VCS 2007 Hot Topics in Technology: The Growing Technological Divide Florida International University Erika Glenn, Team Leader Jennifer Fransen Neudy Nunez Tanika Mangum "Recent research has shown, however, that individuals charged with providing student services in face-to-face settings-typically student affairs professionals-are not being well prepared to deal with the challenges of integrating technology and online learners into their work." We have selected this quote to highlight the importance of technological advances and to emphasize the need for preparedness within the field of student affairs. Schuh, H., John. (2005, October). Learning About Technology and Student Affairs: Outcomes of an Online Immersion. Journal of College Student Development, 547(2), 554. • • • • • • 232 Million Americans use the Internet 90% of college students own a PC 90% of college students have cell phones In 2005, 10 Million iPods were sold 85% of students are on Facebook.com You Tube users watch more than 100 million videos daily and 65,000 videos are uploaded daily Retrieved February 15, 2007 from http://www.ask.com • The rate of technology usage of our students is increasing at paramount rates and is changing the ways in which the university communicates with its student population • Rather than attending class to stay current with class content, students are able to view class content via the world wide web and internet databases such as blogs and webposts. • When weather is cold and or transportation is limited, students can communicate with friends with the click of a button via online communities (i.e. Facebook and MySpace) • While viewed as an innovative creation, the expansion of online communications has also caused a technological divide • As not all of these recent technological advances are user friendly a dividing line has developed between skillful internet users (students) and uniformed administrators • As administration has not become fully aware of the growing technology that are students are familiarized with, issues such as increased case load in offices of student conduct, revisions of institutional student codes of conduct, increased regulation of online usage and institutional server crashes have surfaced and become commonplace • These issues have transformed the way in which learning is facilitated, information is transmitted, the modes in which communication is promoted within institutions of higher education • As the rate of student online activity continues to rise, it is obvious that student affairs professionals and administrators will need to adapt and become educated on the mediums that dominate technology • The modes of technology which domineering at the moment are: » » » » » Blogs Institutional Spam Graphical & Digital Interfaces Online Communities Music Downloads & Video Uploads • These topics are the issues that higher education administrators across the United States are facing and represent the focus and activity of the current student population Administrators for Technological Advancement • Documents such as Learning Reconsidered suggest that administrators must be equipped to meet the challenges and student interests and must be able to understand student activity • Seeking to align the Division of Student Affairs at Florida International University with this mission, we have designed a series of five workshops to address the five topics presented • The five workshops presented will be part of a new Student Affairs Initiative entitled “Administrators for Technological Advancement [creative name]” • As the topics listed represent salient technological trends, each workshop attended will be applied toward the 20 hour minimum professional development requirement within the FIU Student Affairs Division • Each workshop allows 2 hours of professional development to be earned Purpose: To educate student affairs professionals and administrators on current technological trends amongst college students. To supply information to student affairs professional and administrators on how to address current technological trends when faced with the present issues. To inform student affairs professionals and administrators about benefits and potential risks of current technological trends. To provide tips and suggestions on how to remain informed and abreast on technological advances. Assessment: At the end of each workshop an assessment will be distributed to determine your degree of competency with the five topics presented. The responses to the assessment will be used to determine the effectiveness of the A.T.A. initiative and will be used to design specific departmental training in areas needed. Each assessment can be viewed at the end of each workshop. Logistics: Each workshop counts towards 2 hours of professional development. Each workshop will be offered twice a semester to accommodate all schedules Workshop 1: Blogs Description: In addition to being the new technological trend amongst students at institutions of higher education, blogs are online forums where students, faculty and staff are able to post information and discussion items. As more individuals continue to utilize this medium as a form of online communication, the benefits, risks and legal ramifications will be discussed to prepare student affairs professionals to face this new technological trend. Workshop 2: Institutional Spam Description: Junk mail messages, bulk mail messages, email from unknown senders, email downloads and attachments. Trying to decipher which messages are essential from those that are not can be a hard task. Opening mail from unknown senders or messages with odd subject lines can put your department and institution at risk for a large internet server crash. This session will inform professionals on how to identify junk mail messages (institutional spam) and will offer tips on how to avoid server crashes. Workshop 3:Graphical & Digital Interfaces Description: The Apple company revolutionized the way class lectures are transmitted and received with the development of PodCasts and VodCasts. Today institutions such as Harvard and Princeton have revamped their educational curriculum by sending student information such as financial records and homework assignments via PodCasts. At the administrative level professionals too have become engaged in this technological trend by attending Video Conference (VodCasts). As participation through these mediums continues the benefits of FIU professionals understanding this technology will be discussed along with potential drawbacks. Workshop 4:Online Communities Description: Facebook.com and MySpace.com these are both unique online communities that have become popular amongst the collegiate environment within the last five years. As student involvement with these communities has continued to grow, student conduct codes at many institutions including FIU have been changed to regulate online behavior. As the Office of Student Conduct at FIU, has experienced a unique and increased conduct load dealing with online communities, we seek to educate all student affairs professionals on this trend. As these communities can be positive and complimentary to our goal of student involvement we will discuss the benefits and risks associated with online communities. Workshop 5: Music Downloads & Video Uploads Description: Do you download music to work computer? Do your students download music within the residence hall? These activities are commonplace amongst both students and professionals, and are topics that can put both parties at risk . In this session we will educate professionals on illegal downloading activity that is occurring on college campuses and discuss the importance of protecting the university and students from consequential lawsuits. In addition to music downloads, video uploads via sites such as YouTube.com, have become popular amongst the student population. This session will discuss the potential for judicial action that video uploading poses against students and will offer suggestions for educating both professionals and students. Web Tutorial Tuesdays: If you need help with basic functions of sending, replying, forwarding and sending email attachments, please join us every Tuesday at noon for a one hour email tutorial. This course will count as 1 hour towards the 20 hour FIU Student Affairs Division Professional Development Requirement. An overview of this course will be provided at the end of the presentation. Workshop 1 Blogs Workshop 2 Institutional Spam Workshop 3 Graphical/Digital Interfaces Workshop 4 Online Communities Workshop 5 Music Downloads & Video Uploads WebTutorial Tuesdays (These will be offered every Tuesday at noon) Mon. March 6th 10am-12pm Location: GL 100 Wed. March 14th 10am-12pm Location: GL 100 Mon. March 13th 10am-12pm Location: GL 100 Thurs. March 8th 10am-12pm Location: GL 100 Mon. March 19th 10am-12pm Location: GL 100 GL Rm.112 Wed. April 7th 5pm-7pm Location: GL 100 Thurs. April 15th 5pm-7pm Location: GL 100 Thurs. April 22nd 5pm-7pm Location: GL 100 Thurs. April 29th 5pm-7pm Location: GL 100 Wed. April 14th 5pm-7pm Location: GL 100 GL Rm.112 *Note: GL is Green Library Background: Blogs are the online equivalent to a written journal entry. They can be a singular or series of entries posted on the internet for public viewing and shared with readers across the world. Most recently this trend has been utilized in fields of politics to campaign for presidential candidates and has become widespread within higher education amongst both faculty and students. At institutions such as Harvard, University and our home institution, Florida International University, specific areas on the university website have been designated as “blog spots”. These sites allow students and the university community to communicate ideas, thoughts and suggestions on a wide variety of topics. Relevance to Student Affairs Professionals/Administrators: While these sites are promoted to encourage and enhance communication across the campus community, they pose some potential risks to users. As the division responsible for student development it is essential that we are informed of these risks so that we can educate our students. Based on our research those risks have been outlined. • Potential risks: For new and inexperienced users, the need to educate is present. Individuals posting information on blogs may post sensitive or inappropriate information making them subject to judicial action. Our FIU Student Code of Conduct does not currently have guidelines established to regulate online activity therefore any posted information considered offensive would need to be forwarded to Campus Police. As Student Affairs Professionals, if our desire is to bring about an educational judicial process the current Student Code of Conduct would need to be revised to extend itself to online activity. This revision would enable the Student Affairs division to enact an educational judicial process to individuals posting inappropriate blog information and would allow the division to be responsible for student development regarding online activity. Benefits of Education on Blogging: Blogs are currently used at many institutions for the purposes of: Professors communicating lectures to students Students communicating with classmates over course content Administrators communicating with faculty Librarians sharing resources with fellow librarians Description of benefits: Based on the types of blog usage identified above it is evident that this is a rapid growing community. As this community represents a tool of communication expansion and information sharing, the benefits to the university community are innumerable. Many of our students we consider to be our student leaders are members and active users of these forums. As the mission of all student affairs departments is to meet and understand student needs, this initiative can only produce positive output by bridging the disconnect that exists between administrators and the student population. If you are interested in learning more about blogging communities, please visit here 1. What are blogs? a. The online equivalent to a written journal entry b. Product of alien life form on earth's surface c. Substance use on Nickelodeon's Double Dare d. An amoeba like creature that is a result of an internet virus 2. What is one risk of blogs? a. Individuals may post material that is inappropriate or sensitive b. Expulsion for the university c. Professors may find their exams posted on-line d. Students can dictate classroom policies on-line 3. What is one benefit of blogs? a. Students can share exam answers b. Professors can communicate lectures to students c. Free product samples on-line d. Popularity on campus 4. Blogging is an emerging phenomenon creating its own, new community. a. True b. False 5. How comfortable are you in creating a student oriented workshop that educates students on the safe use of blogs? a. Not comfortable at all b. Somewhat comfortable, with help from someone else c. Comfortable d. I plan to present tomorrow 6. I would recommend this workshop to a colleague? a. False b. Somewhat true c. Undecided d. True Background: It is estimated that the amount of spam has increased 600% in the last year and that 12-15% of all e-mail traffic is spam. Implementation of SPAM management strategy and technologies can save the institution both time and energy-which can be quantified in terms of worker productivity costs to the institution. In August, a University of Michigan student was charged with 23 felony counts for hacking into the university’s computer systems and accessing personal accounts to forge emails and obtain copies of final exams. Furthermore, a computer science major at the University of California was charged with breaking into the university’s computer system during student government elections and casting more than 800 votes for a fictitious character. Description: Institutional spam is defined as unsolicited usually commercial e-mail sent to a large number of student e-mail addresses at any given institution. One of the most acknowledged results of institutional spam is identity theft. Identity Theft is the fastest growing federal crime in the United States. Identity theft occurs when someone else uses your personally identifying information without your knowledge or permission. Lazar, J., Preece, J. (2003). Spam, spam, spam, spam: how can we stop it? Retrieved February 18, 2007 from http://www.ifsm.umbc.edu/~preece/Papers/chi2003_panel_Soam.pdf The war against terrorism: legal issues for higher education. Retrieved February 18, 2007 from http://www.dlalaw.com/files/Publication/9a119a24-83d0-4478-a01b a49bdc021a02/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/b7d7fd1c-7a80-4f70-bd21-a6e1e4c5f0c9/NCHELLegal%20Issues_ITSecurity.ppt Relevance to Student Affairs Professionals/Administrators: Education on the appropriate use of E-mail for university staff and students is essential in order to avoid serious and irreversible consequences. Some direct consequences of institutional spam are identity theft, viruses, institutional server crashes, and intrusion by hackers. Student affairs professionals and administrators should be aware that in 2005 half of 489 college networks were attacked and that about 50% of the student population have grades posted through their social security numbers. These numbers highlight the issue of identity theft vulnerability. Below are some basic tips that can be used when checking e-mail on a daily basis. These tips can be utilized by professionals and students to protect the online security of the institution. Delete the following types of messages: Personal messages- Minimal and retained only as long as necessary Messages with short-term value- Delete and purge once their purpose has concluded. Messages distributed to a number of staff for information only- This includes news bulletins, listserv messages, “informational” emails To protect yourself from institutional spam and to avoid becoming a victim of identity theft educate yourself by learning the benefits of netiquette. To learn about netiquette and how it can protect you, click here. University of North Carolina. Managing the digital university desktop. Retrieved February 16, 2007 from http://www.ils.unc.edu/digitaldesktop/ Handout: Keep or delete? Indicate which e-mail should be kept or deleted by considering its subject title. • Subject: Can you meet me for lunch? • Subject: Memo re new travel policy • Subject: Curriculum Committee meeting minutes • Subject: New policy on vacation leave • Subject: Listserv messages 7/10/05 • Subject: Instructions for filling out travel form • Subject: Pick up some bread for supper? • Subject: Sorry I missed class this week • Subject: Information for annual report • Subject: Negotiations with a records storage company Managing the Digital Desktop retrieved from http://www.ils.unc.edu/digitaldesktop/ on 2/16/2007 1. How much has spam increased in the last year? a. 100% b. 75% c. 600% d. 350% 2. What are some direct consequences of institutional spam? a. car theft, account fraud, computer hacking b. viruses, legal suits, increase in student conduct cases c. institutional profit loss, lack of government funding, intrusion d. identity theft, computer hacking, viruses 3. What are the three types of e-mails that should be deleted? a. junk mail, inbox, sent mail b. personal messages, short -term value messages, messages to staff for information only c. hotmail, g-mail, yahoo mail d. mom's gift certificate, auto insurance quotes, staff agenda 4. The correct definition of Netiquette is: a. Networking etiquette for personal development b. A set of rules for behaving properly online c. How to behave when networking at conferences d. Appropriate channel surfing and cable network viewing 5. How comfortable are you in creating a student oriented workshop that educates students on the appropriate use of e-mail and the internet? a. Not comfortable at all b. Somewhat comfortable, with help from someone else c. Comfortable d. I plan to present tomorrow 6. I would recommend this workshop to a colleague? a. False b. Somewhat true c. Undecided d. True Description: Video PodCasting is a term used for the online delivery of video on demand or video clip content. The term is an evolution specialized for video, coming from the generally audio-based podcasts and referring to the distribution of video where the feed is used as a non-linear TV channel to which consumers can subscribe using a PC, TV, set-top box, media center or mobile multimedia device. They are commonly used at institutions for the purpose of distributing information such as class lectures, student financials, University information to a mass audience through mobile technology. Background: In 2001, when the Apple Corporation introduced the iPod, the educational curriculum at colleges and universities was revolutionized. If a student was too ill to attend class, he or she had the option of listening class lectures through a small handheld device known as the iPod. Via use of a process known an PodCasting students could download class related materials, assignments and lectures within five minutes or less. In addition to PodCasting, the Apple Corporation also introduced VodCasting, an abbreviation for Video PodCasting. As PodCasting allowed students and professionals to listen to audio generated lectures, VodCasting enabled professionals and students to also view lectures through viewing a Video-recording. As both of these innovations has led student life into a new generation of education, learning has become more dynamic through sound and sight. Academia has become integrated with emergent technology and student culture has been re-invented. Relevance to Student Affairs Professionals/Administrators: While this technology has diversified the educational curriculum at institutions of higher education, it has also challenged the matriculation of online classes. If students are able to access class lectures online, the demand for online courses has the potential to decrease. Furthermore, if an increased effort is exerted toward class lectures via PodCasting students are at risk for premature student development in areas such as: intellectual competency, critical thinking skills, developing relationships through class interactions and developing integrity with regards to academic honesty. As these areas are necessary components of student development, the role of Student Affairs professionals is challenged to develop initiatives to counter these issues. Evans,N. J., Forney, D.S.& Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. Benefits: As PodCasting and VodCasting are able to accommodate a variety of student learning styles, the addition of both interfaces present obvious advantages to higher education. Additional benefits of both PodCasting and VodCasting to higher education are: Student Affairs Departments such as Admissions can use VodCasting to transmit orientation sessions Students unable to attend events such as Convocation can listen via PodCasting Podcasts can be used to kick start training session for professional and student staff before they arrive on the University campus. Lectures as well as campus information will be accessible to the university community and interested members of society, thus helping universities to meet the mission of educating the community. Disadvantages: As not all students are able to afford devices such as an iPod and may not own a portable laptop, the adoption of these mediums could create a marginalized population of students. As one of the basic theories of student development theory is to counter marginality through making students feel mattered (Schlossberg, 1998), the adoption of these mediums could be detrimental to that goal. Additional drawbacks of integrating PodCasting and VodCasting into the higher education curriculum are: Podcasting is not designed for two-way interaction or audience participation, therefore students miss the opportunity to develop interpersonal skills Students may become too reliant on downloading class lectures instead of attending class, leaving academic responsibility to be compromised Evans,N. J., Forney, D.S.& Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. 1. What is an iPod? a. a miniature frog in the tadpole stage b. an internet Programming Device c. a class of portable digital audio players designed and marketed by Apple Computer d. international program of development 2. The process of online delivery of video on demand or video clip content into an iPod is known as: a. Video Podcasting b. Broadcasting c. Download d. Upload 3. What are the two universities mentioned that have used Vodcasting in a productive manner for the direct benefit of their students? a. Florida International University and Kent State University b. Eastern Carolina State University and Florida State University c. New York University and Columbia University d. Georgetown University and Princeton University 4. What are two advantages of Vodcasting? a. Students can access lectures even in their leisure activities such as exercising or walking around campus and Podcasts can be used to kick start training session for professional and student staff before they arrive on the University campus b. Students can say hi to their friends all around the world and students can by plane tickets via iPod to see their friends c. Students can study together through the iPod and students can use the iPod for note taking in class d. Students can drop out of college to save money to listen to courses and parents can join students in the drop out process 5. How comfortable are you in creating a student oriented workshop that educates students on the benefits of Vodcasting? a. Not comfortable at all b. Somewhat comfortable, with help from someone else c. Comfortable d. I plan to present tomorrow 6. I would recommend this workshop to a colleague? a. False b. Somewhat true c. Undecided d. True Background: In 2003 and 2004, creators Tom Anderson (MySpace.com) and Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook.com) changed traditional college student culture with the development of two online communities. Rather than meeting for lunch in the university student center, students could send messages, create webpages and share personal information about themselves with faculty and students affiliated with their institution. As students are able to receive and transmit information via a computer without leaving their room or home, the development of the term “online communities” came into existence. Since their creation, these communities have fostered student interactions such as dating, developing friendships, meeting new people and communicating with friends. As these are the behaviors that occur through face-to-face interaction in a domicile neighborhood, the creation of the term “online community” is used to refer to the online interactions that have replaced physical interactions. Facebook. (2007). Retrieved February 18, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebook Relevance to Student Affairs Professionals/Administrators: As the information that students post on these online communities can be viewed by anyone, our students put their safety and security at risk. The ability to post sensitive information (i.e. telephone number, email address, street address) on these online communities increases the likelihood for internet stalking, hacking, and other serious crimes such as sexual abuse. The potential for these crimes compromises student safety and increases the involvement of both police and judicial coordinators. While not yet a process at FIU, students at many institutions can be subject to the university judicial process due to content (i.e. comments and pictures) posted in these online communities. Student Affairs Community, the responsibility of Student Affairs professionals to become educated and involved is paramount. In order to develop students who responsible and capable of judging their behavior, we must educate them on responsible participation in online communities. As anyone with a university email address is able to join these communities, the best way to learn is to join. If you are a professional who does not feel comfortable joining you can always visit the website to learn how these communities function. Benefits: While online communities create a number of risk factors for both students and the university, they also offer many benefits. Some of these benefits are listed below: Online communities can be great tools for increasing school spirit and pride amongst students Online communities can be used to promote campus events Online communities allow student organizations to increase membership Because online communities are open to both faculty and students, they help to bridge the disconnect between professionals and students Drawbacks: Some disadvantages of student engagement with online communities are: The information posted on online communities can put students at risk for stalking and theft of personal information Students may be subject to judicial action due to content posted within these online communities Students become less engaged in student interaction and experience a decline in personal development (i.e. interpersonal skills such as face-to-face communication) 1. What are the two main online communities? a. Rhapsody and Hotmail b. AIM and Yahoo Messenger c. Friendster and Livejournal d. Myspace and Facebook 4. What is an immediate consequence of online communities? a. a decrease in face to face social interactions b. Carpal Tunnel c. Internet addiction d. Blindness 2. When and by who was Facebook.com founded? a. Tom Anderson in 2003 b. Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie in 2005 c. Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 d. Joseph Mattachione in 2002 5. How comfortable are you in creating a student oriented workshop that educates students on the safe use of online communities? a. Not comfortable at all b. Somewhat comfortable, with help from someone else c. Comfortable d. I plan to present tomorrow 3. Who has access to Facebook.com? a. Everyone with internet access b. High school and college students with valid e-mail addresses c. Students at Harvard University d. Students that can pay $1.00 per log in 6. I would recommend this workshop to a colleague? a. False b. Somewhat true c. Undecided d. True Background: Uploading and downloading are two terms used to refer to data transfer. Files are considered uploaded when they are transferred from a computer to a central server. Files are downloaded when they are transferred from a server to a smaller peripheral unit. In 1999, when Napster was released across the United States, students at college campuses joined the new downloading craze. Since then both students and administrators have been engaged in lawsuits for illegal downloading and university servers have become overloaded with downloading frenzies. This new increase in downloading has made universities regulate internet usage under strict conditions, and internet use has become a privilege instead of a right. In addition to music downloads, video uploads have become a part college student culture. Via the popular website YouTube.com, students can upload videos recorded from cell phones, video cameras and other electronic devices. As this site is not regulated by government or police, uploaded content is not censored and is subject to public viewing. Relevance to Student Affairs Professionals/Administrators: Recent statistics indicate that 2/3 of college students have no qualms about swapping or downloading without paying. Another statistic indicates 45% of students are using campus networks for illegal downloading. When students do not download music legally they put both themselves and the university at risk for lawsuits. Due to statistics such as these, Student Affairs professionals have a responsibility to educate students on responsible behavior and protect the name of their institution. Furthermore, downloading unregulated any information makes the university community susceptible to identify theft and can result in crashes to the university server. Roach, B. (2005). College students untroubled over digital file collecting. Black Issues in Higher Education. Retrieved February 18, 2007, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=878148251&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1171855477&clientId =20175&cfc=1 Benefits: Students have access to all classroom material and beyond. Students can upload videos that promote university pride and community, such as recordings of homecoming events, sporting events and or ceremonies Students can upload recordings of special events such as commencement, for family members that cannot attend Student staff, such as Resident Assistants can use legal music downloading sites to create a sense of community within the residence hall (i.e. circulating a CD of residents’ favorite songs) Drawbacks: Students may not be informed about obtaining material illegally, and therefore are subject to student conduct or federal lawsuits. Students may upload content such as fights that are destructive to community building and student development Once information is uploaded to the internet it becomes public knowledge and property, which can later damage a student’s reputation 1. Video uploads on sites such as YouTube.com is subject to regulation by: a. The U.S. Federal Government b. Police c. The university judicial board d. They are uncensored 2. Student Affairs Professionals need to be aware of topics such as music downloads and video uploads because: a. Students may be negatively impacted b. To increase illegal downloading c. To obtain contracts with music downloading companies d. To promote student's artistic endeavors 3. This session was very helpful to me: a. False b. Somewhat true c. Undecided d. True 4. I would strongly recommend this workshop to another colleague: a. False b. Somewhat true c. Undecided d. True 5. I feel comfortable educating students on this topic: a. False b. Somewhat true c. Undecided d. True Replying: Move cursor to the word “reply” and then click. A cursor should appear above the original e-mail, where you can now type your message Sending: Once you have written and proofread your message, move your cursor to the word send and then click. Important things to know before sending: To: this is the area where you write the e-mail address to the person you are sending the message to. Make sure its formatted as [email protected]____. (edu,org,etc.) Cc: this is the area where you can write additional e-mail addresses that are visible to other contacts Bcc: this is the area where you can write additional e-mail addresses that are not visible to contacts listed in the “To:” section of your message. Fwd: this is the tab where you can resend a message to other contacts Throughout this presentation five hot topics were presented: Blogs Institutional Spam Graphical & Digital Interfaces Online Communities Music Downloads & Video Uploads Each of these topics were selected because they represent important issues in higher education. Each of them represent a new technological advance amongst the current student population. As the student affairs professional is centered around meeting student needs, we hope our presentation has been informative and can be used as a starting point to begin discussion and action toward meeting these student issues.