What is the difference between a closed primary and an

What is the difference between a
closed primary and an open
A closed primary is a party
nominating election in which only
declared party members may
participate. An open primary is a
party nominating election in which
any qualified voter may participate.
What is a caucus and what events led
to its demise as a method for
nominating candidates?
A caucus is a group of like-minded
people who meet to elect candidates
they will support in an upcoming
election. The election of 1824 as well
as the general spread of democracy
led to its decline.
Why does La Follete think that an
elected official selected by caucus
will be more loyal to party bosses
than to voters?
Because the party bosses
controlled the caucuses that
allowed the candidates to get on
the ballot.
According to La Follete, how will
primaries make officials more
accountable to the people?
By placing the power of nomination in
the hands of the people (through
primaries), La Follete believed that
candidates would become more loyal
to the people instead of the party
What argument does La Follete use to show that
primary elections are the foundation of
government in a republic?
La Follete pointed out that in a republic,
citizens express their choices through an
elected representative. Thus, citizens
should control every stage of the electoral
process. By allowing caucuses and
conventions to nominate candidates,
citizen representation is lost at the
beginning of the process.
What is the purpose of absentee
Absentee voting allows ill or
disabled persons, those who might
be away from home on an election
day, and those serving in the
armed forces the ability to vote.
How can the coat tail effect
influence election results?
It can ensure that lesser known
people on the ballot with a strong
top candidate are elected. If the
top candidate is not strong, it can
lessen the chances of other people
on the ballot to get elected.
What are political action
committees (PAC)?
PAC’s are the political arms of
special interests groups.
How has soft money created a
loophole in federal election finance
Soft money is not limited and does
not have to be reported. Political
organizations find it easy to filter it
into political campaigns.
How do soft money and hard money
Soft money is given to political party
organizations for “party building
activities” like voter registration drives
and does not have to be regulated.
Hard money is given to campaigns
directly and must be regulated by the
Identify and explain the three major
loopholes in today’s federal election
money statutes.
Independent campaign spending holds
that a person not connected to a
candidate or party can spend an
unlimited amount of money. Soft money
allows organizations to get unregulated
money. Issue ads allow candidates to use
unregulated ads as long as their names
are not mentioned.
How does a candidate for President
qualify for public funding? What rules
must a candidate follow if they accept
public funds?
A candidate for President must raise at
least $100,000 from individuals, in at
least 20 states, in donations of not more
than $250.
The candidate cannot spend more than
the amount of the subsidy and cannot
accept campaign funds from any other

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