surface, lander searched
for life on the surface.
1977 – Voyagers 1 and 2
launched.
1979 – Skylab fell out of sky;
burned up in atmosphere
1979 – Both voyagers found
rings, discovered 3 moons, and
erupting volcanoes on Lo.
SPACE EXPLORATION TIMELINE
(SPACE EXPLORATION BEGAN WHEN THE SOVIET UNION SENT
SPUTNIK 1 INTO SPACE)
1980s




1980 – Voyager 1 revealed
the complexity of Saturn’s
rings.
1986 – Voyager 2, Uranus;
discovered 10 new moons,
found no storm systems or
cloud band on planet
1989 – Voyager 2, Neptune;
discovered huge storm
systems, 6 new moons, and
rings, found geyser on Triton
1990s – 2000s





1989 – Galileo launched.


1993 – Mars observer lost in
space.
1991 – Magellan; Venus
1995 – US and Russia work
cooperatively; Dr. Thagard was
the first US astronaut resident on
the Russian space station, Mir;
Russian cosmonaut rode the
space shuttle Atlantis.
1996 – Global Surveyor and
Pathfinder launchings
1997 – Cassini; destination is
Saturn.
1999 – Galileo studied Europa.
2003 – Projected completion of
the International Space Station
WHAT’S IN THE FUTURE?





Fly the shuttle as safely as
possible until 2010
Complete the ISS
(targeting 2010) – 6-person
crew by 2009
Align science, exploration,
and aeronautics to support
human space flight
Bring the new Crew
Exploration Vehicle – CEV
– on line (2010-2014)
Establish a lunar program
that informs future
missions to Mars and other
destinations



Understand our Sun and
its effects on Earth and the
solar system
Changes in solar activity
influence Earth by
disrupting
telecommunications,
damaging satellites and
power grids, and
threatening astronauts
Monitoring solar winds,
magnetic field, and impact
on Earth’s magnetic field
KNOWLEDGE CHECK




1. What event was considered the start of space
exploration?
2. Who was the first man in space?
3. What planets did Voyagers 1 and 2 gather
information about?
4. What are two future goals of the space
program?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK

1. What event was considered the start of space
exploration?



2. Who was the first man in space?
 Yuri Gagarin, Soviet Union
3. What planets did Voyagers 1 and 2 gather
information about?


The launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
4. What are two future goals of the space program?
Utilize the moon as a platform for future mission to Mars
 Understand the Sun and its effect on Earth


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