AN INTRODUCTION TO MICROLEPIDOPTERA

Report
John W. Brown
USDA, Systematic Entomology Laboratory
U.S. National Museum of Natural History
Washington, DC 20013-7012
General Remarks
 Microlepidoptera – a category of convenience (not all
are small).
 Approximately 40-45% of the order (described, that
is).
 Majority of the fundamental developments
characteristic of the order take place within
Microlepidoptera.
 Phylogeny is poorly understood.
Overview of Presentation
 Briefly summarize classification based on phylogeny
from Kristensen (1998).
 Briefly discuss major lineages and morphological
developments that define them.
 Examine in detail adults of a few of the major lineages
(mini-labs).
Kristensen 1998
Handbook of Zoology
Micropterigidae (Zeugloptera)
 1 family with 121
described species
Tiny moths, 10 mm or less
Fuzzy head
Metallic colored wings
Micropterigidae (Zeugloptera)
 1 family with 121
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
Micropterigidae (Zeugloptera)
 1 family with 121
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
 Monotrysian female
reproductive system
Micropterigidae (Zeugloptera)
 1 family with 121
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
 Monotrysian female
reproductive system
 Strongly asymmetrical
mandibles, short labial
palpi
Eriocraniidae (Glossata)
 1 family with 24
described species
Tiny moths, 10 mm or less
Fuzzy head
Metallic colored wings
Eriocraniidae (Glossata)
 1 family with 24
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
Eriocraniidae (Glossata)
 1 family with 24
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
 Monotrysian female
reproductive system
Eriocraniidae (Glossata)
 1 family with 24
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
 Monotrysian female
reproductive system
 Sucking mouthparts –
non-functional
mandibles, galea
forming proboscis
Hepialoidea (Exoporia)
 5 families with ca. 500
described species
Wingspan up to 25 cm
Adults crepuscular/nocutrnal
As many as 30,000 eggs
“broadcast” by female in flight
Hepialoidea (Exoporia)
 5 families with ca. 500
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
Hepialoidea (Exoporia)
 5 families with ca. 500
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
 Exoporian female
reproductive system
Hepialoidea (Exoporia)
 5 families with ca. 500
described species
 Homoneurous wings
 Jugate wing coupling
 Exoporian female
reproductive system
 Mouthparts reduced –
proboscis absent or
short
Incurvarioidea (Heteroneura - Monotrysia)
 5 families with ca. 410
described species
Heliozelidae, Adelidae,
Prodoxidae, Cecidosidae,
Incurvariidae
Small to tiny moths, forewing
length 1.7-16 mm
Incurvarioidea (Heteroneura - Monotrysia)
 5 families with ca. 410
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Incurvarioidea (Heteroneura - Monotrysia)
 5 families with ca. 410
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Monotrysian female
reproductive system
Incurvarioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 5 families with ca. 410
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Monotrysian female
reproductive system
 Mouthparts reduced –
proboscis absent or
short
Incurvariidae – yucca moths
Tineiodea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 5 families with ca. 4,200
described species
Tineidae, Eriocottidae,
Lypusidae, Acrolophidae,
Psychidae, Arrhenophanidae
The most primitive ditrysians
Tineiodea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 5 families with ca. 4,200
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Tineiodea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 5 families with ca. 4,200
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Tineiodea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 5 families with ca. 4,200
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Mouthparts well
developed – proboscis
reduced
Tineiodea mini-lab
Tineidae
Erect scales on head
Inconspicuous maxillary palpi
Short labial palpi
Acrolophidae
Fuzzy head and body
Large, dark adults
Males often with elongate palpi
Psychidae
Wings dark-smoky, scales usually lost
Short antennae
Characteristic larval cases
Gracillarioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 4 families with ca. 2,400




described species (mostly
Gracillariidae)
Heteroneurous wings
Frenate wing coupling
Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Mouthparts well
developed; labial palpi
with lateral bristles (also
present in Tineoidea)
Yponomeutoidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 6-9 families with ca. 1,500
described species
Classification unstable (duh!):
Yponomeutidae, Plutellidae,
Ypsolophidae, Acrolepiidae,
Glyphipterigidae, Argyresthiidae,
Heliodinidae, Lyonetidae
(sometimes families, sometimes
subfamilies) [Galacticidae]
A heterogenous assemblage of
relatively primitive micros.
Autapomorphy: pleural lobes just
before genitalia – posterior
expansion of pleuron VIII
Yponomeutoidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 6-9 families with ca. 1,500
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Yponomeutoidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 6-9 families with ca. 1,500
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Yponomeutoidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 6-9 families with ca. 1,500
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Mouthparts well
developed; labial palpi
variable but always large
and conspicuous
Yponomeutoidea mini-lab
Smooth scaled head
Labial palpi variable
Proboscis unscaled
Apex of hindwing usually
rounded; more rarely
hindwing oblonglanceolate with pointed
apex
Galacticidae
Homadaula
Yponomeutidae
Yponomeuta
Yponomeutidae
Atteva
Plutellidae
Plutella
Gelechioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 10-25 families with ca.
16,500 described species
Classification unstable (what a
surprise):
Gelechiidae, Elachistidae
(Stenomatidae, Ethmiidae,
Depressariidae, Agonoxenidae),
Xyloryctidae (Scythrididae)
Schistomeoidae, Oecophoridae
(Stathmopodidae),
Amphisbatidae, Lecithoceridae,
Batrachedridae, Deocloniidae,
Coleophoridae (Blastobasidae,
Momphidae), Autostichidae
(Symmocidae), Cosmopterigidae,
others?
Gelechioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 10-25 families with ca.
16,500 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Gelechioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 10-25 families with ca.
16,500 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Gelechioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 10-25 families with ca.
16,500 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Mouthparts well
developed; labial palpi
large, upturned
Gelechioidea mini-lab
Ethmiidae
Smooth scaled head
Long upturned labial
palpi
Proboscis scaled
Large hindwing with
rounded apex
Characteristic black and
white forewing
pattern
Ethmiidae
Ethmia
Ethmiidae
Ethmia
Ethmiidae
Ethmia
Gelechioidea mini-lab
Coleophoridae
Labial palpi usually not as
conspicuously upturned
Lanceolate wings (pointed
apically)
Inconspicuous paired
patches of special
scales/spines subdorsally on
most abdominal segments
Gelechioidea mini-lab
Oecophoridae
Smooth scales on head
Large upturned labial
palpi
Proboscis scaled
Apex of hindwing rounded
Oecophoridae
Promalactis
Oecophoridae
Callima
Oecophoridae
Pleurota
Gelechioidea mini-lab
Blastobasidae (ugly brown
moths)
Smooth scales on head
Shorter upturned labial palpi
Proboscis scaled
Lanceolate hindwing
Rows of bronze spines on
abdominal segments
Males of some species with
notch near base of
antenna
Blastobasidae
Blastobasis
Gelechioidea mini-lab
Stenomatidae
Smooth scaled head
Long upturned labial
palpi
Proboscis scaled
Large hindwing with
rounded apex
[Hmmm. Starting to sound
familiar?]
Stenomatidae
Antaeotricha
Stenomatidae
Antaeotricha
Stenomatidae
Rectiostoma
Gelechioidea mini-lab
Gelechiidae
Smooth scaled head
Long upturned labial
palpi
Proboscis scaled
Hindwing with falcate
apex (at least
pointed)
Pattern and shape extremely
variable
Sesiioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 3 families with ca. 1,350
described species
Sesiidae, Brachodoidae,
Castniidae
Woodboring larvae (mostly);
some in woody shrubs or
woody herbs (e.g.,
Cucurbita sp.)
Sesiioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 3 families with ca. 1,350
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Retinaculo-frenate wing
coupling (Sesiidae)
Sesiioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 3 families with ca. 1,350
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Retinaculo-frenate wing
coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Sesiioidea (Heteroneura - Ditrysia)
 3 families with ca. 1,350




described species
Heteroneurous wings
Retinaculo-frenate wing
coupling
Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Mouthparts well
developed
[mini-lab with Tortricoidea]
Tortricoidea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 9,800
described species
Two major subfamilies previously
considered families:
Olethreutidae
Tortricidae
Many economically important
pests – spruce bud worm,
codling moth, light brown
applemoth, European grape
berry moth
Tortricoidea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 9,800
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Tortricoidea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 9,800
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Tortricoidea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 9,800
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Mouthparts well
developed
Tortricidae mini-lab
 Labial palpi moderate to
short, weakly upturned or
porrect
 Wings with bell-shape
silhouette in resting
posture (e.g., Archpini)
 Males of many species with
secondary scales (costal
fold, densely scaled legs)
 Most Olethreutinae with
costal strigulae on forewing
Tortricinae
Argyrotaenia
Tortricinae
Choristoneura
Olethreutinae
Eumarozia
Tortricinae
Clepsis
Olethreutinae
Grapholita
Sesiidae mini-lab
 Wasp and bee mimics
 Usually with clear wings
 Diurnally active
 Most easily collected
using artificial male
pheromones
Zygaenoidea (Apoditrysia)
 12 families with ca. 2,700
described species
Small to medium sized fuzzy
moths (Limacodidae,
Megalopygidae, Dalceridae)
Bizarre larvae (Limacodidae,
Megalopygidae, Dalceridae)
Many Zygaenidae are diurnal
Epipyropidae are ectoparasites on
Homoptera
Zygaenoidea (Apoditrysia)
 12 families with ca.
2,700 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Zygaenoidea (Apoditrysia)
 12 families with ca.
2,700 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Zygaenoidea (Apoditrysia)
 12 families with ca.
2,700 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Palpi reduced,
proboscis present
Zygaenoidea mini-lab
 Megalopygidae,
Limacodidae,
Epipyropidae, and
Dalceridae with short,
broad wing
 Zygaenidae with more
slenderer body and
slenderer wings
Limacodidae larvae – bizarre!
Pterophoroidea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 1,000
described species
Characteristically incised wings
Long slender legs
Distinctive resting posture
Pterophoridea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 1,000
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Pterophoridea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 1,000
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Pterophoridea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 1,000
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Labial palpi variable in
shape and vestiture
Pterophoridea (Apoditrysia)
 1 family with ca. 1,000
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Labial palpi variable in
shape and vestiture
Alucitoidea
Alucitidae
Pyraloidea (Obtectomera)
 2 families with ca.
17,000 described species
Pyraloidea (Obtectomera)
 2 families with ca.
17,000 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
Pyraloidea (Obtectomera)
 2 families with ca.
17,000 described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
Pyraloidea (Obtectomera)
 2 families with ca. 1,700
described species
 Heteroneurous wings
 Frenate wing coupling
 Ditrysian female
reproductive system
 Labial palpi variable in
shape and vestiture
Pyraloidea mini-lab
Superfamily defined by
presence of abdominal
tympanum; subfamilies
frequently defined by
various modifications
of abdominal
tympanum
Base of proboscis scaled
Most crambids with
conspicuous , scaled
maxillary palpi

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