CHAPTER 9 “PROTISTS AND FUNGI” (P. 230)

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CHAPTER 8
“PROTISTS AND FUNGI”
(P. 210)
KINGDOM PROTISTA
- most are simple onecelled organisms.
- but a few are
multicellular.
- all are eukaryotic.
- live in moist areas
or in water.
- Protists can have
traits of plants,
animals, and fungi.
- but are not a
plant, animal, or a
fungus.
Ex.
A euglena
- it has chlorplasts
and a ‘tail’ for
movement.
- some can
cause disease.
- dysentary
- African
sleeping
sickness
- malaria
- are believed to
have evolved
from bacteria
PLANT-LIKE PROTISTS
- are known as algae.
- most live in lakes or
oceans and are a
food source for other
organisms.
- all have chloroplasts
and most have cell
walls.
- but not all are
green!
Algae is classified according to the
pigments they have (color).
1) Euglenas p. 212
(Phylum
Euglenaphyta)
- has traits of both
plants and animals.
PLANT
- has chloroplasts.
- can make food.
ANIMAL
- can move.
- has a whip-like
tail called a
flagellum
- can absorb food from
the water (can live in
Euglenas have an eyespot.
- they can sense
light and move
towards it
2) Diatoms (Phylum
Chrysophyta)
- golden-brown algae.
- most common
unicellular organism
in the ocean.
(FOOD)
- thousands of shapes.
(p. 212)
Their cell walls are made of glasslike silica.
- makes a very
tough shell
made up of two
parts.
- Diatoms die and
fall to the ocean
floor.
- years later - they
are mined!
- insulation
- road paint
- toothpaste
The mined material is called
diatomaceous earth.
3) Dinoflagellates
Pyrrophyta)
- “fire algae”
- are red algae.
- have a flagella
which makes it spin.
(Phylum
Dinoflagellates cause Red Tides.
- when they
reproduce quickly
- the water looks
red.
-cause fish kills.
- they give off a
waste which is
toxic.
4) Green Algae
Phylum Chlorophyta
- thousands of
species.
- can be
multicellular or
unicellular
5) Red Algae Phylum
Rhodophyta
- live in deep water.
- the red (rhodo)
pigment absorbs
the limited light in
the deeper waters.
- is multicellular.
Red algae
contains
carageenan
- a ‘thickener’
for foods.
6) Brown Algae Phylum
Phaephyta
- multicellular.
Ex. kelp
- fastest
growing plant.
Lecithin - food
thickener.
ASSIGNMENT
WORKSHEET
“PLANT-LIKE PROTISTS”
ANIMAL-LIKE PROTISTS (p. 215)
- called protozoans.
(first animal)
are unicellular.
four types
- based on how they
move.
1) Sarcodines Phylum Rhyzopoda
Ex. amoeba (p. 216)
- move by using a
pseudopod
(false foot)
- are ‘fingers’ of
cytoplasm.
- no real shape
- always changing.
The pseudopod also
captures food.
- it ’surrounds’ food
particles.
- a food vacuole
forms around the
food and digests it.
- the vacuole then
moves to the cell
membrane and
expels the waste.
• Some cause disease
Ex. amoebic
dysentary
(from bad water)
QuickTime™ and a
Sorenson Video 3 decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
2) Flagellates
Phylum Zoomastigina
- move by using a
flagella.
- some have several
flagella.
- Many are parasites.
Ex. trypanosoma
- causes African
Sleeping Sickness
Some live in the gut of termites
and help digest wood
ASSIGNMENT:
QUESTIONS
PAGE 220 1/3/4/5
DRAW AN AMOEBA (4)
DRAW A PARAMECIUM (4)
3) Ciliates
Phylum Ciliaphora
- move with many
small hair-like
structures called
cilia.
- most complex of
the protozoans.
Ex. paramecium
Anal pore
Cilia
Oral groove
- the cilia ‘push’
water into the oral
groove to capture
food.
nucleus
- digested by food
vacuoles.
food vacuole
- nutrients absorbed
into the cytoplasm.
- waste exits out the
anal pore.
Anal pore
cilia
Oral
groove
Stentor
Unknown ciliates
4) Sporozoans
- cannot move on
their own.
- all are parasites.
- most feed on
blood.
- can cause
disease.
-Ex. malaria
--spread by
ASSIGNMENT:
WORKSHEET
“PROTOZOANS”
You are responsible to read pp. 218 - 219
- slime molds
- water molds
KINGDOM FUNGI
Ex. Mushrooms,
yeast, bread mold.
- once placed in the
Plant Kingdom.
- but cannot make
their own food.
(p. 222)
Characteristics:
- most are
multicellular.
- grow in moist
areas.
- grouped by how
they reproduce.
- most form
spores.
Releasing
spores…
Fungi decompose organic matter
for food.
Saprophytes
- obtains food
from dead
organisms or
waste.
Parasites
Ex. Athlete’s foot
1) Zygote Fungi (sporangium fungi)
ex. Bread mold (p. 225)
- have a spore
case called a
sporangium.
- it can release
hundreds of
spores.
sporangium
Hyphae
- thread-like structures that absorbs water
and nutrients.
2) Sac Fungi
ex. yeast, morels.
- produce spores in
a small sac called
an ascus.
- some are
destructive
ex. Dutch Elm
Disease
Yeast can reproduce
asexually through
budding.
ASSIGNMENT:
WORKSHEET
“ALGAE AND FUNGI”
3) Club Fungi
Ex. Mushrooms
Bracket Fungi
Puffball
cap
gills
Groups of
hyphae
are called
mycelium
.
stipe
hyphae
4) Imperfect Fungi
- called imperfect
because their
reproductive
cycle is unknown
Ex. Athlete’s Foot
Ringworm
Some fight disease.
Ex. The mold
which creates
penicillin.
It was the first
antibiotic.
- discovered in 1929
by Alexander
Fleming.
Lichens
- are part fungus and
part algae.
- the algae makes the
food.
- the fungus provides
shape, support, and
water.
MUTUALISM
Lichens often break down rock
into soil.
- by releasing a
weak acid.
- when it dies, it
adds to the new
soil. (humus)
It is called a pioneer species.
- the first to live in
an area.
Ex. The land
surrounding an
exploded volcano.
ASSIGNMENT:
WORKSHEET
“PROTIST / FUNGI REVIEW”

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