Bones, Part 1: The Appendicular Skeleton

Report
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by Leslie Hendon,
University of Alabama,
Birmingham
8
HUMAN
ANATOMY
fifth edition
MARIEB | MALLATT | WILHELM
PART 1
Bones,
Part 1: The
Appendicular
Skeleton
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral girdle
 Attaches the upper limbs to the trunk

Pelvic girdle
 Attaches the lower limbs to the trunk

Upper and lower limbs differ in function
 Share the same structural plan
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Pectoral Girdle


Consists of the clavicle and the scapula
Pectoral girdles do not quite encircle the body
completely
 Medial end of each clavicle articulates with the
manubrium and first rib
 Laterally – the ends of the clavicles join the
scapulae
 Scapulae do not join each other or the axial
skeleton
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Pectoral Girdle


Provides attachment for many muscles that move
the upper limb
Girdle is very light and upper limbs are mobile
 Only clavicle articulates with the axial skeleton
 Socket of the shoulder joint (glenoid cavity) is
shallow
 Good for flexibility – bad for stability
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Articulated Pectoral Girdle
PLAY
Shoulder
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.1a
Clavicles



Extend horizontally across the superior thorax
Sternal end articulates with the manubrium
Acromial end articulates with scapula
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Clavicles
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.1b, c
Clavicles



PLAY
Provide attachment for muscles
Hold the scapulae and arms laterally
Transmit compression forces from the upper limbs
to the axial skeleton
Shoulder
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Scapulae



Lie on the dorsal surface of the rib cage
Located between ribs 2 – 7
Have three borders
 Superior
 Medial (vertebral)
 Lateral (axillary)

Have three angles
 Lateral, superior, and inferior
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Structures of the Scapula
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.2a
Structures of the Scapula
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.2b
Structures of the Scapula
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.2c
The Upper Limb


30 bones form each upper limb
Grouped into bones of the
 Arm
 Forearm
 Hand
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Arm


Region of the upper limb between the shoulder
and elbow
Humerus
 The only bone of the arm
 Longest and strongest bone of the upper limb
 Articulates with the scapula at the shoulder
 Articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Arm

Humerus
 Many structures of the humerus provide sites for
muscle attachment
 Other structures of the humerus provide
articulation sites for other bones
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Structures of the Humerus of the Right Arm
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.3a, b
Forearm



PLAY
Formed from the radius and ulna
Proximal ends articulate with the humerus
Distal ends articulate with carpals
Elbow
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Forearm

Radius and ulna articulate with each other
 At the proximal and distal radioulnar joints

The interosseous membrane
 Interconnects radius and ulna

In anatomical position
 The radius is lateral and the ulna is medial
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Details of Arm and Forearm
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.5a
Ulna




Main bone responsible for forming the elbow joint
with the humerus
Hinge joint allows forearm to bend on arm
Distal end is separated from carpals by
fibrocartilage
Plays little to no role in hand movement
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Proximal Part of the Ulna
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.5b
Radius and Ulna
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.4a, b
Radius



Superior surface of the head of the radius
articulates with the capitulum
Medially – the head of the radius articulates with
the radial notch of the ulna
Contributes heavily to the wrist joint
 Distal radius articulates with carpal bones
 When radius moves, the hand moves with it
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Distal Ends of the Radius and Ulna
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.5c
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by Leslie Hendon,
University of Alabama,
Birmingham
8
HUMAN
ANATOMY
fifth edition
MARIEB | MALLATT | WILHELM
PART 2
Bones,
Part 1: The
Appendicular
Skeleton
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Hand

Includes the following bones
 Carpus – wrist
 Metacarpals – palm
 Phalanges – fingers
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Carpus



Forms the true wrist – the proximal region of the
hand
Gliding movements occur between carpals
Composed of eight marble-sized bones
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Carpus

Carpal bones
 Are arranged in two irregular rows
 Proximal row from lateral to medial
 Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform
 Distal row from lateral to medial
 Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate
 A mnemonic to help remember carpals
 Sally left the party to take Carmen home
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Hand
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.7a, b
Metacarpus


Five metacarpals radiate distally from the wrist
Metacarpals form the palm
 Numbered 1–5, beginning with the pollex (thumb)
 Articulate proximally with the distal row of carpals
 Articulate distally with the proximal phalanges
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Phalanges


Numbered 1–5, beginning with the pollex (thumb)
Except for the thumb, each finger has three
phalanges
 Proximal, middle, and distal
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Table 8.1 (1 of 2)
Pelvic Girdle




Attaches lower limbs to the spine
Supports visceral organs
Attaches to the axial skeleton by strong ligaments
Acetabulum is a deep cup that holds the head of
the femur
 Lower limbs have less freedom of movement
 Are more stable than the arm
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pelvic Girdle



PLAY
Consists of paired hip bones (coxal bones)
Hip bones unite anteriorly with each other
Articulates posteriorly with the sacrum
Hip
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bony Pelvis


A deep, basin-like structure
Formed by
 Coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bony Pelvis
PLAY
Pelvis
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.8a
Coxal Bones

Consist of three separate bones in childhood
 Ilium, ischium, and pubis


Bones fuse – retain separate names to regions of
the coxal bones
Acetabulum
 A deep hemispherical socket on lateral pelvic
surface
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Ilium




Large, flaring bone
Forms the superior region of the coxal bone
Site of attachment for many muscles
Articulation with the sacrum forms sacroiliac joint
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Ischium



Forms posteroinferior region of the coxal bone
Anteriorly – joins the pubis
Ischial tuberosities
 Are the strongest part of the hip bone
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pubis



Forms the anterior region of the coxal bone
Lies horizontally in anatomical position
Pubic symphysis
 The two pubic bones are joined by fibrocartilage at
the midline
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Lateral and Medial Views of the Hip Bone
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.8b, c
True and False Pelves

Bony pelvis is divided into two regions
 False (greater) pelvis – bounded by alae of the iliac
bones
 True (lesser) pelvis – inferior to pelvic brim
 Forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
True and False Pelves
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.9b
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by Leslie Hendon,
University of Alabama,
Birmingham
8
HUMAN
ANATOMY
fifth edition
MARIEB | MALLATT | WILHELM
PART 3
Bones,
Part 1: The
Appendicular
Skeleton
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Pelvic Structures and Childbearing

Major differences between male and female pelves
 Female pelvis is adapted for childbearing
 Pelvis is lighter, wider, and shallower than in the
male
 Provides more room in the true pelvis
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Female and Male Pelves
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Table 8.2 (1 of 2)
Female and Male Pelves
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Table 8.2 (2 of 2)
The Lower Limb



Carries the entire weight of the erect body
Bones of lower limb are thicker and stronger than
those of upper limb
Divided into three segments
 Thigh, leg, and foot
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Thigh


The region of the lower limb between the hip and
the knee
Femur – the single bone of the thigh
 Longest and strongest bone of the body
 Ball-shaped head articulates with the acetabulum
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Structures of the Femur
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.10b
Patella




Triangular sesamoid bone
Imbedded in the tendon that secures the
quadriceps muscles
Protects the knee anteriorly
Improves leverage of the thigh muscles across the
knee
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Leg


Refers to the region of the lower limb between the
knee and the ankle
Composed of the tibia and fibula
 Tibia – more massive medial bone of the leg
 Receives weight of the body from the femur
 Fibula – stick-like lateral bone of the leg

Interosseous membrane
 Connects the tibia and fibula
PLAY
Knee
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Leg

Tibia articulates with femur at superior end
 Forms the knee joint

Tibia articulates with talus at the inferior end
 Forms the ankle joint

Fibula does not contribute to the knee joint
 Stabilizes the ankle joint
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Structures of the Tibia and Fibula
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.11a, b
The Foot

Foot is composed of
 Tarsus, metatarsus, and the phalanges

Important functions
 Supports body weight
 Acts as a lever to propel body forward when
walking
 Segmentation makes foot pliable and adapted to
uneven ground
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Tarsus



Makes up the posterior half of the foot
Contains seven bones called tarsals
Body weight is primarily borne by the talus and
calcaneus
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Metatarsus



Consists of five small long bones called
metatarsals
Numbered 1–5 beginning with the hallux
(great toe)
First metatarsal supports body weight
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Phalanges of the Toes

14 phalanges of the toes
 Smaller and less nimble than those of the fingers
 Structure and arrangement are similar to phalanges
of fingers
 Except for the great toe, each toe has three
phalanges
 Proximal, middle, and distal
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bones of the Foot
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.12a
Bones of the Foot
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.12b
Bones of the Foot
PLAY
Bones of the Foot
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.12c
Arches of the Foot

Foot has three important arches
 Medial and lateral longitudinal arch
 Transverse arch

Arches are maintained by
 Interlocking shapes of tarsals
 Ligaments and tendons
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Arches of the Foot
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.13
Lower Limb and Pelvis
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Table 8.1 (2 of 2)
Disorders of the Appendicular Skeleton


Bone fractures
Hip dysplasia
 Head of the femur slips out of acetabulum

Clubfoot
 Soles of the feet turn medially
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Appendicular Skeleton Throughout Life

Growth of the appendicular skeleton
 Increases height
 Changes body proportions

Upper-lower body ratio changes with age
 At birth head and trunk are 1.5 times as long as
lower limbs
 Lower limbs grow faster than the trunk
 Upper-lower body ratio of 1 to 1 by age 10
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Changes in Body Proportions
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 8.14
The Appendicular Skeleton Throughout Life

Few changes occur in adult skeleton until middle
age, when
 Skeleton loses mass
 Osteoporosis and limb fractures become more
common
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

similar documents