Application of Practical Knowledge Created by BU2 Collins NMCB 14 July 23, 2011 Application of Practical Knowledge The purpose of this lesson is to help you understand how the information you have learned relates into practical application of planning for a mission. Receiving of Mission You will receive a mission in the form of a Warning Order, Operation Order (OPORD), or Fragmentary Order (FRAGO). The only difference in these orders is the amount of information provided. Once you receive the mission the first thing you need to do is to plan. Receiving the Mission Your mission will be to monitor the town of Kyongha-ri for enemy activity. You will take a platoon to Grid 50356810 from your FOB at Sougjong-ni. You will report what you observe every other day for one week. You will need to leave in 5 days. Planning • • • • • • B-begin planning A-arrange for Recon M-make recon C-complete plan I-issue the order S-supervise Begin Planning • • • • • • M-mission E-enemy T-terrain and weather T-time T-troops and fire support (Higher, Adjacent Support) C-civilians Mission What is the unit’s mission? Move from your FOB at Songjong-ni to Grid 50356810. Observe the city of Kyongha-ri for enemy activity. Hold and observe for one week. Enemy • • • • • • S-size A-activity L-location U-unit/uniform T-time E-equipment Enemy Size- Uniformed and Resistance troops operating in platoon size groups. ActivityLocation- Patrols and ambushes of troops and convoys. Resistance aiding the regulars with medical aid and intel. Troops stick to the hgh ground. Uniformed troops stationed in the northern region of the country operating around the south. Resistance operating in both regions. Uniformed soldiers of a medium size army of 80,000 troops. Uniform/Unit- Time- Resistance army of locals being supplied by the regular army. Strength around 2,000,000. Daylight- ambush operations Night time- movement and resupply. Resupply by air and road. Equipment- Various small arms, RPGs, Heavy machine guns, light unarmored vehicles, and IEDs. Terrain and Weather • • • • • K-key terrain features O-obstacles C-cover and concealment O-observation/ fields of fire A-avenues of approach Terrain and Weather Key terrain features- Mountain 1276 between the FOB and the patrols operating base. Unimproved/ dirt road (Singhung Line) running parallel to the city. Changjin-gang River running parallel to the city. Steep valley sides to east of city and Area of Operation (AO). Boat docks up an down the river. Swamps and dense woodland along the mountains and valley. Terrain and Weather Obstacles- The Changjin-gang River has a depth of 3 feet at it’s shallowest. Hill 1276 east side is to steep for foot travel. The unimproved road does not travel directly to the platoons operation base and the woods are to thick for trucks. Foot travel will be needed. Cover and concealment- The operation base has light woodland surrounding the base. It will provide decent concealment. The surrounding area has little or no cover or concealment. Terrain and Weather Observation and fields of fire- Avenues of Approach- Weather- The little cover and concealment around the objective will allow for easy observation. The platoon base has two foot trails and the unimproved road within 100 to 150 meters. This will give jumping off points for any enemy troops wishing to attack the platoon. LPOPs will be needed to provide security. The platoon will be operating during the fall months. Temperature (average)- High 87 degrees Low- 42 degrees Precipitation (average)- 10 inches/ month Sunrise- 0700 Sunset- 1845 Time 2015 15OCT2011- returning to FOB from south 1830 15OCT2011- leave operation base for FOB 0700 8OCT2011- arrive at Grid 50356810 0500 8 OCT2011- leave FOB for Grid 5035610 0400 8OCT2011- assemble for last inspection 0800 7OCT2011- final inspection 0800 6OCT2011- final rehearsal 0900 5OCT2011- second rehearsal 0800 4OCT2011- issue of OPORD/ first rehearsal 1200 3OCT2011- map recon and photo recon/ first inspection 0800 3OCT2011- choose list of personnel to perform mission Troops and Fire Support Organic to the platoon: all three squads Three M240B machine guns and crews from weapons platoon One Forward Observer from 3rd Marine Division One corpsman from medical Air support from the 46th RAF fighter squadron Artillery support from the 3rd Marine Division Medivac provided from 506th Mobile Army Hospital Civilians The local population is around 10,000 men, women, and children. Most of the middle-age men have joined the resistance. Local economy is livestock and farming. River trade is common using barges. Population lives in framed houses using local lumber. Poverty is common but does not effect living conditions or health. Most of the population are familiar with English and most have at least a 4 grade education. Do not let the poverty fool you as the population is very smart. The resistance is very supportive of the government and army. Arrange for Recon At this stage we will request all available maps, photos, and local intel from the unit’s G-2 and supporting units G-2. If any patrols or convoys have traveled the area where the platoon will be traveling, their reports should be read for any information that could be useful. Make Recon and Coordination At this point we will go over the maps and photos and make a primary route and alternate route. Also, any other plans you need should be formed at this time. Coordination with higher units and with supporting units should be made at this time. Especially if any troops are to be pulled from other units they need time to practice with your platoon and to get their equipment ready. Complete the Plan Any changes to intel or operations should have been found by now and changes made to the plan. Issue the Order At this time an Operation Order will be given to the platoon to prepare. The format for all orders will be SMEAC. S-situation M-mission E-execution A-admin and logistics C-command and control Issue the Order- Situation Paragraph 1.a. Enemy Forces contains information about the enemy that affects the operation, such as their locations, dispositions, strength, activities, and capabilities. Paragraph 1.b. Friendly Forces contains a statement of the mission of the next higher unit; the location and planned actions of the unit on the right and left; the fire support available for the patrol; and the mission and route of other patrols. Paragraph 1.c. Attachments and Detachments contains a list of nonorganic units attached to, and organic units detached from, the command for the specific operation. It includes the date/time the attachment or detachment is to take place. *These paragraphs contain information only, not plans or orders. Issue the Order- Mission This paragraph contains a concise statement of the mission, its purpose, and of the command as a whole. It includes “what,” “how,” “where,” and as much of “why” as maybe proper. There are no subparagraphs. Issue the Order- Execution This section assigns definite tasks to each element of the command, organic and attached, that contributes to carrying out the overall mission. No restrictions are set on the number of subparagraphs. Paragraphs 3.a. Concept of Operations is a clear, concise summary of how the commander visualizes the operation should be conducted. This is an enlargement of the decision contained in the commander’s estimate. This paragraph should be as brief as possible; but it may be published as an annex or shown on an operation overlay when it is lengthy or detailed. When an overlay is used, it need not be written. When an overlay or annex is used, this paragraph makes reference to it. Paragraphs 3.b., 3.c., and so forth (tasks for subordinate units) are assigned separate subparagraphs lettered in alphabetical sequence to each major subordinate element. These subparagraphs correspond to the alphabetical listings in the task organization. Except as outlined below, all instructions to any unit having a tactical mission should appear in the subparagraph of paragraph 3 about that unit. Subparagraphs that assign tasks to other combat and combat support elements (if applicable) should follow. The final subparagraph of paragraph 3, always entitled Coordinating Instructions, contains the details of coordination and the control measures that apply to the command as a whole; for example, objectives, comments, qualifying time of attack line of departure, boundaries, beaches, bombline, and reference to march table annex. Many of these and other instructions that apply to two or more elements of the command maybe indicated in an attached overlay. In this case, they need not be repeated here. In this paragraph essential elements of information might be included (unless an intelligence annex is issued). Examples are operational reports to be submitted, if not set forth elsewhere by written order, preparatory fire information, and the effective time of the order. Issue the OrderAdministration and Logistics This paragraph contains administrative and logistic instructions, when an administrative order is not issued. When an order is issued, this paragraph refers to that order. In a small command, such as a Naval Mobile Construction Battalion, this paragraph contains all the necessary information and instructions about rations, arms and ammunition, uniform and equipment, EPW, supply, evacuation, hospitalization, transportation, service, personnel, and similar matters. Issue the Order- Command and Control This paragraph contains instructions about the command, command relationships, and the operations of communications and electronics. Paragraph 5.a. Signal may refer to a standard plan or to a communications annex if one has been issued. When a communications annex has not been issued, paragraph 5a should contain references to the index of communications instructions (COI) currently in effect, instructions on the use of radio and pyrotechnics, and restrictions on the use of any means of communication. Paragraph 5.b. Command gives the location of the command post of the issuing unit and those of subordinate units, when they are known. When the 11-38 location of the command post or subordinate units is unknown, instructions about the reporting of command posts when opened maybe included. Paragraph 5.c. This subparagraph shows the axis of communications (indicated by successive tentative command post locations) and the location and time of opening of the message centers. Also, subparagraphs may be included about recognition and identification instructions, electronic policy, code words, liaison, and command relationships. Most items in paragraph 5 can usually be shown graphically on the operation map or overlay. When this is done, they need not be repeated in writing. Issue the Order- Annexes Annexes to OPORDs include those used for purposes of brevity, clarity, and simplicity (for example, maps and overlays). Annexes may also be used to amplify an order when the volume is too great to be included in the order itself. Annexes are issued to all units whose actions or movements are affected by the information and instructions they contain. Sample Annexes (as applicable): B- Concept of Operations C- Intelligence D-Training E- Construction Tasks F- Communications I- Civic Action O- Logistics (resupply) P- Admin and Personnel R- Reports S- Safety T- Medical and Dental U- Disaster Control V- Public Affairs X- Contingency Planning Y- Distribution Z- Record of Changes Supervise Here you will supervise the rehearsals and then conduct the mission.