Taguchi, Yoshihisa

Report
Conference in Evolutionary Linguistics 2012
On the Phylogeny of
the Hmong-Mien languages
Yoshihisa Taguchi
田口善久
(Chiba University, 千葉大学)
The Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao) languages
1. Introduction
• This is a preliminary report on the phylogeny of the
Hmong-Mien languages.
• This study explores the phylogeny of Hmong-Mien
primarily based on lexical evidence but also seeks
further support from phonological evidence.
• We will focus on the phylogeny of the Hmongic
languages in this presentation.
2. Previous studies
Purnell (1970)
• The first serious study on Hmong-Mien phylogeny
Figure 1. Hmongic phylogeny by Purnell (1970: 40)
Wang Fushi (1983)
“On the dialect division of Miao language”
“苗语方言划分问题”
• He classified the languages spoken by the ethnic Miao into three
dialects based on their phonological characteristics. The term “three
major dialects of Miao” has been often used for designating major
subgroups of the Miao language.
Wang
黔东方言
湘西方言
川黔滇方言
:Purnell
:Eastern Miao (E)
:Northern Miao (N)
:Western Miao and Central (W)
Strecker (1987)
Figure 2. Strecker’s classification of Hmong-Mien (Adapted from 1987)
Wang and Mao (1995)
Figure 3. Classification of Wang and Mao (Adapted from 1995: 2-3)
Major issues for discussion
(1) The three Miao languages (E, N, W) are considered to
be sisters of equal level.
(2) The positions of Pa Hng(巴哼), Kiong Nai(炯奈), and Ho
Ne(畲) are controversial.
(3) The overall classification is mainly constructed according
to the authors’ impression, without supporting evidence,
or the supporting evidence fails to distinguish innovations
and retentions.
Deng and Wang (2003)
Figure 4. Phylogeny of Hmong-Mien in Deng and Wang (2003)
3. Method of analysis
A method of computer-based lexicostatistics that utilizes
Bayesian inference is used. The software used in this study
was Mrbayes (http://mrbayes.sourceforge.net/index.php).
• It is a character-based method.
• It identifies the best trees with credibility scores.
• Its validity has been widely acknowledged in linguistics
and biology (Gray and Atkinson 2003, Greenhill and
Gray 2009)
Table 1. Data points and sources
Name of lect
Data point
Source
1
Hmu, Qiandong 黔东dialect of Miao
Yanghao 养蒿, Guizhou
Wang 1985
2
Sichuan-Guizhou-Yunnan, Chuanqiandian 川黔滇 subdialect of
Chuanqiandian dialect, Hmong
Dananshan 大南山, Guizhou
Wang 1985
3
Qo Xiong, Xiangxi 湘西dialect
Jiwei 吉卫, Hunan
Wang 1985
4
Luobo river, Luobohe 罗 泊 河 subdialect of Chuanqiandian
dialect, Hmyo
Gaozhai 高寨, Guizhou
Taguchi 2008
5
Pu Nu, Bunu 布努 dialect of Bunu
Qibainong七百弄, Guangxi
Meng 2001
6
Nao Klao, Baonao 包瑙dialect of Bunu
Lihu里湖, Guangxi
Meng 2001
7
Pa Hng, Baheng 巴哼
Wenjie 文界, Guangxi
Mao and Li 1997
8
Kiong Nai, Jiongnai 炯奈
Longhua 龙华, Guangxi
Mao and Li 2005
9
Ho Ne, She畬
Duozhu 多祝, Guangdong
Mao and Meng 1986
10
Mien, Guangdian 广滇vernacular of Mian dialect
Jiangdi江底, Guangxi
Mao 2004
11
Mien, Xiangnan 湘南vernacular of Mian dialect
Miaoziyuan庙子源, Hunan
Mao 2004
12
Changping 长坪vernacular of Mian dialect
Changping长坪, Guangxi
Mao 2004
13
Luoxiang 罗香vernacular of Mian dialect
Luoxiang 罗香, Guangxi
Mao 2004
14
Biao Min, Dongshan 东山vernacular of Biao Min dialect
Dongshan 东山, Guangxi
Mao 2004
15
Chao Kong Meng, Shikou 石口vernacular of, Biao Min dialect
Shikou 石口, Guangxi
Mao 2004
16
Kim Mun, Diangui 滇桂vernacular of Jinmen dianlect
Liangzi梁子, Guangdong
Mao 2004
17
Dzao Min, Zaomin 藻敏dialect
Daping 大坪, Guangdong
Mao 2004
18
Pana, Bana 巴那
Changanying长安营, Hunan
Chen
2001
(2001),
Taguchi
Target lects (languages/dialects)
(1) The lect is mentioned in the language list of Wang and
Mao (1995).
(2) Sufficient lexical data of the lect are available.
(3) Pana
18 lects of the Hmong-Mien languages
(10 lects of the Hmongic languages)
Data analysis
• Meaning list used: Culturally Appropriate Lexicostatistical
Model for South East Asia (CALMSEA) wordlist (Matisoff
1978). 210 meaning items.
• Cognacy decision: mostly based on Ratliff (2010)
Hmong-Mien language history.
• Loanword discrimination: based on Ratliff (2010)
Hmong-Mien language history.
• 493 characters for 18 lects.
Data file (part)
The conditions for calculation
•
•
•
•
•
The prior probability of each tree is the same.
The rate of change is the same for all the characters.
The number of generations to be calculated is 2 million.
Sampling rate is 100 generation.
The number of chains is four.
4. Calculation result
• The standard deviation of splits was 0.003.
• The value of the convergence diagnostic (potential scale
reduction factor) was 1.000.
• From the credible set of trees, 1218 trees were sampled.
The 90% credible set had 160 trees; the 95% credible
set had 316 trees, and the 99% credible set had 918
trees.
Figure 5. Consensus tree of Hmong-Mien
Figure 5. Consensus tree of Hmong-Mien (part)
5. Phylogeny of the Hmongic languages (1)
The consensus tree constructed by the algorithm supports
the findings of previous scholars:
• The closest relations between Hmong (川黔滇) and Hmyo (落
泊河) on the one hand (1.00), and Pu Nu (布努) and Nau Klau
(瑙格劳) on the other hand (1.00)
<Strecker 1987, Wang and Mao 1995>.
• The relatively close relationship among these four languages (0.99)
<Strecker 1987>
• The close relation between Kiong Nai (炯奈) and Ho Ne (畬)(0.97)
<Mao and Li 2002>.
5. Phylogeny of the Hmongic languages (1)
The consensus tree constructed by the algorithm supports
the findings of previous scholars:
• The closest relations between Hmong (川黔滇) and Hmyo (落泊河)
on the one hand (1.00), and Pu Nu (布努) and Nau Klau (瑙格劳) on
the other hand (1.00)
<Strecker 1987, Wang and Mao 1995>.
• The relatively close relationship among these four languages
(0.99) <Strecker 1987>
• The close relation between Kiong Nai (炯奈) and Ho Ne (畬)(0.97)
<Mao and Li 2002>.
Figure 5. Consensus tree of Hmong-Mien (part)
5. Phylogeny of the Hmongic languages (1)
The consensus tree constructed by the algorithm supports
the findings of previous scholars:
• The closest relations between Hmong (川黔滇) and Hmyo (落泊河)
on the one hand (1.00), and Pu Nu (布努) and Nau Klau (瑙格劳) on
the other hand (1.00)
<Strecker 1987, Wang and Mao 1995>.
• The relatively close relationship among these four languages (0.99)
<Strecker 1987>
• The close relation between Kiong Nai (炯奈) and Ho Ne
(畬)(0.97) <Mao and Li 2002>.
Figure 5. Consensus tree of Hmong-Mien (part)
5. Phylogeny of the Hmongic languages (2)
The consensus tree also reveals some new findings.
• The positions of Qo Xiong (湘西, Northern) and Pa Hng
(巴哼). The consensus tree suggests that these two
languages are positioned higher in the tree than other
languages.
• Concerning the position of Pa Hng, Benedict (1987),
Strecker (1987) and Niederer (2004) have argued that
Pa Hng may have been the first language to split off from
the Hmongic branch.
Figure 5. Consensus tree of Hmong-Mien (part)
5. Phylogeny of the Hmongic languages (2)
The consensus tree also reveals some new findings.
• The positions of Qo Xiong (湘西, Northen) and Pa Hng
(巴哼). The consensus tree suggests that these two
languages are positioned higher in the tree than other
languages.
• Concerning the position of Pa Hng, Benedict (1987),
Strecker (1987) and Niederer (2004) have argued that
Pa Hng may have been the first language to split off from
the Hmongic branch.
Niederer 2004: 137-138
Bran 糠
Thunder 雷
Thread 线
黔东 E
fha5
ho1
fh 3
湘西 N
sa5
so1
sa3
川黔滇 W
sua5
so1
so3
Ho Ne 畲
fui5
xu1
f 3
Pa Hng 巴哼
m e5
mpo1
mpo3
Iu Mien 勉
bje7
bwo4
-
Proto-HM
*mph-
*mp-
*mp-
5. Phylogeny of the Hmongic languages (3)
• Concerning the position of Qo Xiong (湘西, Northern),
Ratliff (2010) made an important finding that Qo Xiong
preserves some phonological distinctions that have been
lost in other Hmongic languages.
Proto-HmM
4
13
Hmongic
Qo Xiong
*at
>
*a
ei, i
*a
>
*a
ɑ
tone7 (< -p, -t, -k) >
*ow
u
tones1,3,4,5,6
*ow
ə
>
Figure 5. Consensus tree of Hmong-Mien (part)
Conclusions
• Pa Hng (巴哼) and Qo Xiong (湘西, N) are the first languages
to separate from the branch.
• The other languages are divided into three main groups: the
Western Hmongic group including Hmong, Hmyo, and two Pu
Nu languages; the Ho Ne group including Ho Ne, Kiong Nai,
and Pana; and Hmu (Qiandong). Thus, it is clear that the
previous classification “three major dialects of Miao” needs a
revision.
• Ho Ne (畬) should not be treated as comprising an
independent branch outside Hmongic. Rather, we recognize a
Ho Ne group (畬) inside Hmongic.
A Cladogram of Hmongic
Thank you
谢谢
Figure 6. Geographical distribution of Hmongic subgroups
Table 2. A classification of the Hmongic languages
Branch
Sub-Branch
Language
Hmongic
苗语支
Pahngic 巴哼语群
Pa Hng巴哼语
Northern Hmongic 北部苗语群
Qo Xiong 湘西苗语
Central Hmongic中部苗语群
Hmu 黔东苗语
Western Hmongic 西部苗语群
Hmong 川黔滇苗语
Hmyo 罗泊河苗语
Pu Nu 布努语
Nao Klao 瑙格劳语
Eastern Hmongic 东部苗语群, 畬语群
Kiong Nai 炯奈语
Ho Ne 畬语
Pana 巴那语
Previous Classifications

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