PUBLIC AFFAIRS CENTRE - El Grupo del Banco Mundial

Report
PUBLIC AFFAIRS CENTRE
MISSION STATEMENT
“
IDENTIFY AND PROMOTE INITIATIVES THAT
FACILITATE A PRO-ACTIVE ROLE BY CITIZENS TO
ENHANCE THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY
AND PERFORMANCE”
A KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN - ACTION
SUPPORT ORGANIZATION
Samuel Paul, PAC
MANDATE...
 REPORT CARDS / OTHER RESEARCH
 ACTION SUPPORT / ADVOCACY
 CAPACITY BUILDING / ADVISORY SERVICES
 INFORMATION DISSEMINATION
Samuel Paul, PAC
Governance `Crises’
 Poor Access to Public Services -
Inefficiency
 Indifference, Collusion with vested Groups -
Non Responsiveness
 Rampant corruption, Extortion by `Agents &
Middlemen’- Weak Accountability
 Loose Systems & Weak Integrity - Abuse of
discretion
Samuel Paul, PAC
Why Weak Collective Response
Lack of EXIT Options
Episodic Nature
Threat of Reprisal
Information Barriers
Low / No Trust in any formal
mechanism
Samuel Paul, PAC
How to Make a Change...
 From Coping to `VOICES’ by Citizens
 From `Shouting’ to `Counting’ by
Activists
 From Reaction to Informed Action
 From Episodic Responses to Organised
Action
Systematic Demand Driven Changes
Samuel Paul, PAC
IMPROVING GOVERNANCE
The PAC Approach
 COMMENCE WITH CREATING DEMAND FOR
GOOD GOVERNANCE
 FOCUS ON STRONGLY FELT NEEDS AND
ISSUES
 COMPARE PERFORMANCES OF DIFFERENT
INSTITUTIONS
 INITIATE DIALOGUE WITH STAKEHOLDERS
 FACILITATE PROBLEM SOLVING
FORUMS/ACTIONS
Samuel Paul, PAC
WHY? Report Cards...
 Generate user feedback on public services
 Provide opportunities to citizens/groups to
demand more accessibility, responsiveness &
accountability from service providers
 Encourage service providers to introduce
citizen friendly practices
 Create an environment to facilitate demand
mobilisation - awareness creation, issues on
exclusion & vulnerability, `Rights-Based’
strategies
Samuel Paul, PAC
What a Report Card can DO!!
 Generates User Feedback on services
 Converts widespread individual issues into
Collective Issues
 Quantifies, Classifies & Ranks
Services/Agencies across qualitative &
quantitative issues
 Provides information on Hidden Costs
 Creates a BASE to launch practical
ACTIONS
Samuel Paul, PAC
Steps in Conducting a Report Card
 Issues identified through FGDs
 Designing instruments
 Identification of a scientific
representative sample from the city
population
 Survey by Independent Agency
 Collection of Qualitative Data
 Report always in Public Domain
Samuel Paul, PAC
EXPERIENCES WITH REPORT
CARDS
Some Snapshots
Samuel Paul, PAC
BENCHMARKING CIVIC SERVICES IN
BANGALORE - The Satisfaction Scores (General
Households)
SERVICES /
AGENCIES
PERCENT SATISFIED
PERCENT
DISSATISFIED
1994
1999
1994
1999
Water Supply
Board
04
46
46
08
Power Corporation
06
45
31
17
Municipal
Corporation
05
25
49
26
Telephones
09
30
28
11
Transport Office
14
18
36
26
Development
Authority
01
16
65
36
Samuel Paul, PAC
BENCHMARKING CIVIC SERVICES IN
BANGALORE - The Bribery Matrix (General
Households)
SERVICES /
AGENCIES
Percent Claiming to Average payment
have paid a bribe
per transaction in
Rupees
1994
1999
1994
1999
Water Supply Board
12
11
275
561
Power Corporation
11
09
206
1563
Municipal
Corporation
21
52
656
3759
Telephones
04
26
110
245
Transport Office
33
57
648
637
Development
Authority
33
35
1850
1653
Samuel Paul, PAC
BENCHMARKING CIVIC SERVICES IN
BANGALORE - Corruption & The Urban Poor
SERVICE /
AGENCY
PERCENT
PAYING
BRIBES
AVERAGE
AMOUNT
(RUPEES)
WATER
SUPPLY
MUNICIPAL
SERVICES
ELECTRICITY
04
200
PERCENT
CLAIMING
BRIBE WAS
DEMANDED
50
34
270
73
10
250
100
RATION
SHOPS
POLICE
11
84
83
46
4193
88
PUBLIC
HOSPITALS
53
640
63
Samuel Paul, PAC
A CITIZENS’ REPORT CARD ON KARNATAKA’S
GOVERNANCE
Sectoral `VOICES’
SECTOR
Governance
was better
this year
19
Governance
was worse
this year
64
Cannot
Comment
Labourers
14
47
39
White Collar
Workers
40
50
10
Entrepreneurs
/ Industrialists
74
19
07
Rural
20
60
20
Overall
24
52
24
Farmers/
Cultivators
Samuel Paul, PAC
17
Interactions with Agencies
 Matrix of key `Disablers’
Issue
Agencies
KIADB
KEB
36.8% 51.5%
BWSSB PCB
SFIs
38.5% 43.8% 31.8%
71.9%
81.8%
30.8%
60.9% 56.8%
61.4%
Amount of*
paperwork required
28.1%
Staff behaviour*
51.5%
53.8%
50%
28.8%
30.8%
23.4% 20.5%
37.3%
34.2%
14.8%
19.1% 29.1%
Bribes were
demanded
Processing time*
More than 10 visits
made
* Proportion expressing dissatisfaction
Samuel Paul, PAC
63.6%
BATF SURVEY ON IMPROVEMENTS ON
CRITICAL PROBLEMS
Pollution
Potholes on
Road
Better
Same
Worse
Garbage on
Road
Irregular
Water Supply
0
10
20
30
40
Samuel Paul, PAC
50
60
70
Type of Information Generated
 Accessibility & Usage
 Satisfaction with individual services
 Responsiveness of Service Providers
 Cases of Bribes
- Extortionary Vs Voluntary
 Willingness to Pay for better
services
Samuel Paul, PAC
From REPORT CARD TO ACTION!
A Strategic Framework
 Which Services / Agencies are Crucial?
 How Vulnerable are these Users?
 Design of Short-term & Long-term
strategies
 Identifying support constituencies &
Partners
 Identifying Quick-wins for momentum
 Identifying Capacity Building & Resource
Requirements
Samuel Paul, PAC
Making Advocacy Effective !!
Some Insights
 Felt Need for an Objective & Credible
Database
 Focus on Services / Agencies  NOT
Individuals
 Presence of a LOCAL CHAMPION
 Conducted by Independent & Technically
Competent Local NGOs / Professional
Groups
 LOCAL OWNERSHIP & PROGRAMMES
Samuel Paul, PAC
WHAT REPORT CARDS
ACHIEVED...
 CREATING PUBLIC AWARENESS
WIDE PRESS COVERAGE, WORKSHOPS,
SEMINARS ETC.
 STIMULATING AGENCY REFORMS
INTERNAL REVIEW BY BDA, IPP Study,
PROACTIVE RESPONSES IN MUMBAI &
AHMEDABAD.
Samuel Paul, PAC
WHAT REPORT CARDS ACHIEVED...
 STRENGTHENING CIVIL SOCIETY INITIATIVES
SWABHIMANA MOVEMENT - SERVICE DELIVERY
IMPROVEMENTS, ELECTORAL TRANSPARENCY.
 CAPACITY BUILDING FOR PUBLIC INTEREST
GROUPS
ADVOCACY NGOs AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONSFEDCOT, SEWA, RKS, UNDP
 REPLICATIONS/ADAPTATIONS: BATF, Bangalore;
Governance Score Cards - Bangladesh; Social Weather
Project - Philippines
Samuel Paul, PAC

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