France - Centennial School District

Report
War in Vietnam Review
American involvement
Desire to maintain
American credibility
as having the
resolve to halt
communist
aggression.
Part of Containment
Policy
France
• European country
controlled
Vietnam as a
colony for over 60
years.
Dien Bien Phu
• North Vietnam city where a
French military outpost was
overrun by the communist
Vietminh
Ho Chi Minh
• Leader of the Vietminh
• Fought against the French and
then the U.S.
Domino Theory
• Theory stating that if South Vietnam
fell to communism, the other nations
of Southeast Asia would fall
• Coined by Eisenhower
1956 Elections
• Established by the Geneva
Conference
• The United States feared a
communist victory
• Cancelled
Buddhist monks
• Set themselves on fire in protest
in 1963
• Convinced the Kennedy
Administration that Ngo Dinh
Diem was an unpopular leader
and had to be replaced.
Ngo Dinh Diem
• Unpopular leader of South Vietnam
• Initially supported by U.S.
• Assassinated in November, 1963
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
• Congress granted wide-ranging
war power to President Johnson
and allowed him to widen the
Vietnam conflict as a result of a
supposed attack by North
Vietnamese forces on US ships.
Operation Rolling Thunder
• The massive bombing campaign
of North Vietnam.
• In response to VC attack at Pleiku
The Vietcong Strategy
Preferred to use guerilla warfare
tactics
Hit and run and ambush
Knew they needed to out last the
U.S.
Hearts and Minds
• Attempt by the U.S. and South Vietnam to
win the support of peasants
The Ho Chi Minh Trail
• Extended from
North Vietnam
through “neutral”
countries into South
Vietnam to supply
the Vietcong.
William Westmoreland
• Commander of
US troops in
Vietnam.
U.S. Soldiers
• recent high
school
graduates
• single
• lower to middle
class
Tet Offensive
• Viewed as a military failure,
but political success for the
Communist Forces
• More Americans began to
doubt the war
Robert McNamara
• The Secretary of Defense under
Lyndon Johnson until 1968.
Clark Clifford
• Became Secretary of Defense
after McNamara
Tet Offensive
• Media portrayal led to an erosion
of support from the American
public for the war in Vietnam.
Hubert Humphrey
• Johnson’s VP
• LBJ attempted to help his
presidential campaign by
halting bombing of North
Vietnam.
War Opposition
Some Americans• Burned their draft cards
• Refused to register
• Claimed to be conscientious
objectors
The My Lai Massacre
• The military attempted
to cover up the atrocity
• Shocked many
Americans into
believing the U.S.
needed to withdraw
from Vietnam.
The SDS
• A U.S. group that
radically opposed
the Vietnam War
• Responsible for
burning the
ROTC building at
Kent State
Hubert Humphrey
• 1968 Democratic Candidate for
President
• For continuing the war in Vietnam
Doves were
• Hawks were
against the war supportive of
the war
Vietnamization
Policy of having the South
Vietnamese troops taking over
more of the fighting
Bought time for the Nixon
administration to seek a
negotiated peace.
Richard Nixon
• Wanted to end the war with
“Peace with Honor”.
• Ordered the secret bombings of
Laos and Cambodia.
Da Nang
In March of 1965 U.S. ground
forces landed.
The Pentagon Papers
• Were critical of
President
Lyndon
Johnson’s
handling of the
Vietnam War.
Kent State Demonstrations
• Resulted from the discovery of
Nixon’s secret bombings and
invasion of Cambodia.
• War protesters were killed at
Kent State and Jackson State.
The Paris Peace Talks
• The successful
negotiations
between Henry
Kissinger (U.S.)
and Le Duc Tho
(North Vietnam)
Christmas Bombings
• Bombings in late 1972 intended to
pressure the North Vietnamese to
negotiate.
Silent Majority
• Term Richard Nixon, called
Americans who supported the
War in Vietnam but tended to be
less vocal than anti-war activists
Agent Orange
The U.S.
sprayed on the
thick triple
canopy jungle
of Vietnam so
bombers and
troops could
see the enemy
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of dirty
roads & muddy
trails used to
supply the
enemies of the
U.S. in South
Vietnam
Vietcong
South Vietnamese communists
Charlie
The nickname given to South
Vietnamese communists.
Deferment
A postponement of military
service
Henry Kissinger
Nixon’s foreign policy advisor
who negotiated a peace
settlement for the U.S.
Viet Minh
North Vietnamese communists
that fought the French
Lyndon B. Johnson
Used the Gulf of Tonkin Incident
as a reason to deepen US
involvement in the Vietnam
War.
Nixon Doctrine
• US would be less willing to send
ground troops into foreign
conflicts
US Advantages
• Mobility
• Air Superiority
• Artillery and tanks
• Wanted large scale battles
Communist advantages
• Knowledge of terrain
• Support of peasants
• Preferred guerilla tactics

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