What is the difference between a closed primary and an open primary? A closed primary is a party nominating election in which only declared party members may participate. An open primary is a party nominating election in which any qualified voter may participate. What is a caucus and what events led to its demise as a method for nominating candidates? A caucus is a group of like-minded people who meet to elect candidates they will support in an upcoming election. The election of 1824 as well as the general spread of democracy led to its decline. Why does La Follete think that an elected official selected by caucus will be more loyal to party bosses than to voters? Because the party bosses controlled the caucuses that allowed the candidates to get on the ballot. According to La Follete, how will primaries make officials more accountable to the people? By placing the power of nomination in the hands of the people (through primaries), La Follete believed that candidates would become more loyal to the people instead of the party bosses. What argument does La Follete use to show that primary elections are the foundation of government in a republic? La Follete pointed out that in a republic, citizens express their choices through an elected representative. Thus, citizens should control every stage of the electoral process. By allowing caucuses and conventions to nominate candidates, citizen representation is lost at the beginning of the process. What is the purpose of absentee voting? Absentee voting allows ill or disabled persons, those who might be away from home on an election day, and those serving in the armed forces the ability to vote. How can the coat tail effect influence election results? It can ensure that lesser known people on the ballot with a strong top candidate are elected. If the top candidate is not strong, it can lessen the chances of other people on the ballot to get elected. What are political action committees (PAC)? PAC’s are the political arms of special interests groups. How has soft money created a loophole in federal election finance law? Soft money is not limited and does not have to be reported. Political organizations find it easy to filter it into political campaigns. How do soft money and hard money differ? Soft money is given to political party organizations for “party building activities” like voter registration drives and does not have to be regulated. Hard money is given to campaigns directly and must be regulated by the FEC. Identify and explain the three major loopholes in today’s federal election money statutes. Independent campaign spending holds that a person not connected to a candidate or party can spend an unlimited amount of money. Soft money allows organizations to get unregulated money. Issue ads allow candidates to use unregulated ads as long as their names are not mentioned. How does a candidate for President qualify for public funding? What rules must a candidate follow if they accept public funds? A candidate for President must raise at least $100,000 from individuals, in at least 20 states, in donations of not more than $250. The candidate cannot spend more than the amount of the subsidy and cannot accept campaign funds from any other source.